Mother’s Milk and Microbiome Affect Babies’ Reaction to Diarrhea Disease from Rotavirus

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

3D graphical representation of a number of Rotavirus virions: CDC image

3D graphical representation of a number of Rotavirus virions: CDC image

Sasirekha Ramani, PhD
Assistant Professor
Molecular Virology and Microbiology
Baylor College of Medicine
Houston, TX

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This work pertains to Rotavirus, a leading cause of diarrhea and vomiting in children under the age of 5 years. In this paper, we described our work with a rotavirus strain that almost exclusively causes neonatal infections. For many years, we have been trying to understand why this strain primarily infects newborns and why infection in some babies is associated with gastrointestinal symptoms while others are asymptomatic. A few years ago, we showed that this particular virus binds to developmentally-regulated glycans (sugars) in the gut as receptors. As the baby grows, these sugars get modified, and that potentially explains why infection with this virus is primarily restricted to neonates. However, we didn’t really have to answer to why there are differences in association with clinical presentations.

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Animal Study Supports Concern Antibiotic Ciprofloxin Increases Risk of Aortic Rupture

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Segments of the aorta, including: Thoracic aorta Ascending aorta Tortic arch Descending thoracic aorta Abdominal aorta Suprarenal abdominal aorta Infrarenal abdominal aorta Wikipedia Image

Segments of the aorta, including: Thoracic aorta Ascending aorta Tortic arch Descending thoracic aorta Abdominal aorta Suprarenal abdominal aorta Infrarenal abdominal aorta Wikipedia Image


Scott A. LeMaire, MD
Jimmy and Roberta Howell Professor of Cardiovascular Surgery
Vice Chair for Research, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery
Professor of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics
Director of Research, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Baylor College of Medicine
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery
Texas Heart Institute
Baylor St. Luke’s Medical Center
CHI St. Luke’s Health
Editor-in-Chief, Journal of Surgical Research

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We performed this study because of concerns about the potential association between fluoroquinolones and aortic aneurysms and dissection raised in two large clinical studies. This concern was noted by the US Food and Drug Administration in May 2016, but the evidence was not deemed sufficient to warrant a warning. Hence, there was a clear need for additional studies to evaluate the problem. Our study was designed to determine whether there is biological evidence that ciprofloxacin—the most commonly prescribed fluoroquinolone—exacerbates aortic disease in a well-established mouse model. The model uses high-fat diet and angiotensin II infusion to stress the aorta and cause aneurysm and dissection. Using this model, we compared mice that received ciprofloxacin to control mice that received only vehicle, and we found that mice that received ciprofloxacin had significant increases in the incidence of aortic dilatation, severe aortic aneurysm and dissection, and aortic rupture and premature death. Importantly, these findings were consistent in male and female mice. Further, we investigated the potential underlying mechanisms and found that the aortas from mice that received ciprofloxacin had decreased levels of lysyl oxidase, increased levels of matrix metalloproteinases, and increased levels of apoptosis and necroptosis. Continue reading