Author Interviews, C. difficile, Gastrointestinal Disease, Imperial College, Infections, Transplantation / 30.04.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Julian Marchesi PhD Professor of Digestive Health Faculty of Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction   Dr. Benjamin Mullish PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction NIHR Clinical Lecturer Imperial College London       MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Many patients are colonized with bacteria that are resistant to nearly all the antibiotics that we currently have. This antibiotic resistance is a huge public health problem, not least because it may lead to the scenario where a bacterial species moves from the gut and into the bloodstream, causes an infection, and cannot be treated. Such scenarios particularly occur in patients who are particularly prone to getting multiple and frequent courses of antibiotics; this may include patients with particular kidney conditions (who may be vulnerable to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs)), and patients with blood cancers (such as leukaemia, who have weak immune systems and are therefore prone to infections). Furthermore, in both sets of patients, to help treat their disease, they may be offered transplants, either a new kidney or new bone marrow. When this transplant happens, the clinician needs to ‘switch off’ their immune system to allow the transplant to work. When the immune system is dialled down, it can no longer stop any invading bacteria, increasing the chance of antibiotic resistance bacteria causing infections, which frequently leads to patient death.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Heart Disease, Imperial College, JAMA / 19.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ioanna Tzoulaki Imperial College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Considerable progress has been made in identifying genetic variants that are associated with heart disease. We aimed to investigate whether genetic information can be used to assess the risk of individuals developing heart disease in the future and whether genetic tests can improve current risk assessment strategies which are based on easy to measure factors such as age, sex, smoking status, cholesterol levels, blood pressure and presence of type 2 diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors, Imperial College / 20.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Georgios Giamas, (Dr. Biol. Hum.) Professor of Cancer Cell Signalling Director of Research and Knowledge Exchange University of Sussex -School of Life Sciences Visiting Professor, Imperial College, London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study focuses on Glioblastoma (GBM), which is one of the most aggressive solid tumours for which treatment options and biomarkers are limited. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? - Glioblastoma cells produce nanosized vesicles (aka: extracellular vesicles) that contain specific protein signatures, which can indicate the behaviour and phenotype of the respective cells of origin. -We have identified and described certain vesicle-associated biomarkers that correspond to the most aggressive brain cancers. -Our results can provide insights for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic methods as well as personalized treatment strategies (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Imperial College, Lipids, NEJM, Statins / 13.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kosh Ray, MB ChB, MD, MPhil Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health Chair in Public Health (Clinical) Imperial College London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Bempedoic acid is the first in class of a new therapy for lowering LDL cholesterol. This is the largest and longest study to date with this therapy and involved about 2200 pts with patients with either established cardiovascular disease or familial hypercholestrolaemia and in whom LDL was > 70mg/dl or 1.8 mmol/L despite maximally tolerated statins. %0% were on high intensity statins and the majority of the rest on moderate intensity. The aim was to show long term safety 1 year and efficacy at 24 weeks and at 1 year.  (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Immunotherapy / 25.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Paul Turner FRACP PhD MRC Clinician Scientist and Clinical Senior Lecturer, Imperial College London Honorary Consultant in Paediatric Allergy & Immunology Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust Hon Consultant, Royal Free Hospital / Royal Brompton & Harefield NHS Foundation Trust Clinical trials specialist (Paediatrics), Public Health England Clinical Associate Professor in Paediatrics, University of Sydney, Australia Dr. Nandinee Patel, MD Section of Paediatrics Imperial College London London, United Kingdom MRC & Asthma UK Centre in Allergic Mechanisms of Asthma London, United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Current desensitisation protocols for peanut allergy use defatted roasted peanut flour, which can be difficult to accurately measure in very low doses needed for desensitisation (and thus has resulted in the development of AR101 by Aimmune which is likely cost many thousands of dollars for a course of treatment). We have previously observed that some children with food allergy to roasted peanut (such as peanut butter) are nonetheless able to tolerate boiled peanuts without reacting. We performed in vitro protein analysis studies which demonstrated that boiling peanuts resulted in around 50% of protein leaching out of the peanut into the cooking water. Furthermore, we found evidence for preferential leaching of allergen epitopes such as Ara h 2 as well aggregation of proteins resulting in a hypoallergenic peanut product. We therefore sought to assess whether boiled peanuts could be as effective and safe to induce desensitisation. (more…)
AACR, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Imperial College, Kidney Disease / 20.08.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. David C. Muller PhD Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health Research Fellow in Epidemiology and Biostatistics Imperial College, London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our colleagues in the U.S. have been working on KIM-1 for years, particularly in the context of chronic kidney disease. Recently they found that KIM-1 is also elevated at the time of diagnosis of kidney cancer. We wanted to see if KIM-1 concentrations could predict the chances of a future diagnosis of kidney cancer. We found that KIM-1 was a strong predictor of being diagnosis with kidney cancer in the next 5 years. We also found that higher pre-diagnostic KIM-1 was associated with worse survival after diagnosis.  (more…)