Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Lifestyle & Health, Weight Research / 18.03.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sirpa Soini, MHC, researcher Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Helsinki Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Short-term weight loss is often successful, but he obtained results are difficult to maintain. Therefore, a study focusing on obese people who successfully lost weight, with special emphasis upon methods applied and background factors, is of major importance. Many people are successful in losing weight by themselves without taking part in any organized group activity. The knowledge about their success and the methods applied does not usually reach the health care personnel and is one reason why it is difficult to get reliable information about those who are successful in losing weight. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Karolinski Institute, Lancet / 13.03.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Miia Kivipelto MD, PhD, Professor Deputy Head, Senior Geriatrician Aging Research Center and Alzheimer Disease Research Center Karolinska Institutet Clinical Trials Unit, Memory Clinic Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kivipelto: Epidemiological studies have linked several modifiable risk factors to cognitive impairment and dementia but evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCT) has been lacking showing the efficacy of the interventions. Because cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer’s disease are complex, multi-factorial disorders, multidomain interventions targeting several risk factors and disease mechanisms simultaneously could be needed for optimum preventive effect. The FINGER study is the first large, long-term RCT indicating that multi-domain intervention can improve and maintain cognitive functioning in at risk elderly people from the general population. We observed a significant intervention effects on the primary outcome (overall cognition), main secondary outcomes (executive functioning and processing speed) as well as on complex memory tasks and risk of cognitive decline. The multidomain lifestyle intervention was feasible and safe. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Lifestyle & Health, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 24.02.2015

Matthew Buman PhD Asst Professor SNHP Exercise & Wellness Arizona State University MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Matthew Buman PhD Asst Professor SNHP Exercise & Wellness Arizona State University   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Buman: A lack of physical activity is a known risk factor for insomnia, poor sleep, and obstructive sleep apnea. In addition to physical activity, sedentary behavior has emerged as an important behavior. Sedentary behavior is not just the lack of physical activity, but actually refers to the time someone spend sitting. This behavior has been shown to, independent of physical activity, be related to many poor health outcomes including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and even premature death. This is the first study to examine whether there is a relationship between excess sitting and insomnia, poor sleep, and risk for obstructive sleep apnea. We found, after adjusting for physical activity and body weight (among other confounding factors), that total daily sitting was associated with poor sleep quality but not other sleep metrics or OSA risk. However, we also examined sitting while watching television and found a significant relationship between this type of sitting and a host of sleep quality metrics as well as risk for OSA. In a subsequent analysis we found that despite the independent relationship between sitting while watching television with OSA risk, those that were physically active were protected from this negative impact. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 07.02.2015

Dr Sandra L Jackson PhD Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, Nutrition and Health Sciences, Graduate Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Sandra L Jackson PhD Atlanta VA Medical Center, Decatur, GA, Nutrition and Health Sciences, Graduate Division of Biological and Biomedical Sciences Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Jackson: Lifestyle change programs are aimed to improve health, yet little is known about their impact once translated into clinical settings. The Veterans Health Administration (VA) MOVE! program is the largest lifestyle change program in the U.S. Participation is a key challenge of the program, as only 13% of the eligible population participated. However, among patients who did not have diabetes at baseline, we found that MOVE! participation was associated with lower diabetes incidence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Heart Disease, JACC, Lifestyle & Health / 07.01.2015

Andrea Kaye Chomistek ScD Assistant Professor Epidemiology and Biostatistics Indiana University Bloomington MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrea Kaye Chomistek ScD Assistant Professor Epidemiology and Biostatistics Indiana University Bloomington Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Chomistek: Although mortality rates from coronary heart disease in the U.S. have been in steady decline for the last four decades, women aged 35-44 have not experienced the same reduction. This disparity may be explained by unhealthy lifestyle choices. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine what proportion of heart disease cases and cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol) could be attributed to unhealthy habits. We defined healthy habits as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity of at least 2.5 hours per week, watching seven or fewer hours of television a week, consumption of a maximum of one alcoholic drink per day on average, and a diet in the top 40 percent of a measure of diet quality based on the Alternative Healthy Eating Index. We found that women who adhered to all six healthy lifestyle practices had a 92 percent lower risk of heart attack and a 66 percent lower risk of developing a risk factor for heart disease. This lower risk would mean three quarters of heart attacks and nearly half of all risk factors in younger women may have been prevented if all of the women had adhered to all six healthy lifestyle factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, JACC, Karolinski Institute / 23.09.2014

Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer Photo by Anna Persson Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Swed MedicalResearch.com Interview with Agneta Åkesson Associate professor, senior lecturer Nutritional Epidemiology IMM Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Åkesson: Our study indicates that a healthy diet together with low-risk lifestyle practices such as being physically active, not smoking and having a moderate alcohol consumption, and with the absence of abdominal adiposity may prevent the vast majority of myocardial infarctions in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 22.08.2014

Mark A. Espeland MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A. Espeland PhD Professor Department of Biostatistics Sticht Center on Aging Center for Diabetes Research WFU Primate Center Center for Integrative Medicine Translational Science Institute Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Espeland : Over 10 years, overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who were provided a lifestyle intervention targeting sustained weight loss and increased physical activity, lowered their rates of hospitalizations and medication use and reduced the costs of their health care by over $5,000. (more…)