Author Interviews, Weight Research / 23.07.2014

Jennifer Keogh PhD, MSc, APD Associate Professor Dietetics and Nutrition Fellow of the South Australian Cardiovascular Research Development Program School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences University of South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Keogh PhD, MSc, APD Associate Professor Dietetics and Nutrition Fellow of the South Australian Cardiovascular Research Development Program School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences University of South Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Keogh: A variety of weight loss strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss.  In this study we investigated the effects on weight loss of an intermittent energy restricted diet using a ‘week-on, week-off’ strategy compared to a continuous energy restricted diet after 8 weeks and on maintenance of weight loss at 12 months in healthy overweight and obese women. Using a group setting participants were advised to reduce their energy intake to approximately 5500 kJ per day when restricting their intake. The diet plan used was based on the previously published CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, HIV, JAMA, Weight Research / 21.07.2014

Steven Grinspoon, MD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism Co-Director, Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch.com Interview with Steven Grinspoon, MD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism Co-Director, Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grinspoon: The primary finding is that tesamorelin, a hypothalamic peptide that increases the endogenous pulsatile secretion of growth hormone, reduced liver fat in HIV-infected patients with increased visceral (abdominal) fat.  Increased visceral fat is very closely linked with increased liver fat in HIV patients, but the effects on liver fat were not known.  Our data show that tesamorelin reduces liver fat in conjunction with decreasing visceral fat, which may be clinically important for patients with HIV-infection who have both increased abdominal fat and fatty liver disease. In addition the study demonstrated that this treatment strategy was neutral to glucose by the end of the 6 month study. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Metabolic Syndrome, Pulmonary Disease, Weight Research / 14.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Gundula Behrens Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine University of Regensburg Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11 93053 Regensburg, Germany Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Behrens: We studied the relations of obesity and physical activity to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among more than 100,000 middle-aged to elderly men and women living in the U.S. People with a large waist circumference (43.5 inches (110 cm) or over in women and 46.5 inches (118 cm) or over in men) had a 72% increased risk of COPD as compared to people with a normal waist circumference. In contrast, individuals who were physically active five times or more per week had a 29% decreased risk of COPD as compared to their physically inactive counter-parts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Psychological Science, Weight Research / 08.07.2014

Mark C. Pachucki, PhD Senior Scientist, Mongan Institute for Health Policy Affiliated Faculty, MGHfC Division of General Academic Pediatrics Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch:.com Interview with: Mark C. Pachucki, PhD Senior Scientist, Mongan Institute for Health Policy Affiliated Faculty, MGHfC Division of General Academic Pediatrics Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pachucki: We found that in in one-child families, having an obese parent made a child about twice as likely to be obese themselves. However, in two-child families, a child’s obesity status was more strongly related with their sibling than with their parent. Even more interesting, in the case of the younger sibling, the parent’s obesity status was not related with that child’s obesity status at all. These findings matter because family members are primary sources of social influence for children – understanding how health status is correlated within a family gives us a better foothold on possible intervention strategies. (more…)
Diabetes, Transplantation, Weight Research / 03.07.2014

Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Basaran: We designed a cross-sectional study to identify the relation between the gut microbiota composition and obesity and diabetes. 27 severely obese individuals (20 men and 7 women with mean BMI: 39.98±5.56 kg/m2), 26 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (18 men and 8 women with mean BMI: 28.63±5.08 kg/m2) and 28 healthy control subjects (22 men and 6 women with mean BMI: 23.02±1.70 kg/m2), between 18-65 years of age, were included in the present study. None of the participants was undergoing chronic treatment and no antibiotics, probiotics or prebiotics were taken within 3 months before collecting fecal material. Fecal samples were self-collected in sterile boxes, stored at -80o until analysis, and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of the most common types of intestinal bacteria. Although tended to increase, we observed no significant difference between the three groups in regards to fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes. There was also no considerable difference in the fecal Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum levels among the obesity and diabetes groups. However, Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum counts were all significantly lower in obese and diabetic patients compared with healthy control individuals. Additionally, logistic regression analysis showed that parameters of adiposity (weight, BMI and waist circumference) and those of glucose control (FBG and HbA1c) were related to the altered gut microbiota composition. This suggests that alterations in the gut microbiota composition may influence metabolic profile in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JNCI, MD Anderson, Weight Research / 02.07.2014

Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP Professor of Medicine The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Emergency Medicine Department of Endocrine Neoplasia & Hormonal Disorders Houston, Texas  77230-1402MedicalResearch.com Interview with Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP Professor of Medicine The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Emergency Medicine Department of Endocrine Neoplasia & Hormonal Disorders Houston, Texas  77230-1402 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yeung: We believe that this study has bridged a significant gap in knowledge between epidemiological data (the association of obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis) and biological mechanisms mediating the impact of obesity on cancer. This study provides an important mechanistic insight into the causal relationship between obesity and breast cancer growth.
  1. Direct evidence for the links between obesity-associated changes in the biological processes and hallmarks of cancer in human estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. 
It is well known that obesity is associated epidemiologicaly with decreased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. Although a body of experimental literature exists to suggest important roles for estrogen, insulin/IGF-1 and adipokine signaling and inflammation in the mechanisms mediating the impact of obesity on cancer, direct evidence for these mechanisms and their importance relative to one another is lacking in cancers from obese humans. Functional transcriptomic analysis of a prospective observation cohort with treatment-naïve ER+ breast cancer samples identified the insulin/PI3K signaling and secretion of cytokines among the top biological processes involved. Many of the obesity-associated changes in biological processes can be linked to cancer hallmarks.  Upstream regulator analysis identified estrogen (?-estradiol), insulin (INS1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), and adipokines [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), tissue necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL6), oncostatin-M (OSM), chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), leptin (LEP), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), and interleukin-10 (IL10)] in mediating the impact of obesity on human ER+ breast cancer.
  1. Experimental evidence that obesity causes accelerated oncogene-driven ER+ breast cancer carcinogenesis.
While it is not possible to conduct a human experiment to prospectively examine the causal relationship between obesity and breast cancer, we created a transgenic mouse model with genetically induced obesity and oncogene-driven breast cancer.  With this model we found strong in vivo evidence using both longitudinal experiments and cross-sectional experiments that obesity accelerated oncogene-driven breast carcinogenesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 28.06.2014

Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D. Department of Biostatistics Ryals Public Health Bldg, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D. Department of Biostatistics Ryals Public Health Bldg, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kaiser: Recommendations to increase or home delivery of fruits and vegetables to increase intake results in no significant weight loss or gain in adults studied over 8-16 weeks. (more…)
Diabetes, Weight Research / 27.06.2014

Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Roux-en- Y gastric bypass with an intensive diabetes and weight management program. We recruited 38 obese individuals (BMI 30-42 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes. Participants had suboptimal glucose control and mean diabetes duration of 10 years. Both surgical and non-surgical interventions led to patients losing a clinically significant amount of weight and keeping it off for 2 years, with average loss of approximately 57 pounds (25% of initial body weight) for the surgery group and 13 pounds (6% of initial weight) for the lifestyle and medication modification group. Other important health goals also improved more in the surgical group, including improvements in blood sugar control, blood pressure and lipid levels which together may contribute to reducing risk of developing coronary heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 27.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mojca Jensterle Department of Endocrinology. Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases. University Medical Centre. Zaloska 7. Slovenia. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is the first report demonstrating that selective phosphodiesterase enzyme (PDE) 4 inhibitor roflumilast added to metformin (MET) was superior to metformin alone in reducing mean body weight after 12 weeks of treatment in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primarily due to a loss of fat mass. 31 women with PCOS diagnosed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria aged 33.8 ± 7.4 years with BMI 36.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2concluded the study. They were randomized to MET 1000 mg BID or combined treatment (COM) with MET 1000 mg BID and roflumilast 500 mcg QD. The primary outcome were changes in anthropometric measures of obesity. At study endpoint subjects treated with COM lost on average 4.2 ± 2.8 kg compared to a 0.9± 2.5 kg weight gain in METgroup (p<0.001). BMI decreased for 1.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2 in COM arm compared to increase for 0.9 ± 2.4 kg/m2 in MET arm (p= 0.001). Total body fat decreased for 0.7±0.4 % in COM as opposed to 0.2 ± 0.1 % increase in MET and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area as assessed by DXA decreased for 15.5 ± 1.6 cm2 in COM as opposed to 11.4 ± 5.3 cm2 increase in MET. The greater waist circumference reduction was noted in COM (4.2 ± 1 cm) compared with MET (0.8 ± 0.7 cm). The improvements of obesity measures were associated with beneficial effects on fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance and resolution of metabolic syndrome in affected women. The hypothesis behind the weight decrease and beneficial metabolic impact observed with roflumilast is based on the PDE4 regulation of signaling pathways linked to GLP-1 release. In experimental rodent model a single treatment with roflumilast enhanced plasma GLP-1 levels up to 2.5 -fold. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 19.06.2014

Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of UtahMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Utah MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Horne: The Fasting II trial was a single-arm interventional trial of 24-hour water-only fasting among pre-diabetics with metabolic syndrome. The participants were adults with fasting blood glucose >100 mg/dL and at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome, including high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), high blood pressure, or high waist circumference. The participants were asked to fast once per week for 6 weeks, with multiple goals in this pilot study. This is the first interventional trial of fasting in people with pre-diabetes or diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 17.06.2014

Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NC MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mendez: Using national surveillance data to examine trends in energy intake among children, we found that there was an initial decline in intakes from 2003-4 through 2007-08, which mirrored evidence that child obesity in the US may have begun to decline in that period. Subsequently, however, in 2009-10, energy intake increased in older children aged 12-19y, and reached a plateau in children aged <11y. This shift is consistent with reports that, particularly in older children, the downward trend in obesity levels may have been reversed in recent years. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Weight Research / 16.06.2014

Gerard Ngueta Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Québec Québec, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gerard Ngueta Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Québec Québec, Canada MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of our study are as follows : 1- Contrary to body mass index (BMI), the waist circumference alone (which indicate central obesity or fat distribution) is not associated with cardiometabolic factors under study (i.e., insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins levels). Thus, the apparent association –as found in previous studies- appears to be mediated through overall obesity (i.e., BMI). In the other words, the association observed in the previous studies between waist circumference and the cardiometabolic risk factors cited above could be mainly due to the strong correlation between waist circumference and BMI. 2- It is possible to estimate the independent contribution of overall fat and central fat on cardiometabolic risk factors by applying the residual model as previously suggested by Willet and Stampfer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 16.06.2014

Tapan Mehta, Ph.D. Assistant Professor School of Health Professions University of Alabama at BirminghamMedicalResearch.com: Interview with Tapan Mehta, Ph.D. Assistant Professor School of Health Professions University of Alabama at Birmingham MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mehta: Grade 1 obesity’s (body mass index [BMI] 30 to < 35) association with reduced longevity has lessened over calendar time for older white men (age >60) but not for younger middle aged (age ≤60) men. For white women, there is evidence of a decline in the association of obesity, both for Grade 1 obesity and grade 2-3 obesity (BMI ≥35), with reduced longevity across all adult ages. To the extent that these associations can be taken as indicators of causation, this implies that the harmfulness of obesity-mortality association has declined over calendar time in white women across all ages. However, the decline in the harmfulness of obesity-mortality association is limited to older grade 1 obese white men. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, University of Pennsylvania, Weight Research / 13.06.2014

Julio A. Chirinos, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Director, CTRC Cardiovascular Phenotyping Unit Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Director of Non-Invasive Imaging Philadelphia VA Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julio A. Chirinos, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Director, CTRC Cardiovascular Phenotyping Unit Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Director of Non-Invasive Imaging Philadelphia VA Medical Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chirinos: The main findings of the study is that, among patients with obesity and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, rather than OSA, appears to be the primary cause of inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, both obesity and obstructive sleep apnea appear to be causally related to hypertension. In this population, weight loss, but not CPAP, can be expected to reduce the burden of inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, CPAP, among patients who comply with therapy, can be expected to provide a significant incremental benefit on blood pressure. The latter is an important potential benefit of CPAP and should not be disregarded. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes Care, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 12.06.2014

Christian Benedict PhD Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University Uppsala, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian Benedict PhD Department of Neuroscience Uppsala University Uppsala, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Benedict: By utilizing blood samples collected after an overnight fast, we demonstrated that humans carrying a common risk variant of the fat mass and obesity gene (obesity-associated gene (FTO)) (~16% of the population have two copies of this risk variant) had higher fasting blood concentrations of the hunger hormone ghrelin.  In contrast, fasting serum levels of the satiety enhancing hormone leptin were lower. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 10.06.2014

Lars Sjöström, MD, PhD Professor Department of Body Composition and Metabolism Sahlgrenska University Hospital Göteborg, SwedenMedicalResearch Interview with: Lars Sjöström, MD, PhD Professor Department of Body Composition and Metabolism Sahlgrenska University Hospital Göteborg, Sweden   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Sjöström: In obese diabetic subjects, the 2-year diabetes remission was 72% in bariatric surgery patients but only 16% in obese controls obtaining conventional obesity and diabetes treatment. After 15 years, 30% were in remission in the surgery group and 6.5% in the control group. In addition, the 20-year incidence of diabetes complication was 30 -55% lower in surgery than control patients. (more…)
Weight Research / 06.06.2014

Dr. Charoula Nikolaou University of Glasgow Graduate StudentMedicalResearch. com Interview with Dr. Charoula Nikolaou University of Glasgow Graduate Student MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Obese people gain most of their excess weight during young adulthood. This study describes how regular, daily, exposure to prominent calorie labeling of main meals, in a residential catered setting, abolished the expected weight gain usually seen in young adults. The mean weight gain observed in 120 residents the year before (without calorie-labeling) was similar to that found in other studies of young adults at 3.5 kg. In a second year with calorie labeling, there was no weight gain at all. In addition, catering costs were 33% lower during the year with calorie labeling so the intervention could be sustainable as well as easy to implement. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, Weight Research / 06.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aurélie Lasserre ,MD Center for psychiatric epidemiology and psychopathology Department of Psychiatry Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV) Site de Cery, Switzerland MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Lasserre: Several recent studies have shown that Major Depressive Disorder with atypical features (defined as having a depressive episode where mood reactivity is maintained and two of the following features: increase in appetite, hypersomnia (oversleeping), leaden paralysis (heavy limbs) and increased sensitivity to rejection) was associated with obesity, but the temporal sequence was not known, i.e. it was not clear whether atypical depression predisposes to obesity or the converse. Our study revealed that Major Depressive Disorder with atypical features does lead to an increase in body-mass index, obesity, waist circumference and fat mass over a period of 5 years. This result was not explained by socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol or tobacco consumption, physical activity, co-existing mental disorders or medication. Interestingly, we also observed that the weight gain in subjects with atypical features was not a temporary phenomenon but it persisted after the remission of the depressive episode and was not attributable to new episodes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Weight Research / 01.06.2014

Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation  Seattle, WA 98121, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rhonda Stewart Senior Communications Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation Seattle, WA 98121, USA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Globally, obesity has become a public health epidemic. Obesity is affecting not just developed countries, but developing countries as well. Almost one-third of the world’s population, over 2 billion people, are considered to be overweight or obese. Of this group, nearly two-thirds (62%) are in developing countries. If current trends continue, this number will continue to rise. Between 1980 and 2013, the prevalence of overweight or obesity for children and adolescents increased by nearly 50%. This study is the first analysis of global trends on obesity and covers more than 30 years and 188 countries. (more…)
Diabetes, Weight Research / 30.05.2014

John Wilding DM FRCP Professor of Medicine & Honorary Consultant Physician Head of Department of Obesity and Endocrinology Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease Clinical Sciences Centre University Hospital Aintree Liverpool United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Wilding DM FRCP Professor of Medicine & Honorary Consultant Physician Head of Department of Obesity and Endocrinology Institute of Ageing & Chronic Disease Clinical Sciences Centre University Hospital Aintree Liverpool United Kingdom MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wilding: This trial studied over 3700 obese people who were trying to lose weight. The main findings were that liraglutide (an injectable medication already approved for diabetes treatment at lower dose of 1.8mg) can help reduce body weight in people with obesity when used at a higher dose than is usually used in diabetes (3mg). Trial participants experienced a weight loss of 8 % from baseline compared to 2.6 % with placebo (diet and exercise alone). Some risk factors for diabetes and heart disease such as blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol also improved with liraglutide treatment to a greater extent than with placebo. The main side effects seen were nausea which in most cases resolved after a few weeks treatment; there were also more cases of gallstones (which could be due to weight loss) and a few more cases of acute pancreatitis in people treated with liraglutide. (more…)
Nutrition, Weight Research / 30.05.2014

Anna Peeters Associate Professor, BSc(Hons) PhD Head Obesity & Population Health | Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute President Australian & New Zealand Obesity SocietyMedicalResearch.com Interview Anna Peeters Associate Professor, BSc(Hons) PhD Head Obesity & Population Health | Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute President Australian & New Zealand Obesity Society MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Peeters: The context for this study is that ‘point of sale menu labelling’ policies in fast food restaurants have some evidence of generally decreasing how many calories are consumed by people who go there. They may also lead the companies to reformulate their food to become slightly healthier. The key finding of our study is that  those from more disadvantaged/ poorer backgrounds are unlikely to have a direct benefit from ‘point of sale menu labelling’ policies in fast food restaurants through a decreased number of calories consumed. (more…)
Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 29.05.2014

Dr Gianluca Tognon University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, SwedenMedicalResearch Interview with: Dr Gianluca Tognon University of Gothenburg Gothenburg, Sweden MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tognon: We found that eating a pattern rich in vegetables, fruit, nuts, cereal grains and fish, that we call a Mediterranean-like diet was not only inversely associated to being overweight or obese, but also protective against an increase in body mass index and waist circumference at a 2-year follow up. (more…)
Testosterone, Weight Research / 28.05.2014

Dr. Farid Saad Global Medical Affairs Men’s Healthcare, Bayer Pharma, Berlin, Germany; Gulf Medical University School of Medicine Ajman, United Arab Emirates;MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Farid Saad Global Medical Affairs Men’s Healthcare, Bayer Pharma, Berlin, Germany; Gulf Medical University School of Medicine Ajman, United Arab Emirates MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Saad: There are two ongoing registry studies in men with testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism, defined by two separate measures of low serum testosterone and the presence of symptoms which are typical for testosterone deficiency). The studies are being conducted by office urologists. The total number of men who have been treated for a maximum duration of six years is 561, mean age just under 60 years. All men received three-monthly intra-muscular injections of a long-acting testosterone depot preparation. The main findings were that at baseline only five per cent of these men had normal weight, some 25 per cent were overweight and the majority obese. Both overweight and obese men showed reductions in weight and waist circumference. The more obese men were, the more they lost. Men in the highest obesity category grade III (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2), had a mean weight loss of 26 kg and a reduction of waist size by 12 cm. In parallel, all components of the metabolic syndrome improved in a clinically meaningful magnitude, i.e., blood pressure, lipid profile, and glycemic control. When we analyzed a subgroup of 156 men with type 2 diabetes, we found marked improvements in their diabetes as a result of adding testosterone to the standard diabetes treatment men are receiving by their famaily physicians. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Weight Research / 17.05.2014

Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine 140 21 Prague Czech RepublicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD Diabetes Centre, Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine 140 21 Prague Czech Republic MedicalResearch: What was the aim of your study? Dr. Kahleova: The aim of the study was to compare the effect of six (A6 regimen) vs two meals a day, breakfast and lunch (B2 regimen), on body weight, hepatic fat content (HFC), insulin resistance and beta cell function. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kahleova: Comparison of the effect of six vs. two meals (breakfast and lunch) with the same daily caloric restriction (-500 kcal/day) and macronutrient content, each regimen lasting 12 weeks, demonstrated a superior effect of breakfast and lunch on body weight, hepatic fat content, fasting plasma glucose, C-peptide, glucagon and insulin sensitivity. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Karolinski Institute, Rheumatology, Weight Research / 17.05.2014

Maria E.C. Sandberg, MSc PhD Institutet för Miljömedicin / Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria E.C. Sandberg, MSc PhD Institutet för Miljömedicin / Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sandberg: Overweight at diagnosis significantly decreases the chance of achieving good disease control during the early phase of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Genetic Research, Metabolic Syndrome, Weight Research, Yale / 14.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Arya Mani, M.D. Department of Internal Medicine and Genetics Yale Cardiovascular Research Center Yale, New Haven CT Arya Mani, M.D. Department of Internal Medicine and Genetics Yale Cardiovascular Research Center Yale, New Haven CT MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mani: Our group has identified a gene that when mutated it causes a form of truncal (central) obesity that is associated with a cluster of coronary artery disease risk factors, including high blood pressure, insulin resistance and possibly elevated blood lipids. These associated risk factors are collectively known as the metabolic syndrome, which may lead to development of diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, both of which were very prevalent in the populations we studied. All identified mutations by our group have been so far gain of function mutations, which means they increased the activity of the gene in pathways related to adipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 12.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview with: Alicia J. Kowaltowski, MD, PhD Professor of Biochemistry Departamento de Bioquímica, IQ, Universidade de São Paulo São Paulo, SP, Brazil MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kowaltowski: Intermittent fasting (24 hour cycles of all-you-can-eat followed by 24 fasting) is often used as a way to control excessive weight gain in laboratory animals, despite the fact that these animals overeat on the days they get food, and end up ingesting total quantities of food very similar to animals that eat every day. We show here that although lower weight gain occurs with intermittent fasting and there are some health benefits in adopting this diet, there are also some undesirable consequences. One such consequence is that this diet changes the control of hunger in the hypothalamus within the brain, making the rats hungry all the time, even when they are eating. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Weight Research / 08.05.2014

Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boughey: Rates of bilateral mastectomy are higher in hospitals with immediate breast reconstruction available. Bilateral mastectomy rates were highest in hospitals with high volumes of immediate breast reconstruction. Large, teaching, urban, and Northeastern hospitals were more likely to have higher immediate breast reconstruction volumes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 08.05.2014

Mireille Serlie, MD PhD Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Amsterdam, The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mireille Serlie, MD PhD Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism Amsterdam, The Netherlands MedicalResearch What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Serlie: We studied the effects of hypercaloric high sugar or high fat/high sugar drinks consumed with the 3 main meals (representing an increase in meal size) or in between the 3 main meals (representing an increase in meal frequency or snacking). All subjects gained a similar amount of body weight but only the ones that snacked showed an increase in liver and abdominal fat. This suggests that besides caloric content and diet composition, eating pattern independently contributes to liver and abdominal fat accumulation. We also observed a trend for a decrease in hepatic insulin sensitivity in the high fat/high sugar frequency group only. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 02.05.2014

Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, MinnMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Minn   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hieken: Among more than 1,300 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients, 36 percent of whom were obese (BMI ≥ 30), preoperative axillary ultrasound with fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lymph nodes identified metastasis to the lymph nodes in 36 percent of patients found to be node-positive at operation.  For all BMI categories (normal, overweight, obese) axillary ultrasound was predictive of pathologic nodal status (p<0.0001).  The sensitivity of axillary ultrasound did not differ across BMI categories while specificity and accuracy were better for overweight and obese patients, respectively, than for normal weight patients.  Furthermore, patients across all BMI categories who had suspicious axillary lymph nodes on ultrasound and had a positive fine needle aspiration biopsy had significantly more positive lymph nodes at operation, an average of five metastatic nodes, and an overall higher nodal disease burden at operation. (more…)