Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, JAMA, Melanoma / 24.11.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_46151" align="alignleft" width="200"]One example of malignant melanoma, courtesy of skin cancer foundation One example of malignant melanoma, courtesy of Skin Cancer Foundation[/caption] Reza Ghiasvand, PhD Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology Faculty of Medicne University of Oslo Oslo, Norway  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer. It is estimated that about 288,000 individuals will be diagnosed and about 61,000 will die from it in 2018, with the majority of patients in Australia, New Zealand, Europe and North America. Ultraviolet (UV) exposure (from both the sun and tanning beds) is the most important preventable risk factor for melanoma. However, the association between UV exposure and melanoma is complex and does not accord with a simple model in which risk increases directly with exposure. An individual risk of melanoma also depends on personal characteristics such as skin color and skin sensitivity to the UV exposure, hair color, number of moles, and age. It has been hypothesized that the pattern of UV exposure may play a role in melanoma development in different body sites. For example, melanoma on the trunk (chest and back) has been linked to the recreational UV exposure such as sunbathing and frequent sunburns in people with high number of moles on their body. In contrast, melanomas on the head and neck have been linked to constant sun exposure such as occupational UV exposure, mainly in older people. Epidemiologic and molecular evidence in support of this hypothesis has been published based on analyses of small datasets. Also, melanoma on legs and arms is less studied under this hypothesis. In our study, we examined UV exposure (sunbathing, sunburn and sunbed use) and pigmentary factors (skin, eye, and hair color, freckling, and number of moles), and risk of melanoma on different body sites. We used information from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study, a population-based cohort study that started in 1991, and includes more than 161,000 Norwegian women followed for an average of 18 years.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, JAMA, Melanoma / 19.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Sunscreen” by Tom Newby is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Caroline Watts  PhD Post-doctoral Researcher The University of Sydney. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: The study analysed data collected from nearly 1700 young Australians who participated in the Australian Melanoma Family Study, a population-based case-control-family study that focused on people who had a melanoma under 40 years of age and compared them with people the same age who did not have a melanoma. We examined sunscreen use during childhood and adulthood and its association with melanoma risk and found that compared to people who did not use sunscreen, regular sunscreen use during childhood reduced melanoma risk by 30-40 per cent. 
Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, Melanoma, Occupational Health / 18.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Brad at Santa Monica Pier on Ferris Wheel” by Brad Cerenzia is licensed under CC BY 2.0Sonia Duffy, PhD, RN, FAAN Professor, College of Nursing The Ohio State University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior to conducting a tobacco cessation study with Operating Engineers, I conducted a survey of 498 Operating engineer and found that many of them were at risk for sun burning, which can lead to skin cancer.  So as a follow up study, I conducted a study to prevent sun burning, which randomized 357 Operating Engineers to were randomized to four interventions: education only; education and text message reminders; education and mailed sunscreen; and education, text message reminders, and mailed sunscreen.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, Pharmacology / 28.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42805" align="alignleft" width="300"]"Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or HCT) is a diuretic medication often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling due to fluid build up" - Wikipedia "Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ or HCT) is a diuretic medication often used to treat high blood pressure and swelling due to fluid build up" - Wikipedia[/caption] Sidsel Arnspang Pedersen MD Department of Public Health, Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacy Anton Pottegård PhD Associate professor, Clinical Pharmacy Odense University Hospital University of Southern Denmark, The following is based on results from three published papers in JAAD and JAMA Internal Medicine. (1–3)   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hydrochlorothiazide is one of the most frequently used diuretic and antihypertensive drugs in the United States and Western Europe. The drug is known to be photosensitizing and has previously been linked to lip cancer.4–6 Based on these previous findings, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified hydrochlorothiazide as ‘possibly carcinogenic to humans’ (class 2B). This prompted us to investigate whether use of hydrochlorothiazide was associated to other UV dependent skin cancers, including non-melanoma skin cancer (i.e. basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)), cutaneous melanoma, as well as the more rare non-melanoma skin cancers Merkel cell carcinoma and malignant adnexal skin tumours.
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, Melanoma / 22.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Sunscreen” by Tom Newby is licensed under CC BY 2.0Carla Burns, M.S. Environmental Working Group She is one of the coauthors of the 2018 Guide to Sunscreens.  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for the EWG report?  Response: Environmental Working Group (EWG) published its first Sunscreen Guide in 2007. When we first started the guide, many sun protection products sold in the U.S. were not as safe and used misleading marketing claims. Throughout the years, EWG has continued to find that a common sunscreen ingredient, oxybenzone, poses a hazard to human health and the environment. Despite EWG’s efforts to draw attention to the health hazards associated with this ingredient over the last 12, oxybenzone remains widely used in chemical-based sunscreens. So, this year, we are ramping up our efforts to rid the market of this ingredient by launching a campaign to urge companies and consumers to go oxybenzone-free by 2020.
Author Interviews, CDC, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, JAMA / 15.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Sunburn” by Beatrice Murch is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dawn Holman, MPH Behavioral Scientist Division of Cancer Prevention and Control CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Sunburn at any age increases a person’s chances of developing skin cancer in the future. Using a combination of strategies including staying in the shade, wearing clothing that covers the arms and legs, wearing a hat with a wide brim, and wearing sunscreen (SPF 15+) on exposed skin can protect skin from sun damage and reduce risk of sunburn. This study used national data to examine how often US adults used these sun protection strategies when outdoors in the sun for an hour or longer and how many US adults got sunburned in 2015. Among adult women, staying in the shade and using sunscreen were the most common sun protection methods. About 40% of women regularly used these strategies. Women were less likely to wear a wide-brimmed hat (14%) or wear clothing covering their arms (11%) and legs (23%). Among adult men, wearing pants or other clothing covering their legs and staying in the shade were the most common sun protection methods. Just over 30% of men regularly used these strategies. Men were less likely to use sunscreen (22%), wear a wide-brimmed hat (14%) or wear a shirt with long sleeves (13%). About one-third of US adults got sunburned in 2015. Sunburn was even more common among certain groups. For example, about half of individuals with sun-sensitive skin and about half of adults aged 18-29 got sunburned. Certain behaviors and health conditions were related to sunburn. For example, adults who used sunless tanning products to darken their skin, binge drank, engaged in aerobic activity, or were overweight or obese were more likely to get sunburned compared to other adults. Adults who regularly stayed in the shade when outdoors or avoided long periods of time in the sun were slightly less likely to get sunburned compared to other adults. Adults who regularly used sunscreen were slightly more likely to get sunburned.
Author Interviews, CDC, Dermatology, Environmental Risks, JAMA, Pediatrics / 08.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Dymchurch Beach - May 2012 - Sunburn with Matching Bikini” by Gareth Williams is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dawn M. Holman, MPH Behavioral Scientist Division of Cancer Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Scientific evidence clearly shows that even one sunburn during adolescence can increase a person’s chances of developing skin cancer as an adult. Surprisingly, little research has been done to understand the factors associated with sunburn during this phase of life. The CDC wanted to examine beliefs, behaviors, and demographic characteristics that might be associated with adolescent sunburns in hopes that the findings could inform future intervention efforts. We used data from the 2015 YouthStyles survey (adolescents aged 12 to 17 years) to explore this research question
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Technology, UCLA / 05.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28574" align="alignleft" width="164"]Dr. Andrea M Armani PhD Fluor Early Career Chair and Associate Professor Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California credit to USC Viterbi. Dr. Andrea M Armani[/caption] Dr. Andrea M Armani PhD Fluor Early Career Chair and Associate Professor Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The “Internet of Things” (IoT) has seen an explosion in online sensor technologies, including UV sensors and monitors; for example, those from Apple and Samsung. However, they require connectivity and power, and they are integrated into delicate electronic systems that are not compatible with outdoor, athletic activities such as swimming, which is precisely when you should monitor UV exposure. Therefore, somewhat ironically, the technologies developed to meet the demands of the IoT are not ideal for cumulative UV exposure detection. Our goal was to develop a single use patch – like a smart “band-aid” – for the beach to alert users when they had been in the sun for an hour and needed to re-apply sunscreen or get out of the sun altogether. This application required a rugged system that was waterproof, bendable, and compatible with sunscreen. Additionally, the sensor readout needed to be easy to interpret. These requirements influenced our design and material selection.