Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM, Pharmacology / 28.01.2023

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Contact a qualified medical professional before engaging in any physical activity, or making any changes to your diet, medication or lifestyle, MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tingting Geng PhD Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene Hubei Key Laboratory of Food Nutrition and Safety Ministry of Education Key Lab of Environment and Health State Key Laboratory of Environment Health (Incubating) School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhan, China MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous studies have suggested that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may lead to an increase in cardiovascular events due to the drug-drug interactions between PPIs and clopidogrel and gut microbiota dysbiosis. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) are at more than three times higher prevalence of using PPIs, and two- to fourfold higher risk of developing cardiovascular complications and premature death than general populations. However, evidence regarding the influence of PPI use on subsequent risks of cardiovascular disease and mortality among patients with T2D is scarce. We conducted a prospective study using the UK Biobank study to examine the association of PPI use with risks of coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke and mortality among patients with T2D. Using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models and a propensity score-matched cohort, researchers found robust results that PPIs use was associated with a higher risk of coronary artery disease (adjusted HR=1.27), myocardial infarction (adjusted HR=1.34), heart failure (adjusted HR=1.35), and mortality (adjusted HR=1.30). (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Gender Differences, Kidney Disease, NEJM, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 26.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. dr. Hans Pottel KU Leuven Kulak Department of Public Health and Primary Care Belgium MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is used to diagnose patients with chronic kidney disease and is also used to adjust the dose of drugs that are eliminated by the kidneys. An accurate estimation of GFR is considered of importance in the management of kidney health in patients. In 2021 we published a new serum creatinine based equation, called the European Kidney Function Consortium (EKFC) equation (Pottel H. et al, Development and Validation of a Modified Full Age Spectrum Creatinine-Based Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate : A Cross-sectional Analysis of Pooled Data. Ann Intern Med (2021) 174: 183-191): EKFC-eGFR = 107.3 / [Biomarker/Q]a x [0.990(Age – 40) if age > 40 years] With a = 0.322 if Biomarker/Q is less than 1, and a = 1.132 if Biomarker/Q is 1 or more. The equation can easily be interpreted: the leading coefficient equals the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 107.3 mL/min/1.73m², which is the average GFR in healthy children (aged > 2 years), adolescents and young adults. The average healthy GFR remains constant until the age of 40 years, and starts decreasing beyond that age. The GFR is inversely related to the ‘rescaled’ biomarker. The rescaling factor (Q) is the average biomarker value for healthy people of a specific population (e.g. children, adult men, adult women, white people, black people, …). Biomarker/Q equals ‘1’ for the average healthy person, corresponding with eGFR = 107.3 mL/min/1.73m² (up to 40 years of age). It should be noted that for serum creatinine, the Q-value depends on sex and race. Our hypothesis was that the above equation is valid for any renal biomarker, on the condition that the biomarker is appropriately scaled. We showed that the same equation was able to estimate GFR from 2 years to oldest ages. In the current study we tested and validated our hypothesis by applying the above formula for appropriately ‘rescaled’ cystatin C. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics / 22.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Grandahl, Associate Professor, PhD, Senior lecturer Director of Education in Nursing and Midwifery programs Uppsala University Department of Women’s and Children’s Health on behalf of authors: Dr Jenny Stern, Dr Eva-Lotta Funkquist and Dr Maria Grandahl MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Conflicting advice and non-evidence-based recommendations have a negative effect on breastfeeding. Since 2011, the National Food Agency in Sweden has informed parents that they can introduce tiny tastings (1 mL of solid food, i.e. other sources of nutrition than breastmilk/formula) to infants from four months of age. It is unknown how national recommendations, which differ from the Word Health Organization’s recommendation, affect breastfeeding. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, Pharmaceutical Companies, Yale / 22.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Neeraj Patel Medical Student (MS-2), Yale School of Medicine New Haven, CT MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising has been increasing in popularity for the past two decades or so, particularly via television. But it’s highly controversial. Only two high-income countries (the U.S. and New Zealand) widely permit this type of advertising for prescription drugs. Critics have pointed to a growing body of literature that suggests that direct-to-consumer advertising for prescription drugs can be misleading, lead to inappropriate prescribing, and inflate healthcare costs. Proponents have argued that it improves public health by promoting clinically beneficial prescribing. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hip Fractures, Lipids / 20.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Monira Hussain Senior Research Fellow & ECF Clinical Research Australian Fellow Public Health and Preventive Medicine Monash University Melbourne VIC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  25% of males and 44% of females aged 60 years or over experience minimal trauma fractures. Minimal trauma fractures are a clinical outcome of osteoporosis and may occur following little or no trauma i.e. fractures following a fall from standing height or less. Minimal trauma fractures are silent, people may not notice that they are at high risk of the disease until a bone is broken. I was aware of previous studies reporting that high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was elevated in patients with osteoporosis. Two animal studies showing that HDL-C reduces bone mineral density by reducing osteoblast number and function provide a plausible explanation for why high HDL-C may increase the risk of fractures. Our study, the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE), and the ASPREE fracture substudy provide unique data that could determine whether these findings might apply to fracture risk in healthy older adults. The study collected data including HDL-C levels and fractures from more than 16,000 community-dwelling older adults. These participants were followed-up for a median of 4 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, MRSA, NIH / 18.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Otto PhD Senior Investigator Laboratory of Bacteriology Chief of the Pathogen Molecular Genetics Section NIAID, NIH Bethesda, MD 20814 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Staphylococcus aureus is one the of the most important causes of infectious diseases worldwide. It is known mostly for causing skin infections in the community and as a hospital-associated pathogen. It is in fact the most frequent cause of infections patients acquire in the hospital when they are weakened by underlying diseases or immune-suppressing therapy. The type of infections Staph can cause in these situations are diverse – comprising bone, lung, and blood infections (sepsis) - and can be quite severe and often fatal. Except for moderately severe skin infections that may not require antibiotic treatment, treatment of Staph infections is by antibiotics. S. aureus has naturally been very responsive to penicillin-type antibiotics, but already in the mid of the last century, resistance to penicillin spread worldwide. Then, methicillin was invented to overcome this resistance, but nowadays there also is considerable spread of methicillin-resistant strains (MRSA). The current situation is difficult for two reasons:
  • First, S. aureus has become increasingly resistant to many antibiotics, and
  • Second, the alternatives to methicillin are often by far not as efficient as penicillin/methicillin against Staph.
Researchers have therefore been searching for alternatives to antibiotics to treat Staph infections. Unfortunately, vaccines that work against Staph have not yet been produced despite intensive efforts for decades. Other modern approaches of treatment, like virulence-targeted drugs or phages are still only at the early investigational level. As with many diseases, an alternative to treatment is prevention. In the case of S. aureus, a type of preventative strategy that has often been proposed and tested is decolonization. This is based on the fact that ~ 1/3 of the population is naturally colonized with S. aureus (asymptomatically), and these colonized people have an increased risk of being infected. In other words, Staph infections stem from the Staph you carry on your body and which only under certain conditions causes infection. Thus, eliminating the colonizing Staph would reduce the risk for infection, which is the basis for Staph decolonization-based infection prevention strategies. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, JAMA, Sleep Disorders, Yale / 18.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: César Caraballo-Cordovez, MD Postdoctoral Associate Yale/YNHH Center for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (CORE) New Haven, CT 06511 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our group has been interested in how patients’ experience during hospitalization impacts their recovery and their health for a while. In 2013, Dr. Harlan Krumholz (senior author of the current study) identified that patients who were recently hospitalized experienced a period of generalized risk for myriad adverse health events, a condition that he named ‘post-hospital syndrome’. One of the possible explanations for this observation is that the stress from being hospitalized negatively impacts patients’ health during their stay in the hospital and after being discharged. The stress in a hospital may come from different sources–including sleep deprivation. Sleep is fundamental for recovery, and there are many challenges for patients to have adequate sleep while being hospitalized. Among the many sources of sleep interruption are early morning blood draws. Blood draws are often performed in the early morning in order to have recent lab tests results available during morning medical rounds. However, this common practice may disrupt patients’ recovery by interrupting their sleep. We were interested in determining to what extent blood draws contribute to early morning sleep disruptions and whether there has been recent progress in reducing them. We used data from Yale New Haven Hospital from 2016 to 2019 and found that nearly 4 in 10 of total daily blood draws were collected between 4:00am and 7:00am–a proportion that was persistently high over the 3 years we studied. Importantly, we found that this occurred across patients with different sociodemographic characteristics, including older individuals who are at highest risk of adverse health events from sleep deprivation. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 13.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Casey Hribar Fourth-year medical student University of North Carolina MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Several great pieces of literature already exist about patient perception of doctors wearing white coats, formal attire, business attire, and the like. But recently, scrubs are garnering favor, especially as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. While there has been some interest in what is worn over scrubs (jackets, vests, name tags, etc.), to our knowledge, there has not been any investigation into scrub color. Scrubs are a highly variable article of clothing, from fit, to pockets, pattern, and color, and it makes sense that these variations could have their own associated perceptions. Our study served as a way to open up the conversation around scrubs and the potential impact of their color on patients. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, BMJ, Immunotherapy, Pediatrics / 13.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: A/Prof Luke GrzeskowiakPhD | BPharm(Hons) | GCertClinEpid | AdvPracPharm | FSHP Associate Professor (Practitioner Fellow) Channel 7 Children’s Research Foundation Fellow in Medicines Use and Safety College of Medicine & Public Health Flinders University Affiliate Research Fellow – South Australian Health & Medical Research Institute (SAHMRI) Specialist Pharmacist – Flinders Women & Children, Flinders Medical Centre Adjunct Research Fellow – Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University Adjunct Research Fellow – Robinson Research Institute, The University of Adelaide  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Peanut allergy affects 1-3% of children in Western countries, making it the most common food-related allergen. Only a small percentage (20%) of children grow out of their peanut allergy, with allergen avoidance and provision of rescue medications for the management of allergic reactions being the recognised mainstay of treatment for many years. However, avoidance of peanuts provides many challenges for children and their caregivers and requires children and caregivers to be hypervigilant regarding peanut ingestion, creating a significant burden. This burden can have a real impact on quality of life for children and their families. In more recent years there has been emerging interest in what is referred to as oral immunotherapy as an active preventive treatment to reduce the risk of accidental peanut exposure. Oral immunotherapy involves exposing children to an extremely small dose of peanut, typically in the form of peanut flour, and then gradually increasing that dose over time to build tolerance. We have been looking at opportunities for making oral immunotherapy safer, which would then make it more suitable for more people. Our previous research showed that boiling peanuts alters its protein structure and allergic properties, meaning they were less likely to cause a severe allergic reaction, but were still able to improve tolerance to peanut allergens. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dermatology, Melanoma, Vitamin C / 10.01.2023

MedicalResearch.com Editors' note:  Please consult your health care provider before initiating any vitamin supplementation, including Vitamin D as potentially serious side effects are possible. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Ilkka T Harvima Department of Dermatology University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital Kuopio, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The North Savo Skin Cancer Program in Eastern Finland was launched in 2017, and it aims at reducing the incidence, morbidity and mortality caused by skin cancers, such as basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. A part of this program constituted a follow-up project of patients with an assessed risk of skin cancer. There are also several other parts, such as analysis of skin cancer material reposited in the Biobank of Eastern Finland (see the enclosed BMC Cancer 2021 reference), public information, education of general physicians and medical students etc. In 2021, we published the article in BMC Cancer (enclosed), where we attempted to clarify the reasons for the relatively high melanoma mortality in relation to its incidence in this region (North Savo) of the country. By using the biobank material we also published an article in 2022 showing that melanoma and melanoma in situ associate with keratinocytic premalignant lesions and keratinocyte skin carcinomas (Suhonen V, Siiskonen H, Suni M, Rummukainen J, Mannermaa A, Harvima IT. Malignant and in situ subtypes of melanoma are associated with basal and squamous cell carcinoma and its precancerous lesions. Eur J Dermatol 2022 Apr 1;32(2):187-194. doi: 10.1684/ejd.2022.4221.). The follow-up study of about 500 subjects is ongoing (COVID-19 caused pretty much trouble for the recruitment). This is focused on finding risk factors and biomarkers for skin cancers and carcinogenesis. The first study on these follow-up patients was published in 2021 (Komulainen J, Siiskonen H, Harvima IT. Association of elevated serum tryptase with cutaneous photodamage and skin cancers. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2021;182(11):1135-1142. doi: 10.1159/000517287.). The article on vitamin D just recently published in Melanoma Research on Dec 28, 2022, is the second one. The third work in pipeline deals with the association of atopic disorders with skin cancers, and the manuscript is under revision. So, these provide with some background for the article in Melanoma Research. Actually, we thought that vitamin D use might associate with skin photoaging, actinic keratoses and carcinogenesis, but the only, though very important, finding was its association with melanoma. We have not focused our research just on vitamin D only, but it looks like we need to go further. (more…)
Aging, Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, JAMA, Johns Hopkins / 10.01.2023

This article is for informational purposes only and is not a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Contact a qualified medical professional before engaging in any physical activity, or making any changes to your diet, medication or lifestyle,   MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alison R. Huang, PhD MPH Senior Research Associate Cochlear Center for Hearing & Public Health Department of Epidemiology Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hearing loss is a critical public health issue affecting two-thirds of older adults over 70 years old. There is growing understanding of a strong link between hearing loss and dementia, which impacts millions of Americans. Our main findings are that in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States from the National Health and Aging Trends Study, every 10 decibel increase in hearing loss was associated with 16% greater prevalence of dementia, such that prevalence of dementia in older adults with moderate or greater hearing loss was 61% higher than prevalence in those with normal hearing. We also found that in older adults with moderate or greater hearing loss, hearing aid use was associated with a 32% lower prevalence of dementia. (more…)
Pharmacology / 06.01.2023

Xanax (generic name is alprazolam) is a prescription medication commonly used to treat anxiety and panic disorders. It is important for those taking this or any other medication to understand how long the substance stays in their system, as this can affect the efficacy of the medication over time. Let’s take a look at how long Xanax typically remains in your system and what factors may influence its duration. The length of time that an individual's body takes to metabolize any drug depends on several different factors, such as age, weight, genetics, and overall health. Generally speaking, it takes between 4-6 hours for half of a dose of Xanax taken orally to leave the system. This means it could take up to 12 hours for the entire dose to be eliminated from your body. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 29.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alden MiletoAlden Mileto, BA Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton, PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The drug buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist, originally developed in the 1960s as an alternative to the stronger full opioid mu receptor agonists like morphine. Today, the drug is sometimes used for pain, but is more often used as a treatment for Opioid Use Disorder (OUD). Since the 2002 federal approval for buprenorphine use in treatment of OUD, there has been an increase in buprenorphine prescription across all states. However recent studies have showed a disproportionate increase in buprenorphine prescriptions to rural/ less populated areas in comparison to urban/densely populated areas. The objective of this study [1] was to analyze the trends in buprenorphine distribution, overall and by three-digit zip codes, in Pennsylvania from 2010-2020. (more…)
Exercise - Fitness / 28.12.2022

This article will attempt to clearly show and explain what the scientifically proven benefits of strength training are and how you too can enjoy these. These are the top four benefits that you will realize through strength training when implemented correctly. Strength training is the process of improving strength, endurance, and overall health using an exercise that is designed around a weightlifting or resistance program. It is generally accepted that you can either use free weights or weight-bearing cardio exercises to achieve strength and improved muscle mass. However, more recently, the use of resistance training using Cable Machines is more commonly seen as the safest way to train for strength for all ages and fitness levels. It is less jarring on the joints and less threatening than weightlifting for many that are just starting. (more…)
Addiction / 27.12.2022

Addiction is a serious problem that affects millions of people across the world. If you or someone you love is struggling with addiction, it’s important to know that there is hope. Drug rehabilitation centers provide individuals with the resources they need to break free from addiction and start living a healthier, more productive life.

What Is Drug Rehab?

Drug rehab centers are treatment facilities that specialize in helping individuals overcome their addictions. These centers offer individualized treatments plans and support services designed to help individuals learn how to manage their cravings for drugs or alcohol and develop healthy coping skills that will allow them to resist temptation in the future. Additionally, drug rehab centers also provide educational programs and therapy sessions to help patients gain a better understanding of their addiction and how it has impacted their lives. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis / 27.12.2022

You might have heard good things about CBD oil. You heard that it can assist with numerous conditions and symptoms. However, what you heard might have been simply hearsay and not necessarily proven fact. What you want to know is the science-backed health benefits about CBD oil from actual studies and research, which we provide below.
  1. Alleviate Stress & Anxiety
Stress is something we all experience at some point in time. The worse it gets, the more debilitating it can be and the more it can, in turn, affect our daily lives. A study found that use of CBD oil can not only help one combat excess stress, but it’s also effective for those who struggle with anxiety. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Heart Disease, JACC, University of Michigan / 21.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Salim S. Hayek MD Assistant Professor Medical Director of the Frankel Cardiovascular Center Clinics University of Michigan MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Essentially, immune checkpoint myocarditis is a rare but deadly complication of immune checkpoint inhibitors – amazing drugs that are increasingly used for the treatment of various cancers. Most patients present late, and when they do, they’re very ill and have a 50% chance of death. Diagnosing ICI myocarditis is challenging, given there is no one test that can differentiate it from other causes of cardiac injury. It is important to diagnose it fast, early and accurately in order to start immunosuppressive therapy as soon as possible. What we did in this study was look at commonly measured biomarkers in all patients receiving ICI at the University of Michigan. What we found was that patients who developed ICI myocarditis had early signs of muscle destruction (rise in CPK) levels and hepatitis (rise in AST, ALT), and that all patients who had myocarditis with bad outcomes had rises in all of the aforementioned biomarkers. Creatinine phosphokinase was the most sensitive. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 20.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca F. Wilson, PhD Division of Violence Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our report shows the homicide rate among children aged 0 to 17 years has been increasing annually on average 4.3% since 2013, and rose sharply from 2019 to 2020. The largest 2019 to 2020 rate increases were among children 11-17 years old, boys, and Black children. Overall increases varied by geography and demographics, with some racial and ethnic disparities persisting for more than 20 years. Firearms were the most common weapon used in child homicides. Homicides of younger children (infants to 10 years) were mostly perpetrated by parents and caregivers and precipitated by abuse and/or neglect. Homicides of older children (11-17 years) were mostly perpetrated by someone known to them, like a friend or acquaintance, and precipitated by crime, arguments, and community violence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Neurology / 19.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Regina BlyeChief Program and Policy Officer Discusses the  Living with Paralysis & Caregiver National Survey Conducted by the Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation MedicalResearch.com: How large is the population of Americans living with paralysis Response:  There is a significant population of Americans living with paralysis. To note, a 2013 study by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation found that 1 in 50 people in the US are living with paralysis. This is approximately 5.4 million people. I, myself, have lived with a spinal cord injury (SCI) for over 35 years. While some progress has been made over the past few decades, there is still work to be done. In a new survey conducted by the Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation called “Living with Paralysis & Caregiver National Survey,” we learned that a majority of Americans (69%) underestimate the prevalence of those living with paralysis in the U.S. - about two out of every 100 individuals. Given the notable size of the population, we must work together to educate and inform families, business leaders, advocates, policymakers and the general public to help improve the quality of life for those living with, or impacted by paralysis. The Christopher & Dana Reeve Foundation is dedicated to curing spinal cord injury by advancing innovative research and improving the quality of life for individuals and families impacted by paralysis. While we’ve been fortunate to make advancements with significant support from the community, we must all unite to accelerate comprehensive information, resources, referral services, and innovative research together. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 19.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna L. Goldman, M.D., M.P.A., M.P.H Assistant Professor of Medicine General Internal Medicine Boston University Chobanian & Avedisian School of Medicine   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Experts on the healthcare labor market have long debated the existence and magnitude of a physician shortage. Physician work hours are a major contributor to physician supply issues, but little research is available on recent trends in work hours by physicians.  In addition, no available studies have rigorously estimated changes in the physician workforce size during the pandemic. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews / 19.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lyle Isaacs, Professor      University of Maryland                                               Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryCollege Park, MD 20742 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The Isaacs laboratory has a long-standing interest in molecular containers compounds and their molecular recognition properties toward chemically and biologically important targets.  Molecular containers include well known pharmaceutical excipients that help dissolve and deliver drugs (e.g. sulfobutyl-beta-cyclodextrin (SBE-b-CD)) and even sequester active pharmaceutical ingredients (e.g. Sugammadex reverses the effects of neuromuscular blockers). Our lab has previously studied a class of molecular containers called cucurbiturils and found that they bind tightly (nanomolar Kd) to hydrophobic cations in aqueous solution.  Recently, we translated our knowledge of tight binding to design and synthesize a novel tight binding molecular container known as Pillar[6]MaxQ and showed that it has superior binding affinity toward hydrophobic cations.[reference = Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2020, 59, 13313] (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Aging, Author Interviews, BMJ, Brain Injury, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Exercise - Fitness / 15.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Grashow PhD Research Scientist Department of Environmental Health Football Players Health Study at Harvard University Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Anecdotally, we heard from former NFL players that they felt older than their chronological age. At the same time, doctors and medical care providers treating former players also observed that players appeared clinically older in some health domains. These observations motivated us to ask:  despite superior fitness and success as young men, are football players experiencing early aging and living with illness and disability for more years than their non-football peers? (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Race/Ethnic Diversity, University of Pennsylvania / 15.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rebecca Arden Harris, MD, MSc Assistant Professor of Family Medicine and Community Health at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania Senior Fellow, Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The impact of the nationwide overdose epidemic on Black women has received little attention from policy-makers, researchers, or the press. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response:  Over the 7-year study period, preventable overdose deaths among Black women resulted in nearly 0.75 million years of life lost (YLL). Women aged 25-34 have suffered a rising proportion of this burden. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Infections, Neurological Disorders / 14.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eli Hatchwell, MA MB BChir (Cantab) DPhil (Oxon) BA (OU) Chief Scientific Officer Population Bio UK, Inc. Begbroke Science Park Begbroke Hill Begbroke, Oxfordshire United Kingdom MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a devastating condition that is associated with a number of clinical situations, including treatment with a variety of drugs. Of these, the best known is natalizumab (Tysabri), which is a very successful drug in the treatment of MS (multiple sclerosis). Only a small proportion of patients treated with natalizumab develop PML and this has always been a mystery. The study was based on a hypothesis that some individuals have an underlying susceptibility to developing PML, based on the presence of variants in genes that are important in the immune system. The study identified several of these variants. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Lancet / 13.12.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Emma Guttman-Yassky, MD, PhD Waldman Professor and System Chair The Kimberly and Eric J. Waldman Department of Dermatology Director, Center of Excellence in Eczema Director, Laboratory of Inflammatory Skin Diseases Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background for this study are studies that show that OX40 is a pathway that is upregulated in patients with atopic dermatitis (or eczema). OX40 is involved in activation of immune molecules associated with allergy and atopy, and also with formation of memory immune cells that are required for disease recurrence. The hypothesis to the study was that giving an OX40 antagonist will not only ameliorate the disease but perhaps have a remittive effect in that the disease will not come back. Indeed all drug doses were significantly effective at week 16, the primary endpoint compared to placebo and continued to improve towards week 36, the secondary endpoint. In addition, the responders to treatment maintained their responses for an additional 20 weeks, which is unusual, suggesting a potential for disease modification. (more…)