Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 11.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114Dr. Elsie Taveras Massachusetts General Hospital for Children Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Pediatrics 100 Cambridge St, 15th Floor Boston, MA 02114   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Taveras: The main findings of the study were that, overall, the body mass index of children in the intervention group dropped an average of 0.18, while it rose 0.21 in the control group. Children in the intervention group were sleeping about 45 minutes longer than children in the control group. Time spent watching television on weekends dropped about an hour per day in the intervention group, leading to a significant difference from the control group, which increased weekend TV viewing. Both groups had a small reduction in weekday TV viewing, with a greater decrease in the intervention group, as well.
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 10.09.2013

Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor of Nutrition Harvard School of Public HealthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Qi, MD, PhD, FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Assistant Professor of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: It has been known that weight loss diets may improve metabolic status, in parallel with reduction of body weight. We found that the beneficial of various weight loss diets, such as high-fat and low-fat diets, may be different for people carrying different genotype.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Weight Research / 03.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Søren Skøtt Andersen and Dr Michelle Schmiegelow Study done in collaboration between Roskilde University Hospital and Gentofte University Hospital in Denmark. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study of young women was that a body mass index above or equal to 25 kg/m2 in metabolically healthy women was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) within 5 years of follow-up. A BMI >= 25 kg/m2 in women with any metabolic disorder was associated with a 4-fold significant increased risk of the end-point. As increasing BMI is strongly associated with risk of developing metabolic disorders, the key message of this study is to stress the importance of preventing the development of metabolic disorders in overweight/obese women during this possible "window of opportunity".
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 31.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Monique Hedderson, PhD Research Scientist Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612Monique Hedderson, PhD Research Scientist Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?  Dr. Hedderson: It is fascinating to discover that metabolic abnormalities appear to be present, even years before pregnancy, in a large proportion of  women who develop gestational diabetes. The findings from this study emphasize the importance of the pre-pregnancy period in future pregnancy outcomes.
Author Interviews, JCEM, Weight Research / 28.08.2013

MedialResearch.com Interview with: Dr Catherine M. Phillips Health Research Board Centre for Diet and Health Research Room 4.033, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Western Gateway Building, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland MedialResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Obesity is associated with increased risk of diabetes and heart disease leading to reduced life expectancy. However in recent years it has been recognized that not all obese individuals are at increased risk – these individuals have been described as being metabolically healthy obese (MHO) in that despite carrying excess weight they do not have the typical abnormal metabolic features associated with obesity such as hypertension, insulin resistance and alterations to their lipid profile. It is not clear what factors determine whether an obese person becomes metabolically healthy or unhealthy. In this study conducted at the Dept. of Epidemiology and Public Health at University College Cork, Ireland, we examined levels of a range of inflammatory markers in 2047 middle-aged Irish adults to investigate to what extent differences between metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese male and female adults are explained by inflammatory status. Participants, who were between the ages of 50 and 69, completed lifestyle questionnaires, physical and clinical assessments, and underwent blood testing so their body mass index (BMI), metabolic profiles and inflammatory markers could be determined. We found that, regardless of a person’s BMI, having a favorable inflammatory profile was associated with being metabolically healthy. Specifically metabolically healthy individuals presented with lower levels of complement component 3, C reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, reduced white blood cell count and higher adiponectin levels compared to their metabolically unhealthy counterparts.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 17.08.2013

  MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michiyo Yamakawa MHSc Department of Epidemiology Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that breastfeeding was associated with decreased risk of  overweight and obesity at the age of 7 and 8 years compared with formula feeding. Moreover, the protective associations for obesity were greater than those for overweight.
Author Interviews, BMJ, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 15.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca M Reynolds, Professor of Metabolic Medicine Endocrinology Unit, BHF/University Centre for Cardiovascular Science, University of Edinburgh, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, Edinburgh EH14 6TJ, UK MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that the adult offspring of women who were obese at the start of pregnancy were 35% more likely to die prematurely than offspring of normal-weight women. We also found that children born to mothers who were overweight when they became pregnant had an 11% increased risk of premature death.  Adult offspring of mothers who were obese were also at increase risk of hospital admissions for cardiovascular events.
Author Interviews, General Medicine, McGill, Sugar, Weight Research / 09.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com  Interview with: Caroline Franck, MSc Dvisions of Cardiology and Clinical Epidemiology McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that, although subsidies are needed to protect farmers from production risks, the current allocation of payments encourages the sustained overproduction of a handful of grains and oilseeds. Overproduction contributes to making the end products cheaper, which are then processed into energy-dense and high-fat/sugar foods. Obesity should be treated as a systems problem, in which farm production plays an important role.
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 06.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark D. DeBoer, MD Associate Professor of Pediatrics Division of Pediatric Endocrinology University of Virginia Health System P.O. Box 800386 Charlottesville, VA 22908 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. DeBoer: Preschool and kindergarten children drinking SSB (compared to infrequent/non-drinkers)  were more likely to be obese and among 2 year-olds had more unhealthy weight gain over the next 2 years.  SSB consumption is thus linked to higher weight status in children age 2-5 years.
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 24.07.2013

Roberta Re, Ph.D. Nutrition research manager at Leatherhead Food Research in Surrey, England.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roberta Re, Ph.D. Nutrition research manager at Leatherhead Food Research in Surrey, England. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Re: The main finding of the study on snacking is that consumption of nuts (almonds and peanuts in particular) can help to a reduced subjective perception of appetite and reduce energy intake at the next meal.
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 24.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maya Leventer-Roberts, MD, MPH Fellow Trainee Department of Preventive Medicine Mount Sinai School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Leventer-Roberts: Overweight status among medical and surgical residents is more likely by increasing PGY of training. Overweight residents are also unlikely to acknowledge their overweight status. These changes can differ significantly from matched controls and may affect long-term health.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Johns Hopkins, Weight Research / 19.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nisa M. Maruthur, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine & Epidemiology The Johns Hopkins University Early Response to Preventive Strategies in the Diabetes Prevention Program MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Maruther: For patients engaged in a lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes, weight loss early on (at 6 months) is an extremely strong predictor of whether they will develop diabetes down the road.  Even in the setting of substantial weight loss (>10%) at 6 months, it is still beneficial to lower fasting glucose.  These results are unique in that we previously understood that weight loss over time (years) is important to prevent diabetes, but now we know the impact of early weight loss on longer-term diabetes risk.
Artificial Sweeteners, Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 16.07.2013

Professor, Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychological Sciences and Ingestive Behavior Research Center Purdue University, 703 Third Street West Lafayette, IN 47907, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan E. Swithers PhD Professor, Behavioral Neuroscience Department of Psychological Sciences and Ingestive Behavior Research Center Purdue University, 703 Third Street West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Swithers: The paper examined the last 5 years of studies that looked at risks associated with consuming artificially sweetened beverages like diet soda. These studies indicated that those who consume diet soda were at significantly greater risk for a variety of negative health outcomes like type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension and stroke, along with being more likely to gain excess weight. These effects might be due to a disruption of basic learned response.  The idea is that normally things when things that taste sweet are consumed, the body receives calories and sugar. Our bodies can learn to prepare to deal with these calories and this sugar by starting up our digestive processes as soon as the sweet taste hits our mouth, for example by releasing hormones that not only help us regulate blood sugar, but also can contribute to feelings of fullness. When we consume diet sodas, the mouth gets the sweet taste, but the body doesn't get the calories or the sugar. The body may then learn that a sweet taste in the mouth doesn't always predict sugar and calories, so it makes adjustments in how many hormones it releases. So when we actually consume real sugar, the body doesn't produce the same kinds of physiological responses, which can lead to overeating, higher blood sugar, and over the long term could contribute to diseases like diabetes and stroke.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, Weight Research / 31.05.2013

Martin Sénéchal, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher The Manitoba Institute of Child Health University of Manitoba 511E- 715 McDermot Ave Winnipeg, ManitobaMedicalResearch.com eInterview with Martin Sénéchal, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Researcher The Manitoba Institute of Child Health University of Manitoba 511E- 715 McDermot Ave Winnipeg, Manitoba MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of this study is that reducing central adiposity and increasing fitness in men and women with Type 2 diabetes are key components for successfully improving glycemic control. A secondary finding of the study is that improvement in both central adiposity (reduction) and fitness (increasing) simultaneously; increase the likelihood of reducing HbA1c, one of the most widely used indicators of glucose control, and/or Type 2 diabetes medications.
Author Interviews, Emergency Care, Nature, Weight Research / 02.05.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with Professor David McDonald Taylor Emergency Department, Austin Health PO Box 5555, Heidelberg, Vic. 3084, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Overall, obese and non-obese patients have similar experiences during their ED stay. However, while obese patients tend to be younger and less sick, their more frequent presentation with potentially cardiac-related disease is reflected in their management. The excess of liver function tests and abdominal xrays performed on obese patients is likely to reflect examination difficulties and over investigation. Obese patients do experience more attempts at IV cannulation.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, Nutrition, Weight Research / 10.04.2013

MedicalResearch.com eInterview with

Manuel Franco MD, PhD Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences, Public Health Unit Universidad de Alcalá mfranco@uah.es http://www.uah.es/pdi/manuel_franco Adjunct Associate Professor Department of Epidemiology Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health mfranco@jhsph.eduManuel Franco MD, PhD Associate Professor Department of Health Sciences, Public Health Unit Universidad de Alcalá Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Adjunct Associate Professor Dept. of Epidemiology mfranco@jhsph.edu

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Franco: Population wide weight loss of about 5 kg was related with large decreases in diabetes and cardiovascular mortality. On the contrary, Body weight regain was related with an increase in diabetes prevalence, incidence, and mortality, as well as a deceleration in the previously declining rates of cardiovascular death.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, UT Southwestern, Weight Research / 03.04.2013

MedicalResearch.com Author Interview: Ildiko Lingvay, MD, MPH, MSCS Departments of Internal Medicine–Endocrinology and Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lingvay: We found that the restrictive diet imposed after a bariatric procedure like RYGB is the key element to the rapid improvement in the diabetes seen immediately after surgery.
Author Interviews, Menopause, Weight Research / 28.03.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with  Dr. Sylvia Santosa, PhD Department of Exercise Science Concordia University Department of Exercise Science Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4B 1R6Dr. Sylvia Santosa, PhD Department of Exercise Science Concordia University Department of Exercise Science Montreal, Quebec, Canada H4B 1R6 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Santosa: Our results show that postmenopausal women burn less fat making more available to be stored.  Our results also suggest that greater fat storage in postmenopausal women are likely to be attributed to changes in the pathways our fat cells use to store fat.  We found that some of the proteins that help our fat cells store fat were more active and this greater activity corresponded with the amount of fat stored from our circulation.