Higher HIV Viral Loads Linked to Increased Squamous Cell Cancers of Skin

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maryam M. Asgari, MD, MPH Department of Dermatology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California, Oakland

Dr. Asgari

Maryam M. Asgari, MD, MPH
Department of Dermatology
Massachusetts General Hospital,
Department of Population Medicine
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente
Northern California, Oakland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Nonmelanoma skin cancer – defined as basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – is a common malignant condition, affecting more than 2 million Americans every year. BCCs are more common than SCCs among individuals with healthy immune systems, while SCCs are more predominate than BCCs among people who are immunocompromised.

We examined how laboratory markers used to evaluate HIV disease progression may be associated with subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer risk in white patients previously diagnosed with at least one such cancer from 1996 to 2008.  We measured CD4 count, viral load and subsequent nonmelanoma skin cancer. The study included 455 participants with HIV and 1,952 without HIV. All were members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care plan.

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Clinical Perineural Invasion of Cutaneous SCC May Warrant Adjuvant Treatment

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Chrysalyne D. Schmults, MD, MSCE
Associate Professor of Dermatology, Harvard Medical School
Director, Mohs and Dermatologic Surgery Center and
Mr. Pritesh S. Karia, MPH
Department of Epidemiology
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland

Department of Dermatology
Brigham and Women’s Faulkner Hospital
Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
Jamaica Plain, MA 02130-3446 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Perineural nerve invasion (PNI) is a well-recognized risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Most cases of CSCC with PNI are identified on histologic examination at the time of surgery and the patient has no clinical symptoms or radiologic evidence of PNI. These cases are classified as incidental PNI (IPNI). However, some patients with PNI present with clinical symptoms and/or radiologic evidence of PNI. These cases are classified as clinical PNI (CPNI). A few studies have shown differences in disease-related outcomes between CSCC patients with IPNI and CPNI but consensus regarding adjuvant treatment and detailed guidelines on follow-up schedules have not yet materialized.

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New Cream May Lead To Non Sun-Induced Tanning

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

David E. Fisher MD, PhD</strong> Edward Wigglesworth Professor & Chairman Dept of Dermatology Director, Melanoma Program MGH Cancer Center Director, Cutaneous Biology Research Center Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114

Dr. Fisher

David E. Fisher MD, PhD
Edward Wigglesworth Professor & Chairman
Dept of Dermatology
Director, Melanoma Program MGH Cancer Center
Director, Cutaneous Biology Research Center
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA 02114

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study grew from an interest to mimic the dark pigmentation patterns in human skin which are known from epidemiology to be associated with low skin cancer risk. In the current work, a molecular inhibitor of the SIK enzyme was used to block the inhibitory action of SIK relative to melanin synthesis. The result was stimulation of dark pigmentation within human skin.

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Number Of High School Students Who Indoor Tan Dropped In Half

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Matthew Reynolds
Acting Team Lead, Office of Communication
Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Chamblee GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Indoor tanning and sunburns, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood, increases the risk of developing skin cancer. Researchers examined trends in the prevalence of indoor tanning and the relationship between indoor tanning and sunburn among US high school students. Pooled cross-sectional data from the 2009, 2011, 2013, and 2015 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. The study included nationally representative samples of U.S. high school students.

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High Schools Less Likely To Adopt Sun Safety Practices

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sherry Everett Jones PhD, MPH, JD, FASHA Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent School Health Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

Dr. Sherry Everett Jones

Sherry Everett Jones PhD, MPH, JD, FASHA
Health Scientist, Division of Adolescent School Health
Centers for Disease Control & Prevention

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the United States. Results from the School Health Policies and Practices Study found that in 2014, most schools lacked practices that could protect children and adolescents from sun exposure while at school. Positive attitudes and beliefs about sun safety behavior, which would make such behavior more likely, can be promoted and supported by school system policies and practices.

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Comparison of Posttransplant Dermatologic Diseases by Race

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Christina Lee Chung, MD, FAAD
Associate Professor of Dermatology
Director, Center for Transplant Patients
Drexel University College of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It’s long been recognized immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients are at significantly increased risk for skin cancer and other types of skin disease.

But despite advances to improve skin cancer prevention for these patients, little is known about how skin conditions affect African-American, Asian and Hispanic transplant recipients. This is problematic given that, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, more than half of the 120,000 Americans on the waiting list for organs identify as nonwhite.

We compared medical records of 412 organ transplant recipients — including 154 white patients and 258 nonwhite (black, Asian or Hispanic) — who were referred to the Drexel Dermatology Center for Transplant Patients between 2011 and 2016. As one of the only models of its kind in the country, the center provides post-transplant dermatological care to every patient who is transplanted by and/or followed by the Drexel University and Hahnemann University Hospital Transplant Programs. That means that every patient, regardless of race, is screened annually for skin cancer, which provided a unique dataset for us to analyze.

Two hundred eighty-nine transplant recipients exhibited malignant, infectious or inflammatory conditions during their evaluation, but their primary acute diagnoses differed greatly by race. In 82 white patients, skin cancer was the most common acute problem requiring attention at first visit. Black and Hispanic patients, by contrast, were most often diagnosed with inflammatory or infectious processes, such as fungal infections, warts, eczema, psoriasis, and rashes that required immediate medical attention.

Overall, squamous cell carcinoma in situ was the most common type of skin cancer diagnosed in each racial or ethnic group. But the location of the cancerous lesions again depended on the race of the patient. Most lesions in white and Asian patients occurred in sun-exposed areas of the body, like the scalp, neck, chest and back. For black patients, the lesions were primarily found in the groin.  Moreover, six of the nine lesions found on black patients tested positive for high-risk HPV strains, suggesting an association between the virus and skin cancer for African Americans.

We also provided questionnaires to 66 organ transplant recipients to find out more about the patients’ awareness of skin cancer prevention. Seventy-seven percent of white patients were aware their skin cancer risk was increased, compared to 68 percent of nonwhites. Only 11 percent of nonwhite patients reported having regular dermatologic examinations, compared to 36 percent of whites. Finally, 45 percent of white patients but only 25 percent of nonwhite reported knowing the signs of skin cancer.

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Indoor Tanning By High School Students Drops By Half

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, MPH Senior Health Economist Division of Unintentional Injury CDC

Dr. Gery Guy

Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, MPH
Senior Health Economist
Division of Unintentional Injury
CDC

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The incidence of skin cancer is increasing in the United States, and individuals who indoor tan are at an increased risk of skin cancer. Treating skin cancer costs $8.1 billion annually.

The number of high school students who indoor tan dropped by half from 2009 to 2015. In 2015, 1.2 million high school students indoor tanned, down from 2.5 million in 2009. This is a much bigger decrease than we have seen in the past and is an encouraging finding. We also found that 82% of indoor tanners reported sunburn in the past year compared with 54% of those who did not engage in indoor tanning.

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New Compounds May Extend Efficiency of Sunscreens

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Diego Sampedro PhD

Dr. Diego Sampedro

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Diego Sampedro PhD
Department of Chemistry, Centro de Investigación en Síntesis Química (CISQ)
Universidad de La Rioja
Logroño, Spain

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Skin cancer is currently the most common type of cancer. While it implies a relatively low mortality rate, the reported cases of all types of skin cancer have been steadily increasing for the last decades. The ozone layer depletion and longer sunlight exposure times due to outdoors activities contribute to this increase. Solar light is well-known to lead to several skin cellular problems, including DNA damage, mutations, oxidative stress, sunburn and immune suppression. These deleterious effects of sunlight may be mitigated by the use of sunscreens.

Sunscreens are inorganic or organic substances that are directly applied onto the skin, designed to minimize light transmission into the skin, mainly in the ultraviolet region of the solar spectrum. However, serious concerns exist about the safety of several commercial sunscreens components, as well as several drawbacks due to the lack of stability, biodegradability and effectiveness for skin protection. Thus, the development of new (and more efficient) types of sunscreens is of critical importance with a great potential impact in public health and industrial applications.

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Sunscreen Use Beats Shade For Preventing Sunburn

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Hao Ou-Yang, PhD Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc Skillman, New Jersey

Dr. Hao Ou-Yang

Hao Ou-Yang, PhD
Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc
Skillman, New Jersey

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This is the first-ever published study to evaluate UV protection value of shade in a real-world setting.

Eighty-one subjects with Fitzpatrick skin type I to III were divided into two groups: one using only a commercially available beach umbrella (round-shaped, 80” diameter, 75” high) and the other using only Neutrogena® Ultra Sheer® SPF 100+ sunscreen. Sunscreen subjects were monitored applying the product to all exposed areas following the label directions 15 minutes before beach exposure and were instructed to re-apply at least every 2 hours or as needed. Subjects were instructed to stay at the beach for 3.5 hours but could leave or stay under a shade for up to 30 minutes for cooling or rest. Shade subjects were instructed to stay under the umbrella without wearing clothes that could block the evaluated areas during the study duration. They were allowed to leave the umbrella after covering up for up to 30 minutes.

There were significant differences between the two groups in clinically evaluated sunburn protection for all seven body sites measured. The Ultra Sheer SPF 100+ sunscreen provided excellent sunburn protection for all the body sites, as demonstrated by no significant changes in sunburn grading before and after UV exposure in any sites except for face. Of the subjects in the shade group, there were a total of 142 sunburn areas across all parts of the body in 78% of the umbrella group (vs. 17 areas among 10 people in the sunscreen group – 25%). Sunburn incidence within the sunscreen group may be due to uneven application (missed spots), failure to re-apply after sweating, and under-application. Most subjects in the sunscreen group applied roughl yhalf of the amount of sunscreen recommended to achieve the SPF value on the label.

High SPF products provide a margin of safety for consumers who under-apply, as shown here and in other studies.

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In Global Survey, Risks of Sun Exposure and Tanning Not Well Known

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sophie Seite

Dr. Sophie Seite

Sophie Seite, Ph. D
La Roche-Posay Dermatological Laboratories
Asnières, France.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The survey included nearly 20,000 men and women in 23 countries, ages 16-65, and was primarily conducted online. The questionnaire collected data regarding demographics, sun exposure, behaviors regarding prevention and tanning, risk knowledge, self-examination, medical advice seeking, and social attitude. This unprecedented international survey on sun exposure behaviors and skin cancer detection found that there are many imperfections and geographical inequalities in primary and secondary prevention of skin cancer.

The study was published in the Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology by researchers from La Roche-Posay and the George Washington University (GW) Department of Dermatology. Survey results indicate that 88 percent of those questioned were aware of the risks of developing skin cancer when exposed without protection to the sun. However, just 1 in 2 respondents has ever consulted a dermatologist for a mole screening and 4 in 10 people don’t think to protect themselves from the sun outside of vacation.

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