Barriers to PReP Therapy for HIV Prevention

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Rogério Meireles Pinto, LCSW, Ph.D. Professor and Associate Dean for Research University of Michigan School of Social Work 

Dr. Pinto

Rogério Meireles Pinto, LCSW, Ph.D.
Professor and Associate Dean for Research
University of Michigan School of Social Work

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In order to decrease the rate of HIV infection, interventions to scale up PrEP will need to address identified barriers at multiple ecological levels. In the past decade, interventions proposed to address PrEP implementation barriers were limited to one ecological level or another (e.g., individual or community). The failure to consider interventions targeting multiple ecological levels simultaneously may help explain why PrEP implementation is lagging. This failure is also due to methodological limitations of PrEP implementation studies.This high-quality paper presents a thorough and theoretically grounded review of original research on HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) implementation in the U.S.

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Limited Opioid Addiction Treatment Resources Should Be Geared Towards Most Affected Counties

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Rebecca L. Haffajee, J.D., Ph.D., M.P.H. Assistant Professor Department of Health Management & Policy University of Michigan School of Public Health

Dr. Haffajee

Rebecca L. Haffajee, J.D., Ph.D., M.P.H.
Assistant Professor
Department of Health Management & Policy
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MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Evidence suggests that the availability of medications to treat opioid use disorder (OUD) has been slow to expand, particularly in rural areas, despite the efficacy and effectiveness of these medications in reducing overdose deaths and other adverse life outcomes. We were interested in understanding the characteristics of counties both with high need (as measured by above-national rates in opioid overdose deaths) AND low provider capacity to deliver medications to treat OUD in 2017.

We found that such “opioid high-risk” counties were likely to be in the East North Central (e.g., Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana), South Atlantic (e.g., North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, West Virginia), and Mountain (e.g., New Mexico, Arizona, Nevada) regions.

We also found that these opioid high-risk counties were more likely to have higher rates of unemployment and less likely to have fewer primary care clinicians or be micropolitan Continue reading

Respiratory Microbiome Linked to Susceptibility to Flu

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Betsy Foxman PhD Hunein F. and Hilda Maassab Endowed Professor of Epidemiology Director, Center for Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029

Dr. Foxman

Betsy Foxman PhD
Hunein F. and Hilda Maassab Endowed Professor of Epidemiology
Director, Center for Molecular and Clinical Epidemiology of Infectious Diseases
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2029

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Influenza is a major cause of human illness and death worldwide. Vaccines are the best available means of prevention. However, vaccine effectiveness has been low to moderate in recent years and coverage remains low in many countries.

There is increasing evidence suggesting the microbiome plays an important role in shaping host immunity and may be a potential target for reducing disease. In our study, we used a household transmission study to explore whether the respiratory microbiome was associated with influenza susceptibility.  Continue reading

Low Level Lead Exposure Linked to Resistant Hypertension

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sung Kyun Park Sc.D. M.P.H. Associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health sciences University of Michigan School of Public Health, Ann Arbor, Michiga

Dr. Park

Sung Kyun Park Sc.D. M.P.H.
Associate professor of epidemiology and environmental health sciences
University of Michigan School of Public Health
Ann Arbor, Michigan

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is poorly understood that why some patients need more drugs to control high blood pressure than others. Resistant hypertension is that blood pressure is not controlled with 3 medications of different classes including diuretics or is required 4 or more medications of different classes for blood pressure controls. Genes, obesity, physical inactivity, high salt diet, pain medications may do something. Lead is a widespread environmental toxin that can influence high blood pressure. In this study, we examined whether long-term exposure to lead, measured as bone lead, is associated with the risk of resistant hypertension.

Bone lead offers a better method over blood lead measurement to discern long-term lead exposure and accumulation.

The main finding of our study is that low-level lead exposure, measured in the tibia (hard bone), is associated with higher risk of development of resistant hypertension in a cohort of patients diagnosed with hypertension.  Continue reading