Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, General Medicine, Metabolic Syndrome, Weight Research / 26.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tuomo Tompuri, MD Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine Kuopio University Hospital, Finland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tompuri: Measures of the cardiorespiratory fitness should be scaled by lean mass instead of body weight, while aiming to enable comparison between the subjects. Our result is physiologically logical and confirms earlier observations of the topic. Scaling by body weight has been criticized, because body fat, per se, does not increase metabolism during exercise. We did observe that scaling by body weight introduces confounding by adiposity. (more…)
Weight Research / 26.09.2014

EDJ_3065.NEFMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Holly R. Wyatt, MD Endocrine Society spokeswoman Associate Professor, University of Colorado Denver Medical Director, Anschutz Health and Wellness Center Medical Director, ABC’s TV series “Extreme Weight Loss”. MedicalResearch.com Editor’s note: Dr. Wyatt is a nationally known expert on obesity and weight control. Dr. Wyatt is co-founder of ‘The State of Slim’ behavioral weight management program and has been the National Program Director for the Centers for Obesity Research and Education (C.O.R.E.) since 1999. Dr. Wyatt publishes extensively in the obesity and metabolism literature including publications in the NEJM, Obesity, Annals of Internal Medicine, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism and American Journal of Clinical Nutrition among others. Dr. Wyatt kindly answered questions regarding weight loss and maintenance for the MedicalResearch.com audience. Medical Research: How did you become interested in weight control? Dr. Wyatt: Basically, because I struggled with my weight all my life. I was always planning on going to medical school and had been interested in learning more about the science of weight gain and metabolism, but at the time the subject was not well studied. When I came to the University of Colorado for my medical residency, I met researchers who were investigating the growing problem of obesity and were passionate about finding effective strategies for weight management. I have been active in clinical practice and obesity research since that time. Medical Research: Why does weight loss or even weight maintenance become so much harder as we age? Dr. Wyatt: We don’t know all the reasons for certain, but the problem is most likely multifactorial.
  • First, as we age we lose muscle mass. To a large degree, muscle mass determines our metabolic rate so even if our body weight stays stable, our metabolic engine slows down as we lose muscle and it becomes harder to maintain that weight.
  • Secondly, there is some role with for hormonal changes, but this role is incompletely understood. With menopause we tend to store weight centrally in our bodies, which may be a hormonal effect.
  • Perhaps most importantly, life changes as we get older and our lifestyle and environment evolves. We may not realize how much these changes affect the amount of energy we burn as our environment become more sedentary and obesogenic.
I should also point out that it is harder for everyone in our society to avoid gaining weight, even for children. Increasing numbers of children and adolescents are overweight and fighting obesity. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 17.09.2014

Aner Tal, PhD Food and Brand Lab Department of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University, Ithaca, New YorkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aner Tal, PhD Food and Brand Lab Department of Applied Economics and Management Cornell University, Ithaca, New York Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tal: Some TV programs might lead people to eat twice as much as other programs. “We find that if you’re watching an action movie while snacking your mouth will see more action too!” says Aner Tal, Ph.D. lead author on the new article just published in the Journal of the American Medical Association: Internal Medicine. “In other words, the more distracting the program is the more you will eat.” In the study 94 undergraduates snacked on M&Ms, cookies, carrots and grapes while watching 20 minutes of television programming. A third of the participants watched a segment of the action movie The Island, a third watched a segment from the talk show, the Charlie Rose Show, and a third watched the same segment from The Island without sound. “People who were watching The Island ate almost twice as many snacks – 98% more than those watching the talk show!” says co-author Brian Wansink, author of Slim by Design (forthcoming) and Professor and Director of the Cornell Food and Brand Lab. “Even those watching “The Island” without sound ate 36% more.” People watching the more distracting content also consumed more calories, with 354 calories consumed by those watching The Island (314 calories with no sound) compared to 215 calories consumed by those watching the Charlie Rose Show. “More stimulating programs that are fast paced, include many camera cuts, really draw you in and distract you from what you are eating. They can make you eat more because you're paying less attention to how much you are putting in your mouth,” explains Tal. Because of this, programs that engage viewers more might wind up being worse for their diets. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 17.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison M Gallagher PhD FHEA RNutr (Public Health) Senior Lecturer in Human Nutrition Northern Ireland Centre for Food and Health (NICHE) School of Biomedical Sciences University of Ulster Northern Ireland, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gallagher: The main findings of the study were that overweight and obese males appeared to be more aware of food related images as compared to their normal weight counterparts.  Individuals, regardless of weight status also appeared to be more visually ‘tuned in’ to high energy dense food-related visual stimuli as compared to low energy dense food-related stimuli.  As high energy dense foods are overtly represented within the visual environment through food advertising, it may be of particular concern if certain individuals, in particular those who are overweight/obese, are demonstrating increased attention (an attentional bias) towards high energy dense food stimuli. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Gender Differences, JAMA, Weight Research / 16.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Earl S. Ford, MD, MPH Medical officer, U.S Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA 30341 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ford:  The main finding of the study is that mean waist circumference and the prevalence of abdominal obesity in US adults have increased since 1999-2000 and that these increases are being driven primarily by trends in women. Mean waist circumference and the percentage of abdominal obesity in men has been relatively stable since 2003-2004. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 10.09.2014

Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Eugene Oregon, 97403MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Eugene Oregon, 97403 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yokum: We found that adolescents showing elevated responses in reward regions to food commercials gained more weight over 1-year follow-up compared to those with less activation in these brain regions. This suggests that there are individual differences in neural vulnerability to food commercials that appear to identify youth at risk for excess weight gain. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 03.09.2014

Bradley Johnston, PhD Scientist | Child Health Evaluative Sciences Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute Assistant Professor | Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics  McMaster University Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 0A4MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bradley Johnston, PhD Scientist | Child Health Evaluative Sciences Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute Assistant Professor | Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics McMaster University Toronto, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Johnston:
  • Our findings represent the first meta-analysis using advanced epidemiological methods to summarize popular branded diets for weight loss, trials having been investigated using randomized trial methodology.
  • Among the 48 original RCTs included in our NMA, low to moderate quality evidence showed that both low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets were associated with an approximate 8 kg weight loss at 6 months when compared to no diet. Approximately 1-2 kg of this effect was lost by 12-months.
  • Although statistical differences existed among several of the diet macronutrient classes, the differences were small and unlikely to be important to those seeking to lose weight.
  • Similarly, our results showed that although there are statistically significant differences between some of the brand named diets, these differences are small and not likely patient important.
  • In terms of potential effect modifiers, behavioural support was significant at 6-months (enhancing weight-loss by 3.23 kg) and exercise was significant at 12-months (enhancing weight loss by 2.13 kg)
  • Regarding our sensitivity analyses, Differences in weight loss were not clinically important based on risk of bias, missing data, baseline weight, gender, and those with and without specific health conditions
  • Overall, our findings suggest that patients may choose, among those associated with the largest weight loss, the diet that gives them the least challenges with adherence.
(more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Weight Research / 02.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tian Hu, MD, MS Research Fellow ​Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, LA 70112 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hu: Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet at 3, 6, and 12 months. At 12 months, those in the low-carbohydrate group lost an average of almost 8 pounds more than those in the low-fat group. Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more fat mass and did not lose lean mass (muscle) compared to those on the low-fat diet. Overall, bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) that is a predictor of risk for cardiovascular disease decreased on both diets, but good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) increased more in the low-carbohydrate group. Physical activity was similar in the groups throughout the study, suggesting that the greater weight loss among participants in the low-carbohydrate group was not because they exercised more. When we evaluated the black and white participants separately, the results were similar. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Weight Research / 28.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cintia Cercato, MD, PhD and Emerson Leonildo Marques University of São Paulo in Brazil Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The major findings are that the cerebral metabolism of the obese compared to normal weight people is increasing. The fact that it can be increased means a greater chance of Alzheimer's disease, but bariatric surgery can reduce cerebral metabolism of obese. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Exercise - Fitness, Weight Research / 20.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Ellen Flint, BA MSc PhD, Research Fellow Department of Social & Environmental Health Research London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Tavistock Place, LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Ellen Flint, BA MSc PhD, Research Fellow Department of Social & Environmental Health Research London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine Tavistock Place, London Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Flint: Men and women who commuted to work by cycling, walking or public transport had significantly lower BMI and percentage body fat than their car-using counterparts. This was the case despite adjustment for a range of factors which may affect both body weight and commuting mode preference (e.g. limiting illness, age, socioeconomic position, sports participation and diet). The differences were of a clinically meaningful magnitude. For example, compared to car users, men who commuted via active or public transportation modes were on average 1 BMI point lighter. For the average man in the sample this would equate to a difference in weight of almost half a stone (3kg). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lancet, Weight Research / 16.08.2014

Dr Krishnan Bhaskaran MSc PhD. Senior Lecturer in Statistical Epidemiology & National Institute for Health Research Postdoctoral Fellow London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London WC1E 7HTMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Krishnan Bhaskaran MSc PhD. Senior Lecturer in Statistical Epidemiology & National Institute for Health Research Postdoctoral Fellow London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine London WC1E 7HT Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bhaskaran: Body mass index was associated with the majority of cancer types studied, and for 10 cancers, including some of the most common like colon cancer and postmenopausal breast cancer, higher body mass index was clearly associated with higher risk. The cancer type that was most strongly related to BMI was uterine cancer, the 4th most common cancer in women. For a woman of average height, each 2 stone (13kg) increase in weight increased risk by over 60%. Body mass index also had particularly large effects on risk of kidney and gallbladder cancers. In total, we estimated that over 12,000 cases of the 10 affected cancers may be caused each year by excess weight, and that if average body mass index in the population continues to increase, there may be several thousand more cases of these cancers each year as a result. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Rheumatology, Weight Research / 01.08.2014

Dr. Bing Lu, M.D., Dr.P.H. Division of Rheumatology Immunology & Allergy Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Bing Lu, M.D., Dr.P.H. Division of Rheumatology Immunology & Allergy Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lu: In two large cohorts of women, we observed that being obese increased the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women by 40–70% depending on age and serologic status. The highest risk for rheumatoid arthritis was among women who were overweight or obese at age 18 years, emphasizing the public health importance of combating the obesity epidemic at all ages. Our study implicates being overweight or obese throughout adult life as a risk factor in the development of seropositive and seronegative RA for women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at age 55 years or younger. The attenuated association between BMI and rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed at older ages may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of RA diagnosed at earlier ages compared with that diagnosed at older ages, or may be a result of the limitations of BMI as a measure of total fat mass as women age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Kidney Disease, Mayo Clinic, Weight Research / 31.07.2014

Dr. John C. Lieske, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MNMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. John C. Lieske, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lieske: We followed 11 women before, 6 and 12 months after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery.  The patients successfully lost weight as mean BMI fell from 46 kg/m2 preoperatively to 28 kg/m2 postoperatively.   Mean serum creatinine did not significantly change from baseline (0.8 mg/dl) to 12 months (0.7 mg/dl).  Hence mean GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI equation (eGFR) did not significantly change from 84 ml/min/1.73 m2 (baseline) to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (12 months).  However, GFR measured by iothalamate clearance (mGFR) significantly decreased from 108 ml/min/1.73m2 (121 ml/min) to 85 ml/min/1.73 m2 (90 ml/min). (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JCEM, Weight Research / 31.07.2014

Dr. Agatha van der Klaauw, PhD Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Clinical Fellow Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge, United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Agatha van der Klaauw, PhD Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Clinical Fellow Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science University of Cambridge Metabolic Research Laboratories Addenbrooke's Hospital Cambridge, United Kingdom   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. van der Klaauw: Obesity occurs when we eat more calories than we burn which is often easy to do as many foods are highly palatable and high in calories. Highly palatable foods such as chocolate trigger signals in the brain that give a feeling of pleasure and reward (sometimes called cravings) which can contribute to overeating. These signals are processed in the reward centres in the brain, where sets of neurons release chemicals such as dopamine. However, very little is known about whether the reward centres of the brain work differently in some people who are overweight. In this study, we were interested in studying overweight people who had a problem with the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene. About 1% of obese people have a problem in this gene which contributes to weight gain from a young age. We compared three groups of people: people who were overweight due to a problem in the MC4R gene, people who were overweight but the gene was normal and some people who were normal weight. We performed functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans to look at how the reward centres in the brain were activated by pictures of appetizing food such as chocolate cake compared to bland food such as rice or broccoli and non-food items such as staplers. We found that in normal weight people, the reward centres are activated (light up) when they are shown pictures of cake or chocolate and the same was seen in overweight people with a problem in the MC4R gene. But we found that the reward centres were underactive in overweight volunteers (in whom the gene was normal). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetologia, Weight Research / 31.07.2014

Joshua Bell, MSc Department of Epidemiology & Public Health University College LondonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joshua Bell, MSc Department of Epidemiology & Public Health University College London   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that physical activity and leisure time sitting interact to affect the long-term risk of becoming obese, with protective effects of high physical activity depending upon low levels of leisure time sitting. Adults engaging in both high physical activity and low leisure time sitting showed nearly 4-fold lower odds of becoming obese after 5 years, compared with those engaging in both low physical activity and high leisure time sitting. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Weight Research / 30.07.2014

Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brinkworth: Both a very low carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fat diet and a high carbohydrate, low fat diet achieved similar weight loss, improvements in body composition and health risk markers. However, compared to the high carbohydrate, low fat diet, a very low carbohydrate high protein, high unsaturated fat diet had more favourable effects on blood lipid profile, glycemic control (indicated by greater reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin – primary clinical measure of blood glucose control and the requirements for blood glucose controlling drugs) and for reducing daily blood glucose fluctuations. The findings from this study suggests that a novel eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat may have more favourable therapeutic potential for optimising the management of type 2 diabetes and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, JCEM, Social Issues, Weight Research / 26.07.2014

Qi Zhang, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Community and Environmental Health Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Qi Zhang, Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Community and Environmental Health Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zhang: This study found the child-parent resemblance in body weight status varied by socio-demographics in the U.S. In short, the resemblance in BMI is weaker in minorities, older children and lower socioeconomic groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, JNCI, Weight Research / 25.07.2014

Sean Davies PhD Department of Pharmacology Vanderbilt UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sean Davies PhD Department of Pharmacology Vanderbilt University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Davies: N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is a fat-like molecule normally produced by small intestine of mammals in response to eating high fat foods that helps signal a feeling of fullness to the brain.  This sensation of fullness is what normally helps us decide to stop eating, but in obese people it appears that not enough NAPE is produced so that not enough of that signal gets sent to the brain.  So we wanted to find a way to increase the amount of NAPE made in the intestinal tract, with the hope that this would help protect against obesity. Our approach was to engineer a probiotic bacteria that normally colonizes the gut of humans and other mammals so that it would make NAPE.  Our hope was that when this gut bacteria made the NAPE, it would be absorbed by the intestine and help supplement the NAPE already being made by the intestine so that a more complete sensation of fullness would be send to the brain. What we found was that our engineered bacteria made a significant amount of NAPE and that when fed to mice, the bacteria would colonize the gut like normal and that the intestinal cells could absorb this NAPE.  Most importantly, we found that mice that received this bacteria ate less of the high fat diet than mice that were not treated or that received bacteria that did not make NAPE. Because the mice ate less of the high fat diet, and also because they burned the fat they had more effectively, the mice receiving the bacteria producing NAPE had only 50% of  the body fat of the control mice.  While the control mice showed the early signs of developing diabetes, the mice that received the NAPE producing bacteria showed almost no signs of developing diabetes. So the presence of these NAPE producing bacteria protected the mice from the harmful effects of the high fat diet. Another key findings was that because the bacteria live in the GI tract and keep producing the NAPE for many weeks, we didn’t have to keep administering the bacteria to the mice to keep up the protective effect.  Even a month after we stopped giving the bacteria producing NAPE, the mice were still protected from the effects of the high fat diet.  Eventually after about six weeks, the bacteria died out and the mice started eating the same amount of food as the control mice, but even for at least another six weeks after this, they still weighed less than the control mice. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 24.07.2014

Alison E. Field, ScD Professor of Pediatrics Boston Children's Hospital Division of Adolescent Medicine Boston, MA  02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison E. Field, ScD Professor of Pediatrics Boston Children's Hospital Division of Adolescent Medicine Boston, MA  02115 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that intake of regular soda is decreasing, whereas, sports drink consumption is increasing. More importantly, we found that intake of sports drinks predicted greater weight gain among adolescent boys and girls. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 23.07.2014

Jennifer Keogh PhD, MSc, APD Associate Professor Dietetics and Nutrition Fellow of the South Australian Cardiovascular Research Development Program School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences University of South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jennifer Keogh PhD, MSc, APD Associate Professor Dietetics and Nutrition Fellow of the South Australian Cardiovascular Research Development Program School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences University of South Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Keogh: A variety of weight loss strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss.  In this study we investigated the effects on weight loss of an intermittent energy restricted diet using a ‘week-on, week-off’ strategy compared to a continuous energy restricted diet after 8 weeks and on maintenance of weight loss at 12 months in healthy overweight and obese women. Using a group setting participants were advised to reduce their energy intake to approximately 5500 kJ per day when restricting their intake. The diet plan used was based on the previously published CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, HIV, JAMA, Weight Research / 21.07.2014

Steven Grinspoon, MD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism Co-Director, Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch.com Interview with Steven Grinspoon, MD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Director, MGH Program in Nutritional Metabolism Co-Director, Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard Massachusetts General Hospital Boston, MA 02114 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Grinspoon: The primary finding is that tesamorelin, a hypothalamic peptide that increases the endogenous pulsatile secretion of growth hormone, reduced liver fat in HIV-infected patients with increased visceral (abdominal) fat.  Increased visceral fat is very closely linked with increased liver fat in HIV patients, but the effects on liver fat were not known.  Our data show that tesamorelin reduces liver fat in conjunction with decreasing visceral fat, which may be clinically important for patients with HIV-infection who have both increased abdominal fat and fatty liver disease. In addition the study demonstrated that this treatment strategy was neutral to glucose by the end of the 6 month study. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Metabolic Syndrome, Pulmonary Disease, Weight Research / 14.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Gundula Behrens Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine University of Regensburg Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11 93053 Regensburg, Germany Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr Behrens: We studied the relations of obesity and physical activity to the incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among more than 100,000 middle-aged to elderly men and women living in the U.S. People with a large waist circumference (43.5 inches (110 cm) or over in women and 46.5 inches (118 cm) or over in men) had a 72% increased risk of COPD as compared to people with a normal waist circumference. In contrast, individuals who were physically active five times or more per week had a 29% decreased risk of COPD as compared to their physically inactive counter-parts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Psychological Science, Weight Research / 08.07.2014

Mark C. Pachucki, PhD Senior Scientist, Mongan Institute for Health Policy Affiliated Faculty, MGHfC Division of General Academic Pediatrics Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch:.com Interview with: Mark C. Pachucki, PhD Senior Scientist, Mongan Institute for Health Policy Affiliated Faculty, MGHfC Division of General Academic Pediatrics Instructor in Medicine and Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pachucki: We found that in in one-child families, having an obese parent made a child about twice as likely to be obese themselves. However, in two-child families, a child’s obesity status was more strongly related with their sibling than with their parent. Even more interesting, in the case of the younger sibling, the parent’s obesity status was not related with that child’s obesity status at all. These findings matter because family members are primary sources of social influence for children – understanding how health status is correlated within a family gives us a better foothold on possible intervention strategies. (more…)
Diabetes, Transplantation, Weight Research / 03.07.2014

Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Basaran: We designed a cross-sectional study to identify the relation between the gut microbiota composition and obesity and diabetes. 27 severely obese individuals (20 men and 7 women with mean BMI: 39.98±5.56 kg/m2), 26 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (18 men and 8 women with mean BMI: 28.63±5.08 kg/m2) and 28 healthy control subjects (22 men and 6 women with mean BMI: 23.02±1.70 kg/m2), between 18-65 years of age, were included in the present study. None of the participants was undergoing chronic treatment and no antibiotics, probiotics or prebiotics were taken within 3 months before collecting fecal material. Fecal samples were self-collected in sterile boxes, stored at -80o until analysis, and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of the most common types of intestinal bacteria. Although tended to increase, we observed no significant difference between the three groups in regards to fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes. There was also no considerable difference in the fecal Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum levels among the obesity and diabetes groups. However, Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum counts were all significantly lower in obese and diabetic patients compared with healthy control individuals. Additionally, logistic regression analysis showed that parameters of adiposity (weight, BMI and waist circumference) and those of glucose control (FBG and HbA1c) were related to the altered gut microbiota composition. This suggests that alterations in the gut microbiota composition may influence metabolic profile in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JNCI, MD Anderson, Weight Research / 02.07.2014

Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP Professor of Medicine The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Emergency Medicine Department of Endocrine Neoplasia & Hormonal Disorders Houston, Texas  77230-1402MedicalResearch.com Interview with Sai-Ching Jim Yeung, MD, PhD, FACP Professor of Medicine The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Department of Emergency Medicine Department of Endocrine Neoplasia & Hormonal Disorders Houston, Texas  77230-1402 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yeung: We believe that this study has bridged a significant gap in knowledge between epidemiological data (the association of obesity and poor breast cancer prognosis) and biological mechanisms mediating the impact of obesity on cancer. This study provides an important mechanistic insight into the causal relationship between obesity and breast cancer growth.
  1. Direct evidence for the links between obesity-associated changes in the biological processes and hallmarks of cancer in human estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) breast cancer. 
It is well known that obesity is associated epidemiologicaly with decreased survival in ER+ breast cancer patients. Although a body of experimental literature exists to suggest important roles for estrogen, insulin/IGF-1 and adipokine signaling and inflammation in the mechanisms mediating the impact of obesity on cancer, direct evidence for these mechanisms and their importance relative to one another is lacking in cancers from obese humans. Functional transcriptomic analysis of a prospective observation cohort with treatment-naïve ER+ breast cancer samples identified the insulin/PI3K signaling and secretion of cytokines among the top biological processes involved. Many of the obesity-associated changes in biological processes can be linked to cancer hallmarks.  Upstream regulator analysis identified estrogen (?-estradiol), insulin (INS1), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), and adipokines [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), tissue necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL6), oncostatin-M (OSM), chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), leptin (LEP), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin (ADIPOQ), and interleukin-10 (IL10)] in mediating the impact of obesity on human ER+ breast cancer.
  1. Experimental evidence that obesity causes accelerated oncogene-driven ER+ breast cancer carcinogenesis.
While it is not possible to conduct a human experiment to prospectively examine the causal relationship between obesity and breast cancer, we created a transgenic mouse model with genetically induced obesity and oncogene-driven breast cancer.  With this model we found strong in vivo evidence using both longitudinal experiments and cross-sectional experiments that obesity accelerated oncogene-driven breast carcinogenesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 28.06.2014

Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D. Department of Biostatistics Ryals Public Health Bldg, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kathryn A. Kaiser, Ph.D. Department of Biostatistics Ryals Public Health Bldg, University of Alabama at Birmingham Birmingham, AL 35294 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kaiser: Recommendations to increase or home delivery of fruits and vegetables to increase intake results in no significant weight loss or gain in adults studied over 8-16 weeks. (more…)
Diabetes, Weight Research / 27.06.2014

Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Roux-en- Y gastric bypass with an intensive diabetes and weight management program. We recruited 38 obese individuals (BMI 30-42 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes. Participants had suboptimal glucose control and mean diabetes duration of 10 years. Both surgical and non-surgical interventions led to patients losing a clinically significant amount of weight and keeping it off for 2 years, with average loss of approximately 57 pounds (25% of initial body weight) for the surgery group and 13 pounds (6% of initial weight) for the lifestyle and medication modification group. Other important health goals also improved more in the surgical group, including improvements in blood sugar control, blood pressure and lipid levels which together may contribute to reducing risk of developing coronary heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Endocrinology, Weight Research / 27.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mojca Jensterle Department of Endocrinology. Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases. University Medical Centre. Zaloska 7. Slovenia. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This is the first report demonstrating that selective phosphodiesterase enzyme (PDE) 4 inhibitor roflumilast added to metformin (MET) was superior to metformin alone in reducing mean body weight after 12 weeks of treatment in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), primarily due to a loss of fat mass. 31 women with PCOS diagnosed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria aged 33.8 ± 7.4 years with BMI 36.4 ± 5.1 kg/m2concluded the study. They were randomized to MET 1000 mg BID or combined treatment (COM) with MET 1000 mg BID and roflumilast 500 mcg QD. The primary outcome were changes in anthropometric measures of obesity. At study endpoint subjects treated with COM lost on average 4.2 ± 2.8 kg compared to a 0.9± 2.5 kg weight gain in METgroup (p<0.001). BMI decreased for 1.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2 in COM arm compared to increase for 0.9 ± 2.4 kg/m2 in MET arm (p= 0.001). Total body fat decreased for 0.7±0.4 % in COM as opposed to 0.2 ± 0.1 % increase in MET and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area as assessed by DXA decreased for 15.5 ± 1.6 cm2 in COM as opposed to 11.4 ± 5.3 cm2 increase in MET. The greater waist circumference reduction was noted in COM (4.2 ± 1 cm) compared with MET (0.8 ± 0.7 cm). The improvements of obesity measures were associated with beneficial effects on fasting glucose levels, insulin resistance and resolution of metabolic syndrome in affected women. The hypothesis behind the weight decrease and beneficial metabolic impact observed with roflumilast is based on the PDE4 regulation of signaling pathways linked to GLP-1 release. In experimental rodent model a single treatment with roflumilast enhanced plasma GLP-1 levels up to 2.5 -fold. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 19.06.2014

Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of UtahMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Utah MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Horne: The Fasting II trial was a single-arm interventional trial of 24-hour water-only fasting among pre-diabetics with metabolic syndrome. The participants were adults with fasting blood glucose >100 mg/dL and at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome, including high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), high blood pressure, or high waist circumference. The participants were asked to fast once per week for 6 weeks, with multiple goals in this pilot study. This is the first interventional trial of fasting in people with pre-diabetes or diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 17.06.2014

Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michelle A. Mendez, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Nutrition University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Gillings School of Public Health Chapel Hill, NC MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mendez: Using national surveillance data to examine trends in energy intake among children, we found that there was an initial decline in intakes from 2003-4 through 2007-08, which mirrored evidence that child obesity in the US may have begun to decline in that period. Subsequently, however, in 2009-10, energy intake increased in older children aged 12-19y, and reached a plateau in children aged <11y. This shift is consistent with reports that, particularly in older children, the downward trend in obesity levels may have been reversed in recent years. (more…)