Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Lipids / 29.10.2014

George Thanassoulis, MD MSc FRCP(C) Director, Preventive and Genomic Cardiology FRQ-S Clinician-Scientist/Chercheur-Boursier Clinicien Assistant Professor of Medicine, McGill University McGill University Health Center Montreal, QCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: George Thanassoulis, MD MSc FRCP(C) Director, Preventive and Genomic Cardiology FRQ-S Clinician-Scientist/Chercheur-Boursier Clinicien Assistant Professor of Medicine, McGill University McGill University Health Center Montreal, QC Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Thanassoulis: Although LDL-C (i.e. bad cholesterol) has been linked with aortic valve disease in several prior reports, randomized trials to lower cholesterol in aortic valve disease were not effective suggesting that cholesterol may not be important in valve disease. To address this, we performed a Mendelian randomization study, that showed that a genetic predisposition to LDL-C, was associated with both calcium deposits on the aortic valve and aortic stenosis (I.e. Valve narrowing).  These results can be viewed as the effect of a life-long increase in LDL-C on the incidence of aortic valve disease and suggest that increases in LDL-C cause aortic stenosis.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 28.10.2014

Dr. Andrea M. Isidori, MD, PhD Consultant - Assistant Professor of Endocrinology Department of Experimental Medicine Medical Pathophysiology Sapienza University of RomeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Andrea M. Isidori, MD, PhD Consultant - Assistant Professor of Endocrinology Department of Experimental Medicine Medical Pathophysiology Sapienza University of Rome Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Isidori : Our meta-analytic research originated to clarify some controversies emerging from the available human studies. We wanted to analyze if chronic PDE5i administration was cardioprotective and safe, and, if so, where the benefits were mainly seen: cardiac muscle, peripheral vessels, or both. In the last sixteen years pre-clinical and clinical research into the extra-urological effects of PDE5i has expanded dramatically, revealing previously unsuspected indications for these drugs. Several animal studies have shown that PDE5i attenuates cardiac remodeling, with an anti-hypertrophic and anti-fibrotic effect, and protects the heart against different types of injury. Some small clinical trials have demonstrated that chronic PDE5 inhibition improves cardiac performance and geometry in various clinical conditions, including heart failure, myocardial infarction and diabetic cardiomyopathy. We showed that continuous administration of Viagra improves cardiac performance (increase of ejection fraction and cardiac index) and has an anti-remodeling effect (decrease of left ventricular mass and increase of end diastolic volume) without a major impact on vascular parameters (blood pressure and vascular resistance) suggesting that it does indeed have a direct effect on the heart. The novelty of this meta-analysis is the identification of subgroups of patients that may benefit more from PDE5i: patients with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Our study is the first to show in a large patient cohort that chronic PDE5i administration improves cardiac output and decreases heart rate. This could result in longer survival, increased exercise tolerance and a better quality of life. Surprisingly, the magnitude of effects was similar to that seen with the drugs currently used to treat these clinical conditions, and was obtained in a relatively brief period (3 to 12 months). Most strikingly, we found that PDE5is are among the very few drugs that are able to improve diastolic relaxation, thus helping the correct refilling of the ventricle after each contraction, a nearly unique feature in drugs used in cardiology, and with incredible potential for future development in the prevention of heart failure. We also demonstrated their high tolerability and safety in a population that included elderly patients with various stages of cardiac disease and numerous comorbidities who were taking multiple pharmacological treatments. This setting resembles what we normally see in real life, supporting that daily administration is safe and involves no increase in the risk of adverse events compared to on-demand use. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 27.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David MacIver Department of Cardiology Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. MacIver: The study was prompted by 2 triathletes who presented to our hospital with similar symptoms suggesting they both had had fluid on the lungs whilst swimming. Both athletes were fit and active and had excellent heart function. They were diagnosed with a condition is known as swimming-induced pulmonary oedema or edema (SIPO in the UK and SIPE in the USA). A condition that has been well-documented in Navy seals during training swims in open water. A similar condition has been described in divers sometimes with fatal consequences. Fluid on the lungs or pulmonary oedema more commonly occurs in patients as a complication of severe heart disease such as heart attacks and is called acute heart failure. Pulmonary oedema has also been documented healthy race-horses during competitions. We had recently suggested that acute pulmonary edema in patients with heart disease could be explained by a transient mismatch in the right and left ventricular stroke volumes. We thought it would be interesting to see if a similar mechanism could explain swimming-induced pulmonary edema. We found that factors that might contribute included cold water and high blood pressure. We speculated that cross-training with land based activities (running, cycling) might be relevant. In this study we proposed a possible mechanism for swimming-induced pulmonary edema - fluid from the blood is force into the lung air sacs by the strong right ventricle. In effect, the individual begins drowning in their own lung fluid. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Heart Disease / 24.10.2014

  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Pranas Serpytis Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Clinic Vilnius, Lithuania  Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?  Professor Serpytis: The main findings of the study were that women are more likely to develop anxiety and depression after acute myocardial infarction. In our study depression was assessed by HADS scale: no depression (0-7 score), possible depression (8-10 score), definite depression (11+ score). The mean score of assessing depression were 6.87 (± 4.6) among men and 8.66 (± 3.7) among women (p <.05). Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking increases patients anxiety levels, and low physical activity is associated with an increased risk to suffer from depression.  Medical Research: What was most surprising about the results?  Professor Serpytis: Most surprising about the results were that for women it is indeed more difficult to cope with the disease rather than for men. Women’s anxiety and depression rates are higher.  Medical Research: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?  Professor Serpytis: Clinicians and patients should look after the possible symptoms and if needed refer the patients for psychologist or psychiatrist consultation in order get proper timely treatment. This could possibly improve the long-term treatment results.  Medical Research: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?  Professor Serpytis: Most definitely more research is needed in this field. Most importantly it is crucial to look for the impact of depression on the long-term effects on survival and general well-being.   Citation:   Women more likely to develop anxiety and depression after heart attack Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACCA) of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and takes place 18-20 October in Geneva, Switzerland.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Pranas Serpytis Vilnius University Hospital Santariskiu Clinic Vilnius, Lithuania Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Serpytis: The main findings of the study were that women are more likely to develop anxiety and depression after acute myocardial infarction. In our study depression was assessed by HADS scale: no depression (0-7 score), possible depression (8-10 score), definite depression (11+ score). The mean score of assessing depression were 6.87 (± 4.6) among men and 8.66 (± 3.7) among women (p <.05). Cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking increases patients anxiety levels, and low physical activity is associated with an increased risk to suffer from depression. (more…)
Heart Disease / 22.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ilina and Medha KrishenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ilina and Medha Krishen Michigan high school students and sisters Ilina and Medha Krishen, have developed screening tools using electronic stethoscopes to detect lung and heart disease. Their research was presented at the 2014 CHEST national meeting. Ilina and Medha have kindly agreed to discuss their work for the MedicalResearch.com audience. Medical Research: Ilina, please tell us a little about you and the background for your study. Ilina: I am a senior at Port Huron Northern High School in Fort Gratiot, Michigan. I was exploring the effects of air pollutants on lungs using frequency analysis of lung recordings.  My goal was to see if I could pick up early changes in healthy smokers and firefighters. Dr. Sridhar Reddy, a local pulmonologist and occupational medicine expert mentored me.  He lent me his electronic stethoscope.  I am a violinist and a clarinet player, so initially had a lot of fun analyzing music frequencies. Later, I moved to lung sounds (a little more difficult!). I used a Thinklabs Electronic Stethoscope for recording lung sounds. The inventor, Mr. Clive Smith, helped me understand the stethoscope. I used the MATLAB program for analyzing frequencies.  Mr. Charles Munson, a graduate student at the University of Michigan, helped me write the software program for it. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, UCLA / 22.10.2014

Dr. Matthew Budoff, M.D. Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Torrance CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Matthew Budoff, M.D. Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute Torrance California Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Budoff: We evaluated whether patients undergoing coronary CT angiography (non-invasive angiography) had better outcomes than those treated without the test.  We found survival was better with CT angiography.    Finding atherosclerosis allows cardiologists and primary care doctors to treat the patient better, including more statin therapy, more anti-platelet therapy, more lifestyle modifications.  Several small studies showed similar results, but this was by far the most significant and largest study of it’s kind. (more…)
Heart Disease / 21.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Graham Peigh, BA Thomas Jefferson University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The main findings of our study show that extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (E-CPR) can provide recovery when a patient is unresponsive to conventional CPR. In our sample of 24 patients, 13 survived ECMO, and 7 were successfully discharged from the hospital. Major meta analytic studies have shown that in-hospital CPR yields a discharge rate of under 20%, and our study presents results which demonstrate that E-CPR provides a method by which those survival figures can be increased. Importantly, our study also showed that vital organ function among ECMO survivors was maintained. All13 patients had improved or unchanged kidney and liver function, and 12/13 had improved or unchanged metabolic function. After using standard hypothermia protocols, all seven hospital survivors had full neurological recovery. This study differs from the majority of other studies on E-CPR because our institution does not have a dedicated E-CPR/Code team available to perform E-CPR 24/7. We believe that our results are thus generalizable to other academic institutions, which, like ours, have the capability to perform E-CPR, but are only able to do so during on-hours when physicians, perfusionists, and ECMO materials are available. (more…)
Author Interviews, FASEB, Heart Disease, Yale / 20.10.2014

David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center Griffin HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: David L. Katz, MD, MPH, FACPM, FACP Director, Yale University Prevention Research Center Griffin Hospital   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Katz: We did not see any adverse effects of short-term, daily egg ingestion in adults with established coronary artery disease. Medical Research: What was most surprising about the results? Dr. Katz: Eggs are routinely banned from 'heart healthy diets.'  in particular eggs are always absent from cardiac care units, with egg beaters substituting.  However, these same units routinely serve products with refined starch and added sugar.  The scientific basis for excluding eggs from diets to improve cardiac health has long been suspect.  Here, we show that in the short term at least, there are no discernible harms of daily egg ingestion even in adults with heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 19.10.2014

Adrian Baranchuk MD FACC FRCPC Associate Professor of Medicine Director, EP Training Program Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adrian Baranchuk MD FACC FRCPC Associate Professor of Medicine Director, EP Training Program Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baranchuk: In this study, we investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. We found the risk to increase by approximately two-fold for patients with obstructive sleep apnea, suggesting that this disease is a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. We also found that the risk increases in patients with more severe obstructive sleep apnea. This is an important association to explore since atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery increases patient mortality, the risk of stroke, hospital stay, healthcare costs, and has substantial burden on patients and their families. It is also a common complication of the surgery, occurring in up to half of the patients. Knowing which factors increase its risk gives us a better understanding of how to manage it and mitigate its negative consequences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mental Health Research / 15.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Phil Tully PhD Early Career Research Fellow, Discipline of Medicine University of Adelaide Australia and Abteilung für Rehabilitationspsychologie und Psychotherapie Institut für Psychologie, Universität Freiburg Freiburg Germany Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The systematic review indicated that anxiety disorders ascertained by clinical interview are highly prevalent in patients with verified coronary heart disease. Also, approximately 50% of anxiety disorders were comorbid with depression. There was however some uncertainty in prevalence estimates with high level heterogeneity observed between studies. It was also evident that studies measuring generalized anxiety disorder in outpatient samples reported an increased prognostic risk for major adverse cardiac events in the longer term, when adjusted for confounding factors, however there was limited data. There were no randomized controlled trials targeting anxiety disorders in this population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC / 15.10.2014

Nils P. Johnson, M.D., M.S. Assistant Professor - Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Health Science Center Houston TexasMedicalResearch.com Interview with Nils P. Johnson, M.D., M.S. Assistant Professor - Cardiovascular Medicine Department of Internal Medicine University of Texas Health Science Center Houston Texas Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Johnson: Our study had 3 main findings.
  • First, the numeric fractional flow reserve (FFR) value related continuously to risk, such that clinical events increased as FFR decreased and revascularization showed larger net benefit  for lower baseline FFR values.
  • Second, fractional flow reserve measured immediately after  stenting also showed an inverse relationship with prognosis, likely due to its relationship with diffuse disease.
  • Third, an fractional flow reserve-assisted strategy led to revascularization roughly half as often as an anatomy-based strategy, but with 20% fewer adverse events and 10% better angina relief. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 15.10.2014

Jaime Hart, ScD Instructor in Medicine Channing Division of Network MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jaime Hart, ScD Instructor in Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: The main findings are, that among 107,130 women in the Nurses' Health Study, even after adjusting for a number of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, those women living within 50 meters of a major roadway had a 38% increased risk of sudden cardiac death and 24% increased risk of fatal coronary heart disease, compared to women living 500 meters or more away. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Kidney Disease / 13.10.2014

Dr Jelena Kornej Department of Electrophysiology Heart Center Leipzig Leipzig Germany;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Jelena Kornej Department of Electrophysiology Heart Center Leipzig Leipzig Germany; Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Komej: Both atrial fibrillation (AF) and renal impairment are known to coexist and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. However, there is only limited data on changes of renal function after AF catheter ablation and predictors thereof. This is the largest study analyzing the effects of atrial fibrillation catheter ablation on renal function and changes thereof in a contemporary population during mid-term follow-up. We found that lower baseline eGFR was associated with higher CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores and that both scores were independently associated with eGFR changes after atrial fibrillation catheter ablation as were atrial fibrillation recurrences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, JACC / 13.10.2014

Zainab Samad, M.D., M.H.S. Assistant Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Zainab Samad, M.D., M.H.S. Assistant Professor of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Durham, North Carolina Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Samad: This was a sub study of REMIT, an NHLBI funded study. Our research team headed by Dr. Wei Jiang conducted the REMIT study between 2006-2011 at the Duke Heart Center. We found that women and men differ significantly in their physiological and psychological responses to mental stress. We explored sex differences across various domains felt to have implications towards cardiovascular disease pathophysiology and prognosis. We found that women had greater negative emotion, less positive emotion, while men had greater blood pressure increases in response to mental stress. On the contrary, women showed greater platelet reactivity compared to men in response to mental stress. A greater frequency of women had cardiac ischemia in response to mental stress compared to men. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 10.10.2014

Joseph A. Ladapo, MD, PhD New York University School of Medicine Department of Population Health New York, NY 10016MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joseph A. Ladapo, MD, PhD New York University School of Medicine Department of Population Health New York, NY 10016 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ladapo: We showed that the use of cardiac stress testing has risen briskly over the past two decades, with the use of imaging growing particularly rapidly. We also showed that national growth in cardiac stress test use can largely be explained by population and provider characteristics, but the use of imaging cannot. Importantly, nearly one third of cardiac stress tests with imaging tests were probably inappropriate, because they were performed in patients who rarely benefit from imaging. These tests--about 1 million each year--are associated with about half a billion dollars in healthcare costs annually and lead to about 500 people developing cancer in their lifetime because of radiation they received during that cardiac stress test. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 08.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naga Pothineni, MD Division of Cardiology University of Arkansas for Medical Science MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pothineni: Hepatitis C is a blood borne infection that is very common worldwide. Most pateints who contract hepatitis C develop a chronic form on infection that progresses to liver damage and eventually hepatocellular cancer. Coronary heart disease is a worldwide problem as well. There has been interest in chronic infections being a mechanism of progression of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. We wanted to study the association of coronary heart disease events in patients with hepatitis C. We conducted a retrospective study of around 24,000 patients of which around 10,000 were hepatitis C positive. Our study showed that patients who have hepatitis C have a higher incidence of coronary heart disease events (myocardial infarction) when compared to patients who are negative for hepatitis C. In our analysis, we found that hepatitis C positivity is an independent risk factor for coronary events after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors like age, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. Another interesting finding in our study was that patients with hepatitis C have lower levels of cholesterol compared to patients without hepatitis C. Low cholesterol levels in these patients do not seem to be protective against future coronary heart disease events. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Hospital Readmissions / 07.10.2014

Elizabeth Blanchard Hills, BSN MSJ President, Informed Health SolutionsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elizabeth Blanchard Hills, BSN MSJ President, Informed Health Solutions Medical Research: What is your role? Response: My name is Elizabeth Blanchard Hills, BSN, MSJ.  My company, Informed Health Solutions, currently has the privilege of “transitioning” Dr. Smith’s work into clinical practice.  We have been conducting an on-going pilot project with the University of Kansas Hospital since November 2013, and our results are corroborating the results of Dr. Smith’s randomized clinical trial.  We have renamed SMAC-HF; it is now called CareConnext. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?  Response: That we could, in fact, significantly lower hospital readmissions among heart failure patients. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 07.10.2014

Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of MedicineMedicalReseach.com Interview with: Sripal Bangalore, MD, MHA, FACC, FAHA, FSCAI, Director of Research, Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory, Director, Cardiovascular Outcomes Group, The Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Associate Professor of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine New York, NY 10016. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bangalore: Using data from the Clopidogrel for High Atherothrombotic Risk and Ischemic Stabilization, Management, and Avoidance (CHARISMA) trial, we found that β-blocker use in patients with prior myocardial infarction but no heart failure was associated with a lower composite cardiovascular outcome, driven mainly by lower risk of recurrent myocardial infarction with no difference in mortality. However, in patients without prior myocardial infarction there was no benefit of β-blocker use with a suggestion of increase in stroke risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC, Mediterranean Diet, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 03.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Anil Nigam MD MSc FRCPC Director, Research Program in Preventive Cardiology at ÉPIC Centre Montreal Heart Institute Associate Professor, Department of Medicine at Université de MontréalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Anil Nigam MD MSc FRCPC Director, Research Program in Preventive Cardiology at ÉPIC Centre Montreal Heart Institute Associate Professor, Department of Medicine at Université de Montréal Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nigam: The main finding is that high-dose fish oil rich in marine omega-3 fatty acids did not reduce recurrence of atrial fibrillation in individuals with paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation not receiving conventional anti-arrhythmic therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 02.10.2014

Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, FinlandFor MedicalResearch.com Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Virtanen: The main finding was that saturated fat intake was not an independent risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease even in a population with relatively high average saturated fat intake, like in this population with middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland. In other words, intake of carbohydrates in place of saturated fat was not associated with lower risk, not even when the quality of carbohydrates was taken into account. Only when polyunsaturated fat replaced saturated fat in the diet, was the risk of Coronary Heart Disease, especially Coronary Heart Disease mortality, lower. In fact, also replacing trans fat or carbohydrates with polyunsaturated fat was associated with lower risk. The associations were similar with both n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Trans fat intake was not associated with the Coronary Heart Disease risk, but that is most likely explained by the low intake of trans fat in Finland already in mid-1980s. We also investigated the associations of the fatty acid intake with carotid artery atherosclerosis, and the results were generally similar to the findings with incident Coronary Heart Disease events. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA / 01.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanna Chikwe MD Associate Professor Department of Cardiovascular Surgery Mount Sinai Medical Center and Natalia N. Egorova, PhD Department of Health Evidence and Policy, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, New York Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is one of the largest studies to date on the long-term outcomes of patients after aortic valve replacement. We found that bioprosthetic valves are as safe as mechanical valves in younger patients (age 50-69) - specifically, long-term death rates and stroke risk were very similar in patients who had either valve type. The main differences lay in the risk of other long-term complications: patients who had bioprosthetic valves were more likely to need repeat surgery in the long-term, whereas patients who had mechanical valves were more likely to experience a major bleeding event. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 01.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lior Yankelson, MD PhD Tel Aviv Medical Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yankelson: The main findings of the study are that new onset atrial fibrillation after TAVI does not confer a significant risk for mortality , and confers somewhat increased risk for stroke. The latter issue is expected to become less significant with new technological advancements coming into the market, such as lower profile devices and emboli protection both mechanical and pharmaceutical. The more significant and alarming finding is that patients with atrial fibrillation have more than 4 fold risk for death at 1 year post TAVI compared to patients without afib. This is very significant and raises questions regarding the benefit for the procedure in these patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA / 30.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marwan Badri MBChB, MRCP Cardiovascular disease fellow Lankenau Medical Center Wynnewood Pa Medical Research : What is the background for this study? Dr. Badri: Recent years witnessed increased emphasis of the role of clinical guidelines in cardiovascular care. Physicians are encouraged to practice within the framework of major society guidelines to deliver better, more cost-effective patient care. It is therefore vital that the recommendations in these guidelines are applicable to most of the patient population. Since some clinical trials have been shown in the past to unfavorably exclude women, racial minorities and elderly patients, we conducted this study to see if the clinical trials used to form the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association adequately represent these patient groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Case Western, Heart Disease, Scripps / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Philip Gorelick, M.D., M.P.H, F.A.C.P. Medical Director of the Hauenstein Neuroscience Center Saint Mary’s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI; Professor, Translational Science and Molecular Medicine Michigan State University College of Human Medicine; Board member of the National Stroke AssociationPhilip Gorelick, M.D., M.P.H, F.A.C.P. Medical Director of the Hauenstein Neuroscience Center Saint Mary’s Health Care, Grand Rapids, MI; Professor, Translational Science and Molecular Medicine Michigan State University College of Human Medicine; Board member of the National Stroke Association and Judy Lenane, R.N., M.H.A. Chief Clinical Officer of iRhythm Technologies, Inc. Judy Lenane, R.N., M.H.A. Chief Clinical Officer of iRhythm Technologies, Inc.   Medical Research: What is atrial fibrillation and how common a problem is it among US adults? Dr. Gorelick: Nearly 3 million people in the US suffer from Atrial Fibrillation or “Afib,” an abnormal heart rhythm that causes the heart to beat rapidly and irregularly. While Afib can occur at any age, the incidence increases with age and the number of cases is expected to increase significantly in the coming years as the population ages. Approximately 5 percent of people 65 years and older and one in every 10 people over 80 years of age have Afib. It is more common in those with high blood pressure, heart disease or lung disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jorge F. Saucedo MD Allstate Foundation, Judson B. Branch Chair of Cardiology Head, Division of Cardiology Co-Director Cardiovascular Institute NorthShore University HealthSystem Clinical Professor of Medicine University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine Talla A. Rousan, MD Oklahoma City, OK. First author of study. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: It was found that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to patients without DM. Patients with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had higher in-hospital mortality rate than patients with non-insulin requiring diabetes mellitus. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Karolinski Institute / 29.09.2014

dr_iffat_rahmanMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Iffat Rahman Ph.D. Unit of Nutritional Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Box 210, 17177 Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rahman: Our study suggests that moderate to high level of physical activity could protect against heart failure in women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katharina Mayer MD Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mayer: Patients whose platelets do not respond well to aspirin carry a higher risk of death or stent thrombosis. Platelet response to aspirin is an independent predictor of ischemic events in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC / 23.09.2014

Jerry D. Estep, M.D., FACC Assistant Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College Medical Director, Heart Transplant & LVAD Program Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center Houston Methodist HospitalMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jerry D. Estep, M.D., FACC Assistant Professor of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College Medical Director, Heart Transplant & LVAD Program Methodist DeBakey Heart & Vascular Center Houston Methodist Hospital Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Estep: There were two major findings: 1-Non-invasive Doppler echocardiographic and invasive measures of mean right atrial pressure (RAP) (r = 0.863; p < 0.0001), systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) (r=0.880; p<0.0001), right ventricular outflow tract stroke volume (r=0.660; p < 0.0001), and pulmonary vascular resistance (r = 0.643; p= 0.001) correlated significantly. 2-An algorithm integrating mitral inflow velocities, RAP, sPAP, and left atrial volume index was 90% accurate in distinguishing normal from elevated left ventricular filling pressures. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, JACC, Karolinski Institute / 23.09.2014

Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer  Photo by Anna Persson                                                                   Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, SwedMedicalResearch.com Interview with Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer                                                  Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Åkesson: Our study indicates that a healthy diet together with low-risk lifestyle practices such as being physically active, not smoking and having a moderate alcohol consumption, and with the absence of abdominal adiposity may prevent the vast majority of myocardial infarctions in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, JAMA / 20.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview  Dongyi (Tony) Du, MD, PhD Division of Epidemiology FDA/CDRH/OSB Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Du: The risk for death on the date of surgery was 60% higher for recipients of mechanical aortic valves than recipients of bioprosthetic aortic valves (OR, 1.61 [95%CI, 1.27-2.04; P < .001]; risk ratio [RR], 1.60). The risk difference decreased to 16% during the 30 days after the date of surgery (OR, 1.18 [95%CI, 1.09-1.28; P < .001]; RR, 1.16). The risk for operative mortality was 19% higher for recipients of mechanical compared with bioprosthetic valves (OR, 1.21 [95%CI, 1.13-1.30; P < .001]; RR, 1.19). The number needed to treat with mechanical valves to observe 1 additional death on the surgery date was 290; to observe 1 additional death within 30 days of surgery, 121. (more…)