Addiction, ADHD, Author Interviews / 13.12.2014

William Brinkman, MD, MEd, MSc Associate Professor of Pediatrics Director, Research Section, Division of General & Community Pediatrics Research Director, Cincinnati Pediatric Research Group James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: William Brinkman, MD, MEd, MSc Associate Professor of Pediatrics Director, Research Section, Division of General & Community Pediatrics Research Director, Cincinnati Pediatric Research Group James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Brinkman: Early onset of substance use is a significant public health concern as those who use substances before the mid-teen years are more likely to develop dependence than those who start later. The association of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conduct disorder (CD) with tobacco and alcohol use has not been assessed in a young adolescent sample representative of the U.S. population.
ADHD, Author Interviews / 17.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joanna Martin, PhD student MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics Institute of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University School of Medicine, Cardiff Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: In this study, we found that genetic risks which are collectively important for ADHD diagnosis also predict higher levels of traits of hyperactivity/impulsiveness, inattention and  pragmatic language difficulties in childhood in the general population.
ADHD, Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Nature / 19.06.2014

Michele Jacob, Ph.D. Professor of Neuroscience Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences Tufts UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with Michele Jacob, Ph.D. Professor of Neuroscience Sackler School of Graduate Biomedical Sciences Tufts University MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jacob: Autistic-like behaviors and cognitive impairments associate with loss of the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC) gene.  We deleted APC chiefly from excitatory neurons in the mouse developing forebrain; the mice exhibited changes in synapse maturation and density, reduced social interest, increased repetitive behaviors, and learning deficits.  In addition, we found  molecular changes that define a novel role for APC in linking to and regulating the levels of particular proteins that function in synaptic adhesion complexes and signaling pathways that are required for normal learning and memory consolidation.
ADHD, Author Interviews, BMJ, Karolinski Institute / 19.06.2014

Dr. Henrik Larsson PhD Associate Professor Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institute Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Henrik Larsson PhD Associate Professor Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institute Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Larrson: We found no evidence for an overall increased rate of suicide related events associated with the use of stimulant or non-stimulant drug treatment for ADHD. If anything, the results pointed to a potential protective effect of drugs for ADHD on suicidal behaviour, particularly for stimulant drugs.
ADHD, Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Smoking / 21.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nathalie E. Holz, MA Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Psychotherapy Central Institute of Mental Health, Medical Faculty Mannheim/Heidelberg University, Mannheim, Germany MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Holz: Using data from a prospective community sample followed since birth, we investigated the impact of prenatal maternal smoking on lifetime Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms and on brain structure and inhibitory control assessed with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the adult offspring. Those who were prenatally exposed to tobacco not only exhibited more ADHD symptoms, but also showed decreased activity in the inhibitory control network encompassing the inferior frontal gyrus as well as the anterior cingulate cortex. Activity in these regions was inversely related to lifetime ADHD symptoms and novelty seeking, respectively. In addition volume in the inferior frontal gyrus was decreased in these participants.
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA / 25.02.2014

Jørn Olsen, M.D., Ph.D.  Professor Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology UCLA Aarhus University Aarhus,DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jørn Olsen, M.D., Ph.D.  Professor Institute of Public Health, Department of Epidemiology UCLA Aarhus University Aarhus,Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Olsen: Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is drug being used by many, including pregnant women. In our data about half of all pregnant women in 1995 to 2002 had used the drug all least once during their pregnancy. The drug has shown hormonal disruptor properties in animal studies. We found that women who used this drug during pregnancy gave birth to children who 5 – 10 years later slightly more often had behavioral problems or were treated for ADHD. The risk was highest for those who took the medication late in pregnancy and/or had taken the drug several times. The increased risk was about 10-30%.
ADHD, Author Interviews, Autism / 29.01.2014

Bennett L. Leventhal, MD Nathan S. Kline Institue for Psychiatric Research 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Building 35 Orangeburg, NY 10962MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bennett L. Leventhal, MD Nathan S. Kline Institue for Psychiatric Research 140 Old Orangeburg Road, Building 35 Orangeburg, NY 10962 MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Leventhal: In the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM5) released in May 2013, changes include major alterations in criteria for developmental disorders, in particular, the DSMIV diagnostic criteria for Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), including elimination of subtypes found in DSMIV such as Asperger Disorder and PDD NOS. Additionally, DSM 5 adds a new diagnostic category, Social Communication Disorder (SCD): individuals with SCD have difficulties similar to ASD but these problems are solely restricted to the realm of social communication and do not include the restrictive and repetitive behaviors found in ASD.
ADHD, Author Interviews, Radiology / 15.12.2013

Dr. Vitria Adisetiyo, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Medical University of South Carolina Center for Biomedical Imaging Charleston, SC 29425MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Vitria Adisetiyo, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Research Fellow Medical University of South Carolina Center for Biomedical Imaging Charleston, SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Adisetiyo:  Using a non-invasive MRI method called magnetic field correlation imaging, we detected significantly reduced striatal and thalamic brain iron in medication-naive children and adolescents with ADHD compared to age-, gender- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. ADHD patients who had a history of psychostimulant medication treatment (e.g. Ritalin, Aderrall) had brain iron levels comparable to controls, suggesting brain iron may normalize with psychostimulants. Blood iron measures did not differ between patients and controls.
ADHD, Author Interviews, Mental Health Research / 15.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Desiree Silva MB BS, FRACP, MPH Consultant Paediatrician Suite 210 Specialist Centre, Joondalup Health Campus 60 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup WA 6027MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Desiree Silva MB BS, FRACP, MPH Consultant Paediatrician Suite 210 Specialist Centre, Joondalup Health Campus 60 Shenton Avenue, Joondalup WA 6027 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Silva: Our study is one of the largest population based studies of 12,991 children with ADHD. We found that smoking in pregnancy, maternal urinary infections, preeclampsia, being induced and threatened pre-term labour increases the risk of ADHD with little gender differences.  Prematurity also increased the risk of ADHD including babies born late preterm and early term marginally increased the risk of ADHD.
ADHD, Author Interviews, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 04.10.2013

Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tanya Froehlich, MD, MS Associate Professor Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center 3333 Burnet Avenue, MLC 4002 Cincinnati, OH  45229 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Froehlich: In a national sample of 2 to 5 year olds, the likelihood of psychotropic prescription peaked in the mid-2000s (at 1.5%), then stabilized in the late 2000s (to 1.0%). Increased psychotropic use in boys, white children, and those lacking private health insurance was documented.
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Pediatrics / 30.05.2013

Kathryn L. Humphreys, M.A., Ed.M.  Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student UCLA Department of Psychology 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563 Los Angeles, CA 90095MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Kathryn L. Humphreys, M.A., Ed.M. Clinical Psychology Doctoral Student UCLA Department of Psychology 1285 Franz Hall, Box 951563 Los Angeles, CA 90095 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our primary question was to answer whether the use of stimulant medication in the treatment of ADHD was associated with increased or decreased risk for a variety of substance use (ever tried) and substance use disorder (abuse or dependence) outcomes (alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, nicotine, and non-specific drug use). Prior research from individual studies of children have provided mixed evidence (i.e., some found medication increased later risk, some found medication decreased risk, and still others found no difference in risk). We examined available longitudinal studies (i.e., medication treatment preceded measurement of substance outcome) together using meta-analysis, a technique that aggregates findings from a number of studies, in order to examine this question in a much larger sample of individuals. Our main finding was that children with ADHD who received medication treatment did not differ in risk for lifetime substance use or abuse or dependence compared to those children with ADHD who did not receive medication treatment.