Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 31.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50510" align="alignleft" width="160"]Ninh T. Nguyen, MD Department of Surgery University of California Irvine Medical Center Orange, California Dr. Nguyen[/caption] Ninh T. Nguyen, MD Department of Surgery University of California Irvine Medical Center Orange, California MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The US World & News Report publishes each year on top ranked hospitals for specific specialties. These ratings are promoted nationally and used by patients and physicians in making decisions about where to receive care for challenging conditions or common elective procedures. Bariatric, colorectal and hiatal hernia procedures are common gastrointestinal operations being performed at most hospitals. Seeking care for these operations specifically at top 50 ranked hospitals can pose significant logistic and financial constraints for most patients. The objective of this study was to determine whether top ranked hospitals (RHs) in Gastroenterology & GI Surgery (GGS) have improved outcomes for advanced laparoscopic abdominal surgery compared to non-ranked hospitals (NRHs).
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 15.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Danielle Orsagh-Yentis, MD Pediatric GI Motility Fellow Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, Ohio MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Foreign body ingestions are quite common in young children. Much of the literature and advocacy to date has focused on the harms of button battery and magnet ingestions. We found that foreign body ingestions in children younger than 6 years of age have been increasing over the past 2 decades. This overall increase is mirrored by the rise in coin, toy, and jewelry ingestions, as well as batteries, which, when swallowed, have the potential to cause considerable harm. 
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections / 08.03.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_40440" align="alignleft" width="120"]Esther Bullitt, Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA  02118-2526 Dr. Bullitt[/caption] Esther Bullitt, Ph.D. Associate Professor Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics Boston University School of Medicine Boston, MA  02118-2526  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:      We know that saliva has properties that allow us to swallow easily, and to help prevent gum disease and infections in the mouth. But is that really the only use for the 1-2 liters (1-2 quarts) of saliva we produce every day?  We decided to test whether a component of saliva, Histatin-5, can help prevent diarrheal disease (Traveler’s Diarrhea by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC)) that is caused by bacteria commonly found in contaminated food and water. ETEC are bacteria that have hundreds of thin hair-like fibers on their surface, called pili. These bacteria bind specifically to the surface of the gut using these pili, and the bacteria need to stay bound long enough to initiate disease. Studies by Mike Levine’s group in the 1970’s showed that pili are necessary for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) to cause disease. No adhesion, no disease. One aid to remaining bound is the unwinding and rewinding of the pili. These helical fibers can unwind up to 8 times their original length, acting as shock absorbers during fluid flow.  
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Karolinski Institute, Parkinson's / 29.04.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_34221" align="alignleft" width="150"]Karin Wirdefeldt, MD, PhD</strong> Associate professor Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden Dr. Wirdefeldt[/caption] Karin Wirdefeldt, MD, PhD Associate professor Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: It has been hypothesized that Parkinson's disease may start in the gut and spread to the brain via the vagal nerve. We found that people who had a truncal vagotomy (ie, the nerve trunk fully resected) at least 5 years earlier were less likely to develop Parkinson's disease compared to people without vagotomy or people who had a selective vagotomy (ie, only branches of the nerve resected).
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Microbiome, Nutrition / 21.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29871" align="alignleft" width="200"]Mahesh Desai, PhD Principal Investigator Allergology - Immunology - Inflammation Research Unit Department of Infection and Immunity Luxembourg Institute of Health Luxembourg Dr. Mahesh Desai[/caption] MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Over the last few decades, our intake of dietary fiber has fallen drastically mainly due to the consumption of processed food, which has been connected to increased cases of intestinal diseases including colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. The gut microbiota is essential for us as it allows our body to digest dietary fiber contained in fruits and vegetables, that could otherwise not be processed. Changed physiologies and abundances of the gut microbiota following a fiber-deprived diet have been commonly linked to several intestinal diseases. However, the mechanisms behind these connections have remained poorly understood.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Genetic Research, JAMA / 29.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26492" align="alignleft" width="133"]Amitabh Chak, MD University Hospitals Case Medical Ctr Cleveland, OH, 44106 Dr-Amitabh-Chak[/caption] Amitabh Chak, MD University Hospitals Case Medical Ctr Cleveland, OH, 44106 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: About 20 years ago we discovered that Barrett's esophagus and esophageal cancer aggregate in a small proportion of families suggesting there might be a genetic basis to these complex diseases. As we started looking at these families, we identified a rare family with multiple members who had Barrett's esophagus and multiple members who had passed away from esophageal cancer at a young age. Advances in exome sequencing have now allowed us to identify a mutation in a gene whose function is not known that predisposes this family to develop Barrett's esophagus. Functional studies suggest that this gene, VSIG10L, is involved in maturation of normal squamous esophagus.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Mental Health Research / 24.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26433" align="alignleft" width="150"]Laureate Professor Nicholas J. Talley, MBBS (Hons.)(NSW), MD (NSW), PhD (Syd), MMedSci (Clin Epi)(Newc.), FRACP, FAFPHM, FAHMS, FRCP (Lond. & Edin.), FACP, FACG, AGAF, FAMS, FRCPI (Hon), GAICD Pro Vice-Chancellor, Global Research, University of Newcastle, Australia Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Australia Prof. Nicholas Talley[/caption] Laureate Professor Nicholas J. Talley, MBBS (Hons.)(NSW), MD (NSW), PhD (Syd), MMedSci (Clin Epi)(Newc.), FRACP, FAFPHM, FAHMS, FRCP (Lond. & Edin.), FACP, FACG, AGAF, FAMS, FRCPI (Hon), GAICD Pro Vice-Chancellor, Global Research, University of Newcastle, Australia Professor of Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Australia President, Royal Australasian College of Physicians Chair, Committee of Presidents of Medical Colleges Hon. Treasurer, Australian Academy of Health and Medical Sciences Editor-in-Chief, Medical Journal of Australia Senior Staff Specialist, John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia Professor of Medicine and Professor of Epidemiology, Joint Supplemental Consultant Gastroenterology and Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs) like the irritable bowl syndrome (IBS) are very common, cause major distress including pain and psychological dysfunction, impact on quality of life and drive high health care costs. We speculated that there are two distinct types of functional gastrointestinal disease that others have not recognized. For example, IBS in a subgroup may first begin with gut symptoms (pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating etc) in those free of psychological distress and only later does new onset anxiety or depression develop, implicating gut disease as the primary driver of the entire symptom complex (a gut-to-brain disease). On the other hand, we speculated there is another quite different subgroup where disease begins with anxiety or depression and only later do new onset gut symptoms develop, and this is likely primarily a central nervous system cause (probably through the stress system), or a brain-to-gut disease. This is exactly what we found, with gut disease occurring first followed by new onset psychological distress in about two thirds of people from the community over a one year follow-up.
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Cancer Research, Gastrointestinal Disease / 24.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_24625" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Aaron Thrift Dr. Aaron Thrift[/caption] Aaron Peter Thrift, Ph.D Assistant Professor Duncan Cancer Center Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology Section Baylor College of Medicine Houston, TX, US MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Dr. Thrift: Patients with Barrett’s esophagus are at significantly higher risk of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. Due to the continued rise in incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma attention has turned to chemoprevention as a method to delay or halt the progression of Barrett’s esophagus to neoplasia, including invasive cancer. Acid suppressive medications, such as proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs), are commonly used in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), the primary risk factor for Barrett’s esophagus. We contacted a nested case-control study involving 311 patients with Barrett’s esophagus who developed esophageal adenocarcinoma (cases) and 856 matched controls (patients with Barrett’s esophagus but who did not develop esophageal adenocarcinoma). Compared to never users, we found that Barrett’s esophagus patients taking PPIs and H2RAs had 69% and 45% lower risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, respectively. The associations were independent of other risk factors for progression, including concomitant use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and statins.
Antibiotic Resistance, Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections / 16.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_24412" align="alignleft" width="143"]Andreas J. Bäumler, Ph.D Editor, Infection and Immunity Associate Editor, PLOS Pathogens Section Editor, EcoSal Plus Professor, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology Vice Chair of Research University of California, Davis School of Medicine Davis, California Dr. Andreas Bäumler[/caption] Andreas J. Bäumler, Ph.D Editor, Infection and Immunity Associate Editor, PLOS Pathogens Section Editor, EcoSal Plus Professor, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology Vice Chair of Research University of California, Davis School of Medicine Davis, California   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bäumler: Antibiotics are generally beneficial for treating bacterial infection, but paradoxically a history of antibiotic therapy is a risk factor for developing Salmonella food poisoning.  Our study reveals the mechanism by which antibiotics increase susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Antibiotics deplete beneficial microbes from the gut, which normally provide nutrition to the cells lining our large bowel, termed epithelial cells. Depletion of microbe-derived nutrients causes our epithelial cells to switch their energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation, which in turn increases the availability of oxygen at the epithelial surface. The resulting increase in oxygen diffusion into the gut lumen drives a luminal expansion of Salmonella by respiration. Through this mechanism, antibiotics help Salmonella to breath in the gut.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Microbiome / 11.11.2015

[caption id="attachment_19265" align="alignleft" width="200"]Shannon D. Manning, Ph.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University E. Lansing, MI 48824 Dr. Manning[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shannon D. Manning, Ph.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University E. Lansing, MI 48824 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Manning: Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children under the age of five and is commonly caused by many different bacterial pathogens. We have observed that infection with four different bacterial pathogens (Salmonella, Shigella, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli, and Campylobacter) all induce the proliferation of a population of microbes, namely Escherichia, which are already present in the gut of healthy individuals.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Gastrointestinal Disease / 21.10.2015

Adil Mardinoglu, PhD Assistant Professor of Systems BiologyScience for Life Laboratory Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adil Mardinoglu, PhD Assistant Professor of Systems BiologyScience for Life Laboratory Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mardinoglu: The functional output and diversity of the gut microbiota are important modulators for the development of various human disorders. Obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D), atherosclerosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as well as the opposite end of the spectrum, for example, malnutrition have been associated with dysbiosis in the human gut microbiota. In our study, we investigated the interactions between the gut microbiota, host tissues of the gastrointestinal tract and other peripheral tissues as well as diet which are known to be highly relevant for the health of the host. Through integration of high throughput experimental data, we revealed that the microbiota in the small intestine consumes glycine which is one of the three amino acids required for the synthesis of the glutathione. In order to confirm our predictions, we measured the level of the amino acids in the portal vein of the mice. We observed lower level of glycine in liver and colon tissues, and this indicated that the gut microbiota regulates glutathione metabolism not only in the small intestine but also in the liver and the colon tissues.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 06.01.2015

Miranda van Tilburg, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine University of North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Miranda van Tilburg, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine University of North Carolina Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. van Tilburg: Functional gastrointestinal disorders are common in children, adolescents and adults but little is known about the prevalence in infants and toddlers.  Functional gastrointestinal disorders in infancy include disorders such as regurgitation, colic, and dyschezia, while functional gastrointestinal disorders in toddlers include functional constipation, functional diarrhea, functional dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting, and rumination. Of these disorders only colic and regurgitation have received much research attention. Prevalence, cause and consequences of most functional gastrointestinal disorders in infants and toddlers are largely unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence in the US by asking a representative sample of mothers to report on their child’s symptoms. Our study found that 27% of infants and toddlers may suffer from a functional gastrointestinal disorder. Among infants, regurgitation was the most common disorder and among toddlers constipation. Despite functional gastrointestinal disorders generally being more prevalent in older girls and adult women, no sex differences were found in this age group. Toddlers who suffer from a functional gastrointestinal disorders had lower quality of life and made more health care visits.