Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, NEJM / 16.12.2014

Prudence A. Francis, M.D Associate Professor , Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Melbourne, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prudence A. Francis, M.D Associate Professor, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre Melbourne, Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The background for this study was the observation that premenopausal women diagnosed with hormone receptor positive breast cancer under age 35, had an increased risk of recurrence, as compared with older premenopausal women. We postulated that this might be because this age group was less likely to enter menopause after receiving chemotherapy, and so their ovaries were continuing to produce estrogen, which might have the effect of stimulating any remaining cancer cells. The main findings were that while not all premenopausal women benefit from the addition of treatment with ovarian function suppression to tamoxifen, the women who underwent chemotherapy and remained premenopausal (median age 40) did have improved breast cancer outcomes. This same group of women had even further improvement in recurrence rates if the ovarian suppression was combined with an aromatase inhibitor exemestane, as compared with tamoxifen. The effects of including ovarian suppression were particularly striking in women under 35 years of age. Those premenopausal women who did not receive chemotherapy (median age 46) after discussion with their doctor, did well with tamoxifen alone and do not appear to benefit from ovarian suppression currently. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JNCI, Mayo Clinic / 14.12.2014

Dr. Matthew P. Goetz, MD Associate Professor of Pncology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Matthew P. Goetz, MD Associate Professor of Pncology Mayo Clinic Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Goetz: There has been conflicting data with regard to the importance of tamoxifen metabolism as measured by CYP2D6 genetic variation.   Two large “negative” studies were reported simultaneously in 2012 and these were referenced by guidelines that CYP2D6 should not be used to select hormonal therapy.   Our findings demonstrated that these studies were flawed in part based on analytical validity issues.  In short, the use of tumor tissue to derive CYP2D6 germline genotype leads to genotyping error in up to 45% of samples. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Yale / 12.12.2014

Dr. James Yu Yale School of Medicine Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center Yale School of Medicine Department of Therapeutic Radiology New Haven, Connecticut MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. James Yu Yale School of Medicine Cancer Outcomes, Public Policy, and Effectiveness Research Center Yale School of Medicine Department of Therapeutic Radiology New Haven, Connecticut Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hypo fractionated radiation has been shown to be safe and effective, and more convenient for women with early stage breast cancer after lumpectomy.  It also has been identified by ASTRO as a practice that physicians can adopt to reduce healthcare expenses for patients and for society.  We looked at the National Cancer Database, a database created by the American College of Surgeons for trends in the use of hypo fractionated radiation for breast cancer through 2011.  We found that the use of hypofractionated radiation had increased to 22.8% in 2011.  I found this remarkable as it predated the ASTRO choosing widely guidelines, and indicated to me that physicians were already thinking of ways of making treatment more convenient and affordable for patients and insurers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Duke / 12.12.2014

Rachel Blitzblau, M.D., Ph.D. Butler Harris Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Oncology Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rachel Blitzblau, M.D., Ph.D. Butler Harris Assistant Professor Department of Radiation Oncology Duke University Medical Center Durham, NC 27710

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Blitzblau: Radiation reduces the risk of loco-regional recurrence. Data from the CALGB 9343 study suggests that the local benefit from adjuvant radiation is less in older women with small, estrogen receptor positive breast cancers. The potential acute and late toxicities of radiotherapy, patient inconvenience and healthcare costs must be considered given the small clinical benefit associated with adjuvant radiotherapy in this patient group. We looked at rates of radiotherapy in women fitting the entry criteria of this trial before and after publication of 5 year results of the CALGB trial. We found an approximately 5% decrease in use of radiotherapy overall, and noted that there seemed to be a small but significant shift in the type of radiotherapy used for these patients. Less patients received standard whole breast radiotherapy, and more received a short course of treatment to just the tumor bed plus margin called accelerated partial breast irradiation. We concluded that the publication of the trial therefore had only a very small impact on practice patterns. (more…)
Breast Cancer / 11.12.2014

Tina J. Hieken, M.D.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina J Hieken, MD Department of Surgery Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MN 55905 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Hieken: Many newly diagnosed breast cancer patients undergo breast MRI; Breast MRI includes a component of axillary imaging. However, there is limited data on MRI staging of axilla. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Radiology / 09.12.2014

 Brian L. Sprague, PhD Office of Health Promotion Research, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Brian L. Sprague, PhD Office of Health Promotion Research, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Sprague: Mammographic breast density refers to the appearance of breast tissue on a mammogram.  High breast density means that there is a greater amount of glandular tissue and connective tissue, which appears white on a mammogram.  It is more difficult to detect breast cancer on a mammogram when there is greater breast density.  It has also been shown that women with dense breasts are at a higher risk of developing breast cancer.  Because of these two factors, women with dense breasts have a greater chance of developing breast cancer after a normal screening mammogram than women whose breasts are not dense.  Many states have now passed laws that require mammography facilities to inform women with dense breasts so that they are aware of this.  Similar legislation is now under consideration at the national level.  More than 40% of women undergoing mammography screening have dense breasts. Researchers are trying to determine whether supplemental breast cancer screening with other tools would improve outcomes for women with dense breasts.  One possible approach is to use ultrasound imaging to screen for breast cancer in women with dense breasts after they have had a normal mammogram.  We wanted to estimate the benefits, harms, and cost-effectiveness of this approach compared to mammography screening only.  No randomized trials or observational studies have assessed long term outcomes after ultrasound screening for women with dense breasts, but we have short term data on how often cancer is diagnosed by ultrasound screening and how often false positive exams occur.  We used computer simulation modeling to estimate long term outcomes by combining the currently available data on mammography and ultrasound screening with the best available data on breast cancer risk and survival. (more…)
Breast Cancer, UCSF / 04.12.2014

Elissa R. Price, MD Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology Director of Clinical Operations, Breast Imaging Breast Imaging Fellowship Program Director Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA  94115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elissa R. Price, MD Assistant Professor of Clinical Radiology Director of Clinical Operations, Breast Imaging Breast Imaging Fellowship Program Director Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA  94115 MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Price: Screening mammography recommendations for the 40 - 49 age group is very controversial. 2009 USPTF guidelines emphasized taking patient context into account when making decisions for these young women. Recent publications have suggested risk-based screening strategies.  Family history and breast density are important are easily accessible risk factors. Had we been using this risk-based approach to screening mammography at our institution, we would have missed more than 3Ž4 of the screen detected breast cancers in the 40-49 age group, thereby foregoing most of the survival benefit from screening mammography. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 28.11.2014

Ben Ho Park, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Oncology, Breast Cancer Program Associate Director, Hematology/Oncology Fellowship Training Program The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Baltimore, MD  21287MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ben Ho Park, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Oncology, Breast Cancer Program Associate Director, Hematology/Oncology Fellowship Training Program The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins Baltimore, MD  21287 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Park: To discover genetic mediators of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancers, we used genetic screening of breast cancer cell line models and patient data to ​identify a new gene that can mediate drug resistance. We found that amplification and overexpression of this gene in estrogen receptor positive breast cancers results in tamoxifen resistance and is associated with worse outcomes in patients whose tumors demonstrate amplification/overexpression of this gene. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 25.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Jonathan Myles Centre for Cancer Prevention, Queen Mary, University of London Wolfson Institute of Preventive Medicine, Charterhouse Square, London Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Myles: Breast cancer screening uptake is low in areas of high social deprivation and large populations of some ethnic groups.  The main  finding of this study is that an intervention in the form of contacting women by telephone a few days before the date of their screen, reminding them of their appointment and answering any queries they may have, significantly increases uptake. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, Surgical Research, Vanderbilt / 20.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Kristy Lynn Kummerow MD Division of Surgical Oncology and Endocrine Surgery Vanderbilt University Medical Center Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center Geriatric Research, Education, and Clinical Center Nashville, Tenn Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kummerow: This study looked at how we are currently treating early stage breast cancer in the US – early stage breast cancer includes small cancers with limited or no lymph node involvement and no spread to other body site – it was prompted by something we observed an our own cancer center, which is that more and more women seem to be undergoing more extensive operations than are necessary to treat their cancer.  It is helpful to understand the historical context of how we treat early breast cancer.  Prior to the 1980s, the standard of care for any breast cancer was a very extensive procedure, which involved removal of the entire breast, as well as underlying and overlying tissues and multiple levels of lymph nodes drained by that area.  Informative clinical trials were completed in the 1980s demonstrated that these extensive procedures were unnecessary, and that equivalent survival could be achieved with a much more minimal operation, by removing only the tumor, with a margin of normal breast tissue around it, and performing radiation therapy to the area; this technique is now known as breast conservation surgery, also known as lumpectomy with radiation.  In the 1990s, breast conservation was established by the national institutes of health and was embraced as a standard of care for early stage breast cancer; performance of breast conservation surgery also became a quality metric – accredited breast centers in the US are expected to perform breast conservation surgery in the majority of women who they treat for breast cancer.  However, what our research team observed at our institution didn’t fit – over time it appears more aggressive surgical approaches are being used for more women.  This has been found in other institutions as well, and is supported by smaller national studies.  We wanted to understand how surgical management of early breast cancer is changing over time at a national level using the largest data set of cancer patients in the United States. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness / 20.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Interview Invitation Dr. Wenji Guo University of Oxford Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Previous studies report increased risk for breast cancer in postmenopausal women who have a higher Body Mass Index (BMI) – a measure of body fat based on height and weight. However, BMI is unable to distinguish between excess weight due to fat rather than muscle. More direct measures of fatness, such as body fat percentage, may be better indicators of disease risk. And although probable evidence for the relationship between physical activity and breast cancer now exists, questions still remain over the role of vigorous compared to lower intensity physical activity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Case Western, Chemotherapy / 10.11.2014

Ruth Keri, PhD, Professor and Vice Chair Department of Pharmacology Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and Associate Director for Basic Research in the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center  Case Western Reserve UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ruth Keri, PhD, Professor and Vice Chair Department of Pharmacology Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and Associate Director for Basic Research in the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center  Case Western Reserve University Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Keri: Over the last several decades, the discovery of targeted therapies for certain types of breast cancer, and their use in the clinic, have greatly improved the long-term outcome of patients. Yet some breast cancers don’t respond to these therapies, and ones that do often become resistant over time, resulting in patient relapse and metastatic disease. Why does resistance occur? There are many tricks a tumor employs to evade death. When a drug targets a certain protein or pathway the cancer cell relies on for survival, one potential route of resistance is the cancer cell’s ability to adapt and find another pathway to maintain growth. We reasoned that targeting two separate proteins or pathways important for cancer cell growth may be more effective at preventing or delaying this adaptation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 06.11.2014

Antoine E. Karnoub, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Pathology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Center for Life Science 0634 Boston, MA 02215MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Antoine E. Karnoub, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Pathology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Center for Life Science 0634 Boston, MA 02215 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Karnoub: The main findings of the study are: (1) that the metastatic propensities of cancer cells can be remarkably modulated by otherwise ‘normal’ mesenchymal stem/stromal cells found in their vicinity; (2) that generation of highly malignant tumor-initiating cells can be significantly triggered by microenvironmental cues; (3) that repression of the gene FOXP2 by a miR-199a-led microRNA network enables the propagation of cancer stem cell and metastatic traits in otherwise weakly metastatic cancer cells; and (4) that such a signaling axis appears to forecast poor patient outcome. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy / 30.10.2014

Melissa Skala, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering Assistant Professor of Cancer Biology Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN 372MedicalResearch Interview with: Melissa Skala, Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering Assistant Professor of Cancer Biology Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN 37235 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Skala: We developed a new metabolic imaging technique that is highly sensitive to tumor cell response to anti-cancer drug treatment. We coupled this imaging technique with new, three-dimensional cultures that can be grown from breast tumor biopsies. Together, our data indicate that this approach could be used to perform rapid, low-cost, and accurate drug screens for individualized treatment of cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Chemotherapy / 27.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shidong Jiang Associate professor of Engineering Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Jiang: Breast cancer is the most common non-skin cancer in women worldwide, and the second leading cause of women’s cancer mortality in the United States. A common treatment strategy after diagnosis is to shrink breast cancer tumors larger than 3 centimeters with a 6 to 8 month course of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy prior to surgery. Clinical studies have shown that patients who respond to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy have longer disease-free survival rates, but only 20 to 30 percent of patients who receive Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy fit this profile. Our work represents the first clinical evidence that tumor total hemoglobin estimated from DOST images differentiates women with locally advanced breast cancer who have a complete pathological response with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy from those who do not with predictive significance based on image data acquired before the initiation of therapy. The implication of this prognostic information is that certain tumors are pre-disposed to responding to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, and that this predisposition should be known prior to choosing the therapy.  The study also demonstrates the potential of dramatically accelerating the validation of optimal Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy regimes through future randomized clinical trials by reducing the number of patients required and the length of time they need to be followed by using a validated imaging surrogate as an outcome measure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy, Journal Clinical Oncology, Mayo Clinic / 21.10.2014

dr_edith_perezMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edith A. Perez, MD Mayo Clinic Jacksonville, FL 32224 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Perez: Our joint analysis of two large prospective trials showed that adding one year of Trastuzumab to otherwise standard adjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved long term survival in women with resected HER2+ breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 07.10.2014

Professor Xiaodong Zhang Professor of Macromolecular Structure and Function Department of Medicine Imperial College, London, UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Xiaodong Zhang Professor of Macromolecular Structure and Function Department of Medicine Imperial College, London, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Zhang: Since its discovery 20 years ago, the BRCA2 gene and its protein product, BRCA2, have been under intensive investigations. The importance of the BRCA2 protein lies in the central roles it plays in the most faithful DNA damage repair pathway. Mutations in BRCA2 thus can cause defects in this repair pathway, making the repair inefficient or forcing cells to use alternative repair methods that are prone to mistakes, all of which contribute to mutations in the genomic DNA, thus increase the risk of cancer development. Our study aims to understand how BRCA2 works through studying its 3-dimensional structures and its interactions with other key partners in the repair pathway. Our study provides first 3-dimensional views of BRCA2 and BRCA2-RAD51 and reveals that BRCA2 molecules exist as pairs and a BRCA2 pair recruit two sets of RAD51 molecules arranged in opposite orientations. Our study also shows a single stranded DNA binds across the BRCA2 dimer and that BRCA2 increases the frequency of RAD51 filament formation events, presumably to increase the efficiency of establishing a longer filament required for searching for matching strands of DNA in intact sister chromatin. Our results thus not only define the precise roles of BRCA2 in helping RAD51 filament formation, but how it helps RAD51 loading onto single stranded DNA. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research / 02.10.2014

Gary Ulaner, MD, PhD Assistant Attending Radiologist Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Assistant Professor of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical School Chair, Radiology Research CommitteeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gary Ulaner, MD, PhD Assistant Attending Radiologist Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Assistant Professor of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical School Chair, Radiology Research Committee Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ulaner: FDG PET/CT revealed distant metastases in 17% of asymptomatic stage IIB breast cancer patients below 40 years of age.   Although NCCN guidelines recommend against systemic staging in patients with stage II disease, our data suggests that PET/CT might be valuable in younger patients at earlier stages of disease than previously expected. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Breast Cancer, Weight Research / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Usha Menon,  Evangelia-Ourania Fourkala PhD and Matthew Burrell PhD Gynaecological Cancer Research Centre, Women's Cancer, UCL EGA Institute for Women's Health, University College London, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Our study has shown that skirt size is a good proxy for central obesity. Each unit increase in UK skirt size every ten years between the age of 20 and 60 was associated with a 33% increase in postmenopausal breast cancer in our cohort. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 17.09.2014

Blake Cady MD Professor Emeritus of Surgery Brown UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Blake Cady MD Professor of Surgery (emeritus) at Harvard Medical School Partners HealthCare, Harvard Medical School institutions, Boston Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Cady:  Our findings support mammography screening, and our data is consistent with the randomized trials. Breast cancer screening with mammography is the most extensively researched screening method ever studied. Only one  “randomized" trial failed to show reduced mortality, (Canadian NCSS studies),  and there were major flaws in its design and execution that negate their results, as noted in multiple critical publications (volunteers, not geographic assignment, palpable masses detected at examination assigned to “screening” arm, large contamination bias (control group got screened anyway), and very poor quality of mammography). Yet it is this NCSS study that is cited by critics and the press.  “Failure Analyses” look backward from death, rather than forward from assignment in randomized trials. The concept of failure studies is well established as noted in recent reports of air-bag failures in cars, and many industrial studies. Seat belt prevention of deaths was discovered by police recording injuries and deaths in crashes after the fact - a failure analysis - not by randomized clinical trials. In breast cancer, failure analyses have advantages of little cost, early results, simplicity, and convenience, compared to randomized trials. Since our results support findings from randomized clinical trials (RCT), they can be accepted as reliable and accurate. Our findings show that about 71% of deaths from breast cancer occur in the  approximately 20% of our patients not in regular screening programs, while only 29% of deaths occur in the 80% of women who were regularly screened by mammography. By extrapolation, women regularly screened have only about a 5% breast cancer mortality, but women not screened have close to a 50% mortality. (This is my extrapolation from our data, not direct data from our “Failure Analysis”) (more…)
Breast Cancer / 15.09.2014

Nienke de Glas, MD PhD-student Leiden University Medical Center Department of Surgery Leiden The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nienke de Glas, MD PhD-student Leiden University Medical Center Department of Surgery Leiden The Netherlands Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Glas: It remains unclear whether mass breast cancer screening has a beneficial effect in older women. In the Netherlands, the upper age limit of the breast cancer screening program was extended from 69 to 75 years in 1998. If a screening program is effective, it can be expected that the incidence of early stage tumours increases, while the incidence of advanced stage tumours decreases. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence of early stage and advanced stage breast cancer before and after the implementation of mass screening in women aged 70-75 years in the Netherlands. We showed that the extension of the upper age limit to 75 years has only led to a small decrease of advanced stage breast cancer, while the incidence of early stage tumours has strongly increased. For every advanced stage tumour that was prevented, 20 “extra” and early stage tumours were diagnosed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JCEM / 06.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Chen, MPH Researcher in the Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Doctoral student in the Department of Epidemiology University of Washington School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chen: We found no evidence that wearing a bra is associated with breast cancer risk. Further, breast cancer risk was not impacted by bra wearing frequency, wearing a bra with an underwire, or starting to wear a bra at a young age. (more…)
Breast Cancer, MD Anderson, Surgical Research / 05.09.2014

sabelle Bedrosian, M.D., F.A.C.S. Associate Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Medical Director, Nellie B. Connelly Breast Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TXMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Isabelle Bedrosian, M.D., F.A.C.S. Associate Professor, Department of Surgical Oncology, Division of Surgery Medical Director, Nellie B. Connelly Breast Center The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bedrosian: •       National BCT (breast conserving therapy) rates have increased during the last two decades. •       Disparities based on age, geographic facility location and type of cancer treatment facility have lessened over time. •       Insurance type and travel distance remain persistently associated with underutilization of breast conserving therapy. •       Annual income of less than $35K may be emerging as a new association with underutilization of breast conserving therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 30.08.2014

Ying Wang PhD Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow American Cancer Society Inc Atlanta, GA 30303MedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Ying Wang PhD Epidemiology Post-Doc Fellow American Cancer Society Inc Atlanta, GA 30303 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: Previous studies suggest that higher intake of fruits and vegetables are associated with lower risk of breast cancer risk, especially estrogen receptor (ER) negative (ER-) tumors that are more aggressive and difficult to treat. We found that postmenopausal women who had higher intake of flavones, a subgroup of flavonoids that are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables, had lower risk of breast cancer. Furthermore, higher intake of flavan-3-ols which is high in non-herbal tea was associated with lower risk of ER- but not ER positive breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Exercise - Fitness, JCEM / 13.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Sylvie Mesrine, Gynecologist, MD Inserm, CESP Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, U1018, Nutrition, Hormones and Women's Health Team, Villejuif, France. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We wanted to disentangle the effect of recent physical activity (within the previous four years) from the effect of past physical activity (5-9 years earlier) on postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Our most important finding was that recreational/transport physical activity (including walking, cycling and engaging in other sports), even of modest intensity, seemed to have a rapid impact on breast cancer risk: it was quite rapidly associated with a decrease in breast cancer risk, which was however attenuated when activity stops. To our knowledge, our study is the first to independently assess the association between breast cancer risk and recreational physical activity both 5 to 9 years earlier and within the previous 4 years. Furthermore, the association of recent recreational physical activity and breast cancer risk decrease was observed whatever the recent levels of gardening or do-it yourself activities. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 11.08.2014

Lynn Rosenberg, ScD Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University 1010 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215MedicalResearch.com Interview with Lynn Rosenberg, ScD Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University 1010 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: With prospective data from the Black Women’s Health Study, we assessed vigorous exercise and walking in relation to incidence of invasive breast cancer . We found that the overall incidence of breast cancer was lower among women who exercised vigorously or walked briskly than among women who were sedentary. The reduction was most apparent among women who exercised at least 5 hours per week. The association of exercise with breast cancer risk did not differ by estrogen receptor status of the breast tumor, but further study is needed to firmly establish this. Sitting for long periods at work or watching television was not significantly associated with breast cancer incidence. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 10.08.2014

Dr. Judith Malmgren PhD Affiliate Assistant Professor, Epidemiology University of Washington School of Public Health Seattle, WA 98177MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Judith Malmgren PhD Affiliate Assistant Professor, Epidemiology University of Washington School of Public Health Seattle, WA 98177 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Malmgren: We found a significant shift to lower stage breast cancer at diagnosis with an observed increase in mammography detected breast cancer over time and a significant decrease in later stage cancers found by the patient or her doctor. Mammography detected breast cancers were more often treated with lumpectomy and radiation and less likely to require mastectomy or adjuvant chemotherapy. We also observed better 5 year invasive breast cancer specific survival among the mammography detected patients as opposed to the patient or physician detected breast cancer cases. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Genetic Research, NEJM / 07.08.2014

Dr Marc Tischkowitz MD PhD University Lecturer (Associate Professor) and Honorary Consultant  Physician in Medical Genetics Department of Medical Genetics, University of CambridgeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Marc Tischkowitz MD PhD University Lecturer (Associate Professor) and Honorary Consultant  Physician in Medical Genetics Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tischkowitz: The PALB2 gene was first identified in 2006 and linked to breast cancer in 2007 but until now we have not had good breast cancer risk estimates for women who have inherited PALB2 mutations. This study was started in 2009 by an group of research institutions (The PALB2 Interest Group) in Canada, US, Europe (UK, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Finland) and Australia. We studied 362 individuals with PALB2 mutations from 154 families. We found that awomen with a PALB2 mutation will on average have a 35% risk of developing breast cancer by the age of 70, rising to 58% if there is a strong family history. Our study will help clinicians to better advise and manage such women. There are several new aspects.
  • It is by far the largest study to date and provides the most accurate risk estimates for PALB2 mutation carriers.
  • It shows that the breast cancer risk is modified by the family history. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Circadian Rhythm / 25.07.2014

MSteven M. Hill, Ph.D. Professor, Structural & Cellular Biology Edmond & Lily Safra Chair for Breast Cancer Research Co-Director, Molecular Signaling Program, Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium Director, Tulane Circadian Biology CenteredicalResearch.com Interview with Steven M. Hill, Ph.D. Professor, Structural & Cellular Biology Edmond & Lily Safra Chair for Breast Cancer Research Co-Director, Molecular Signaling Program, Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium Director, Tulane Circadian Biology Center Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hill: The main findings of our study are that exposure to even dim light at night can drive human breast tumors to a hyper metabolic state, activating key tumor cell signaling pathways involved in tumor cell survival and proliferation, leading to increased tumor growth, all resulting in a tumor which is completely resistant to tamoxifen therapy. Our work shows that this effect is due to the repression of nighttime melatonin by dim light at night. When nighttime melatonin is replace the tumors become sensitive to tamoxifen resulting in cell death and tumor regression. (more…)