When Do Organized Activities for Kids Become Too Much?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Sharon Wheeler PhD

Dr Sharon Wheeler PhD Lecturer in Sport, Physical Activity and Health Department of Sport and Physical Activity Faculty of Arts and Sciences Edge Hill University Lancashire

Dr. Wheeler

Lecturer in Sport, Physical Activity and Health
Department of Sport and Physical Activity
Faculty of Arts and Sciences
Edge Hill University
Lancashire

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well-known that family background and parents’ investment in their children has a big impact on a number of outcomes, including how well people do at school, the jobs they get, and how they spend their leisure time. It is also known that it is middle-class parents who tend to work particularly hard to make sure their children get on in life.

This research starts to question whether parents’ investment in their children’s organised activities is having the desired impact. Parents initiate and facilitate their children’s participation in organised activities as it shows that they are a ‘good’ parent and they hope such activities will benefit their children in both short-term (keeping fit and healthy, developing friendship groups) and long-term ways (getting jobs, having lots of opportunities in the future).

The reality, which has been highlighted in this research, is that while children might experience some of these benefits, a busy organised activity schedule can put considerable strain on parents’ resources and families’ relationships, as well as potentially harm children’s development and well-being.

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Every Pitch Should Count

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Pitching Crop” by slgckgc is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jason L. Zaremski, MD, CAQSM, FACSM, FAAPMR

Assistant Professor│Divisions of PM&R, Sports Medicine, & Research
Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation
Co-Medical Director Adolescent & High School Outreach Program
University of Florida College of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Throwing injuries are common in baseball and can be caused by excessive pitch counts, year-round pitching, and pitching with arm pain and fatigue. Despite the evidence, pitching injuries among high school players have not decreased. With a multitude of research in overhead throwers, yet the volume of overuse throwing injuries not decreasing, our team suspected there was a missing workload factor in baseball pitchers. Therefore, our team conducted research to determine whether an important factor was being overlooked: volume of pitches thrown during warm-up between innings and bullpen activity in high school varsity baseball pitchers.

In the study, our team counted all pitches thrown off a mound during varsity high school baseball games played by 34 different high schools in North Central Florida during the 2017 season. After counting nearly 14,000 pitches in 115 pitch outings, our team found that 42% of the pitches thrown off a mound were not accounted for in the pitch counts, and that there is a large variability of bullpen pitches being thrown from pitcher to pitcher. Even with a greater focus on pitch counts as a way to prevent injuries, a substantial number of pitches are going unaccounted for in high school players as part of warm-up and bullpen activity.

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More Heart Attacks In Younger Men Following Canadian Hockey Games

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Wings Hawks Game 2-11” by Michael Kumm is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Hung Q. Ly, M.D., S.M., FRCPC

President, Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology
Program Director, Adult Cardiology Postgraduate Training Program
Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine
Interventional Cardiology Division,
Dept. of Medicine, Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prior scientific reports have discussed the association between major sporting events and cardiovascular events, irrespective of the sport.

Ours is the first to report an increase in hospital admission rates for heart attacks in men younger than 55yo in the day following a hockey game.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response:  Emotional stress and lifestyle habits/behavioural patterns surrounding the spectatorship of hockey (i.e. drinking, unhealthy eating patterns, etc.) might make some Hockey (sports) fans more susceptible to heart attacks. We report a statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart attacks in young men watching the sport. This was an association that we manage to document but not an actual causal relationship. 

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response:  (1) Ascertain causality: Document that the “watching/attending a hockey game” was indeed an activity that the patient presenting with a heart attack did indeed do; (2) randomize sports fan to lifestyle changes and/or stress management strategies to explore if there is a decrease in cardiovascular events around the time of a sporting event. 

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? 

Response:  (1) I am a hardcore, diehard (no pun intended) Montreal Canadiens fan, which motivated me to perform this analysis; (2) We accounted for the effect of harsh winter conditions as a potential confounder of the increase in hospital rate admission for heart attacks; (3) we were quite surprised that victory, instead of defeat, lead to an increase in events; (4)  I have to conflict of interest to declare.

Citations:

Caroline E. Gebhard, Catherine Gebhard, Foued Maafi, Marie-Jeanne Bertrand, Barbara E. Stähli, Karin Wildi, Zurine Galvan, Aurel Toma, Zheng W. Zhang, David Smith, Hung Q. Ly. Hockey Games and the Incidence of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 2018; DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.12.028

The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Rates of Invalid Baseline Concussion Testing May Be Alarmingly High

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher Abeare, Ph.D. Associate Professor Clinical Neuropsychology Department of Psychology University of Windsor Windsor, Ontario

Dr. Christopher Abeare

Christopher Abeare, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Clinical Neuropsychology
Department of Psychology
University of Windsor
Windsor, Ontario

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: In this study, we examined the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline neurocognitive testing in sport concussion. Baseline testing is a commonly employed practice in which the cognitive abilities of athletes are assessed pre-season. These baseline test results are then used as a point of comparison against which post-injury neurocognitive test results can be compared, thereby creating a more individualized approach to the assessment of neurocognitive functioning.

However, there has been growing concern about the validity of baseline test results, meaning that there is concern over the degree to which the scores on these baseline tests actually reflect an athlete’s true cognitive ability. There are many reasons why their test scores might not reflect their actual ability, ranging from inattentiveness during testing and lack of appreciation of the importance of doing their best on testing to intentional underperformance (aka “sandbagging” or malingering).

As a result of these concerns, 4 different validity measures have been developed. We compared these 4 validity measures, head to head, in a sample of 7897 athletes aged 10 to 21 years.

We found that 56% of athletes failed at least 1 of these validity measures, suggesting that as many as 56% of  athletes have scores that may not reflect their true ability level. We then tested the hypothesis that age would be related to the proportion of athletes with invalid performance. Our findings supported this hypothesis in that nearly 84% of 10-year-olds failed at least one validity measure and 29% of 21-year-olds failed at least one.  Continue reading

Sports Specialization and Parental Influence Interview

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Charles A. Popkin, MD Orthopedic Surgeon NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center

Dr. Popkin

Dr. Charles A. Popkin, MD
Orthopedic Surgeon
NewYork-Presbyterian/Columbia University Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

CAP: Sports participation offers multiple benefits for children and adolescents, but there is growing concern about the rise of early sports specialization (ESS). ESS is defined as intense, sport specific training for greater than 8 months a year at the exclusion of other sports and activities in children younger than 12 years of age (pre-pubescent). ESS has been linked with decreased enjoyment, burnout, injury risk and the impact of specialization on long term athletic success is unknown. The extent to which parents exert influence, both directly and indirectly on the phenomenon of ESS was the major focus of the study.

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Swearing Makes You Stronger @#%^&!

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Good example of Crossfit Weight lifting - In Crossfit Always lift until you reach the point of Failure or you tear something” by CrossfitPaleoDietFitnessClasses is licensed under CC BY 2.0Dr Richard Stephens Senior Lecturer in Psychology

BSc Psychology Programme Director
Keele University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We had previously found that most people are able to tolerate having their hand in ice cold water for longer if they are repeating a swear word compared with repeating a neutral word. In these studies we have also reliably seen an increase in heart rate when swearing, indicating that activation of the fight or flight response is most likely to be what brings about the pain tolerance effects of swearing.

This latest study was designed to see if fight or flight effects of swearing would produce increase performance of physical power and strength tasks. We showed that swearing aloud can give people a boost in terms of physical performance. However, We expected that the effect would be brought about via the fight or flight response (i.e. elevated autonomic nervous system arousal), which is associated with increased adrenalin. But none of the biological measures that we took (e.g. heart rate) were  consistent with that. There was no evidence of a fight or flight response. So perhaps the effect is more psychological, perhaps associated with pain relief from swearing, or else a general disinhibition brought about by swearing in which people just “go for it” a little harder.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? 

Response: People already know to turn to the register of the swear words when they really need to succeed – look at cyclists powering up hills muttering oaths under their breath! In some ways we have verified verified objectively what is a well known way to get a boost. People can partake of swearing knowing that there is evidence that it can help them with physical performance.  

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this work?

Response: We are currently assessing the effects of swearing on a range of common exercises such as sit ups and push ups. we also intend to assess effects of swearing on physical performance that is less dependent on strength and power such as tasks requiring dexterity or co-ordination (e.g. dancing).

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

 Response: The research was unfunded research carried out by student volunteers at LIU Brooklyn and Keele University. I’d like to say a big thank you to the student volunteers – both investigators and participants!

Crowdfunding website address:- http://swearingmakesyoustronger.bigcartel.com/   People can buy hats and t shirts with the logo “Swearing Makes You Stronger” with the proceeds used to fund further studies in this area (and a charitable donation). 

Citations: Psychology of Sport and Exercise

Volume 35, March 2018, Pages 111-117

Effect of swearing on strength and power performance☆

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2017.11.014

RichardStephensaDavid K.SpiererbEmmanuelKatehisb

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1469029216301352

 

 

 

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The information on MedicalResearch.com is provided for educational purposes only, and is in no way intended to diagnose, cure, or treat any medical or other condition. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health and ask your doctor any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. In addition to all other limitations and disclaimers in this agreement, service provider and its third party providers disclaim any liability or loss in connection with the content provided on this website.

 

Snowboarders Have More Upper Body Injuries Than Skiiers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“First day of snowboarding” by kaolin fire is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dr. Brett D Owens, MD
Dr. Owens is currently Team Physician for the US Lacrosse National Men’s Team, and
Team Physician for Brown University
Professor at Uniformed Services University and Professor at Brown University
Alpert School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study is a review of the literature on ski and snowboarding injuries. We summarize findings by our group and others on the injuries seen with these snow sports and report an overall increase in injuries as participation continues to increase.

Snowboarders have a higher injury rate and there are different injury patterns with skiers experiencing more lower extremity injuries (knee) and snowboarders experiencing more upper extremity injuries (wrist, shoulder, etc.).  Continue reading

Review Finds Antioxidant Supplements of Little to No Benefit in Exercise Recovery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Pills Vitamins Macro April 22, 2012 4” by Steven Depolo is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dr Mayur Ranchordas, SFHEA
Senior Lecturer in Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Sport Nutrition Consultant
Chair of the Sport and Exercise Research Ethics Group
Sheffield Hallam University
Academy of Sport and Physical Activity
Faculty of Health and Wellbeing
Sheffield

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: People engaging in intense exercise often take antioxidant supplements, such as vitamin C and/or E or antioxidant-enriched foods, before and after exercise in the anticipation that these will help reduce muscle soreness. In a new review published in the Cochrane Library we looked at the evidence from 50 studies. These all compared high-dose antioxidant supplementation with a placebo and their participants all engaged in strenuous exercise that was sufficient to cause muscle soreness. Of the 1089 participants included in the review, nearly nine out of ten of these were male and most participants were recreationally active or moderately trained.

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Traumatic Brain Injury Laws Reduce Rate of Recurrent Concussions in High School Athletes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jingzhen (Ginger) Yang, PhD, MPH Principal Investigator Associate Professor, Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University Columbus, Ohio 43205

Dr. Yang

Jingzhen (Ginger) Yang, PhD, MPH
Principal Investigator
Associate Professor, Center for Injury Research and Policy
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Dept. of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio 43205 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: From 2009-2014, all 50 states and the District of Columbia passed their state TBI laws, more commonly known as concussion laws, to mitigate severe consequences of concussions.

These laws often include 3 core components:

(1) mandatory removal from play following actual or suspected concussions,
(2) requirements to receive clearance to return to play from a licensed health professional, and
(3) education of coaches, parents, and athletes regarding concussion symptoms and signs.

Our study aimed to evaluate whether the laws achieve the intended impact.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main findings showed that:

  • The rates of new and recurrent concussions initially increase significantly after a law goes into effect. This is likely due to more people – athletes, athletic trainers, coaches, and parents – becoming aware of the signs and symptoms of concussion and actually reporting a potential or actual concussion. Lack of knowledge about concussion signs and symptoms may have resulted in underreporting of concussions during the prelaw period. This trend is consistent across sports in our study and other studies looking at youth sports-related concussions.
  • The rate of recurrent concussions shows a significant decline approximately 2 ½ years after the law is in place. This demonstrates that the laws are having an impact. One of the core function of these laws is to reduce the immediate risk of health consequences caused by continued play with concussion or returning to play too soon without full recovery. The decline in recurrent concussion rates in our study is likely the results of the laws requirements of mandatory removal from play or permission requirements to return to play.
  • Football had the highest average annual concussion rate, followed by girls’ soccer and boys’ wrestling. Males had a higher average annual concussion rate than females. However, when comparing the rates in gender comparable sports (basketball, soccer, baseball/softball), females had almost double the annual rate of concussions as males. These results are consistent with findings from other studies. It is possible that girls have higher risk of concussions than boys or are more likely to report injuries. Future studies are needed to look specifically at these disparities.

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Is RICE Best After Injury? Study Suggests Rest Prolongs Recovery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Monika Bayer PhD. Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen Bispebjerg Hospital Denmark

Dr. Bayer

Monika Bayer PhD.
Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen
Bispebjerg Hospital
Denmark

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Acute muscle strain injuries display a major clinical problem with a high incidence rate for both professional and amateur athletes and are associated with substantial risk for recurrence. Common clinical practice advices to follow the RICE (Rest – Ice – Compression – Elevation) principle after strain injuries but it has not been investigated whether patients really benefit from a period of rest or whether an early of loading following the injury would improve recovery.

In this study, amateur athletes were divided into two groups: one group started rehabilitation two days after the trauma, the other group waited for one week and began rehabilitation after nine days. All athletes had a clear structural defect of the muscle-connective tissue unit following explosive movements. We found that protraction of rehabilitation onset caused a three-week delay in pain-free recovery. In all athletes included, only one suffered from a re-injury.

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Playing Sports In Midlife Increases Chance of An Active Old Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Daniel Aggio, PhD UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health UCL Medical School University College London PA Research Group London, UK

Dr. Aggio

Dr. Daniel Aggio, PhD
UCL Department of Primary Care and Population Health
UCL Medical School
University College London PA Research Group
London, UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Maintaining a physically active lifestyle into old age is associated with optimal health benefits. While we know that levels of physical activity in youth predict physical activity levels in adulthood, how physical activity in midlife predicts physical activity in old age is not as well understood. It is also unclear how different types of physical activity predict physical activity in later life.

Using data from the British Regional Heart Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study involving men recruited between 1978 and 1980, we assessed how physical activity tracks over 20 years from midlife to old age. The study of over 3400 men showed that being active in midlife more than doubled the odds of being active 20 years later. Interestingly, sport participation in midlife predicted physical activity in old age more strongly than other types of physical activity, such as walking and recreational activity. The odds of being active in old age were even stronger for those men who took up sport from a younger age prior to midlife.

Sport was the most stable activity across the follow up, with just under half of men reporting playing sport at least occasionally at each survey. However, walking was the least stable; the proportion of men who reported high levels of walking rose from just under 27% at the start of the study to 62% at the 20 year survey, possibly because retirement might free up more time.

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Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Found In Brains of Nearly All NFL Players Examined

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Daniel H. Daneshvar, M.D., Ph.D. Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center Team Up Against Concussions | Founder Boston University

Dr. Daneshvar

Daniel H. Daneshvar, M.D., Ph.D.
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy Center
Team Up Against Concussions | Founder
Boston University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with repetitive head impacts. CTE was first described in JAMA in 1928. In the 99 years since, just over 100 cases of CTE have been described in the world’s literature.

This study nearly doubles the number of reported cases of CTE, with 177 cases of CTE in football players. Of note, 110 of the 111 athletes who played in the NFL had CTE. This study represents the largest and the most methodologically rigorous description of a series of patients with CTE ever published. Such a richness of data regarding the clinical and pathological features of CTE has never been previously compiled. As such, this study represents an important advance to the medical literature and an enormous scientific advance in our understanding of  chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

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Young Athletes Who Specialize In Single Sport May Raise Risk of Overuse Injury

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jacqueline Pasulka, OMS II
Des Moines University College of Osteopathic Medicine , Des Moines , IA
Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Sports Medicine, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago , Chicago , IL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In this study young athletes were recruited from both sports medicine and general practice clinics and were asked to complete surveys reporting on their sports participation, training patterns, and any sports-related injuries they had over the previous six months. We focused this study on the subset of athletes who met the criteria for being a single-sport specialized athlete based on their reported participation in only one sport and training for eight months or more during the year for that sport. Athletes participating in individual sports were more likely to be single-sport specialized than their team sport peers, and they also reported an earlier age at which they began specializing in their sport. Additionally, injury types differed among these two groups as single-sport specialized athletes in individual sport athletes had a greater proportion of overuse injuries, while single-sport specialized athletes in team sport athletes had a greater proportion of acute injuries.

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Evaluation of Athletic Hip Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher M. Larson, M.D. Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute Twin Cities Orthopedics Edina, MN

Dr. Christopher Larson

Christopher M. Larson, M.D.
Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute
Twin Cities Orthopedics
Edina, MN  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Until recently Athletic Hip and Pelvis disorders and the appropriate treatment strategies have not received the same attention as other sports related disorders.  There is significant overlap between intra-articular and extra-articular hip disorders that make this a challenging area of sports medicine from a diagnosis and treatment standpoint.

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Consequences of Interpersonal Violence Against Child Athletes Persist into Adulthood

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tine Vertommen, Criminologist Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences Universiteitsplein 1 Antwerp, Belgium

Tine Vertommen

Tine Vertommen, Criminologist
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences
Universiteitsplein 1
Antwerp, Belgium

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: A recent prevalence study into interpersonal violence against child athletes in the Netherlands and Belgium showed that 6% experienced severe sexual violence, 8% experienced severe physical violence, and 9% of respondents experienced severe psychological violence in sport (Vertommen et al., 2016). While general literature has repeatedly shown that exposure to interpersonal violence during childhood is associated with mental health problems in adulthood, this relationship has not yet been demonstrated in (former) athletes. Thus, the objective of the current study is to assess the long-term consequences of these experiences on adult mental health and quality of life.

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Competitive Athletes At Risk For Addiction

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Laurie de Grace

Master’s graduate from the Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Little is known about the development of substance addiction in the context of sport. There is substantial evidence showing a positive association between sport participation and alcohol use, particularly the binge drinking that is more commonly associated with athletes than non-athletes. However, the connection between sport participation and the use of other substances is not clear. We undertook this study to learn from the perspective of those in recovery from substance addiction, how sport may or may not have played a role in their substance use and subsequent addiction.

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Which Sports Reduce Risk of Mortality?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Emmaneul Stamatakis PhD, MSc, BSc Associate Professor | NHMRC Senior Research Fellow Charles Perkins Centre, Prevention Research Collaboration School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School The University of Sydney

Dr. Emmaneul Stamatakis

Dr. Emmaneul Stamatakis PhD, MSc, BSc
Associate Professor | NHMRC Senior Research Fellow
Charles Perkins Centre, Prevention Research Collaboration
School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School
The University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We examined the association between participation in different sports and risk of death during subsequent decade in a large sample of >80k adults aged 30 and over who lived in Scotland and England between 2994 and 2008 .

We found the following significant reduction in risk of dying from all causes among participants compared with non-participants: cycling 15%, aerobics 27%, swimming 28%, racquet balls 47%; there was no significant reduction in mortality for running/jogging and football/rugby. We also found the following significant reduction in risk of dying from cardiovascular diseases: aerobics 36%, swimming 41%, racquet balls 56%; there were no significant reduction in mortality for running, cycling and football/rugby. Results in both cases were adjusted for the potential confounders: age, sex, chronic conditions, alcohol drinking and smoking habits, mental health, obesity, education level, doctor-diagnosed CVD, cancer, weekly volume of other physical activity besides the sport (including walking and domestic activity.

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Detecting Underlying Cardiovascular Disease in Young Competitive Athletes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. James McKinney MD MSc FRCP(C)
Division of Cardiology
University of British Columbia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading medical cause of death in young athletes. Sporting activity may predispose athletes with underlying cardiovascular conditions to develop life threatening ventricular arrhythmias during physical exercise. Despite being a relatively rare event, the death of a young healthy person is a tragic event that is difficult to comprehend. The prevalence of an underlying cardiovascular disorder in young athletes that predisposes to SCD is approximately 0.3%.

Sudden cardiac death is often the first clinical manifestation of an underlying cardiovascular condition; up to 80% of athletes are previously asymptomatic. Pre-participation screening is the systematic practice of medically evaluating athletes for the purpose of identifying (or raising suspicion of) abnormalities that could provoke sudden death. There is agreement amongst sporting and medical bodies that athletes should undergo some form of pre-participation screening. An Achilles’ heel of screening is the significant number of false-positive screens that require subsequent costly secondary testing to rule out disease. Prevention of sudden cardiac death among athletes is a common goal, however the optimal strategy for its achievement is uncertain.

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Large Number of Fastballs Contributes To Need For Tommy John Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robert Keller, M.D., Chief resident Department of Orthopedic Surgery Henry Ford Hospital Detroit

Dr. Robert Keller

Robert Keller, M.D., Chief resident
Department of Orthopedic Surgery
Henry Ford Hospital Detroit

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Keller:  Injuries to the medial ulnar collateral ligament (the ligament torn in pitchers requiring tommy john surgery) are common in overhead-throwing athletes. Recent data supports that the number of MLB pitchers requiring tommy john surgery continues to increase, with estimates near 25% of all MLB pitchers undergoing tommy john surgery.   Recent investigations have attempted to analyze factors that contribute to UCL injuries with the aim to decrease the rate of injury. Studies have suggested that possible risk factors include pitching mechanics, pitch type (curve ball, fastball, etc), g, pitching fatigue, chronic overuse, and pitch velocity, among other factors.

Specifically, increased pitch velocity has been implicated as a risk factor for UCL injury.  However, no study has exclusively attempted to assess whether MLB pitchers who required Tommy John surgery pitch at a higher velocity than those that do not. Pitch type (fastball, curveball, slider, etc) is another significant factor that has been investigated as a contributor to UCL injuries. Various biomechanical studies have attempted to correlate pitch types with torque across the throwing elbow, with contrasting results: some suggest fastballs create more torque, whereas others found off-speed pitches produce increased stresses. Beyond not evaluating MLB pitchers, these previous studies also failed to evaluate the volume or amount of a specific pitch type thrown by these pitchers that may contribute to UCL injuries.

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Subtle Postural Control Changes In Some Soccer Players After Heading

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jaclyn B. Caccese MS The University of Delaware PhD Candidate Biomechanics and Movement Science

Jaclyn Caccese

Jaclyn B. Caccese MS
The University of Delaware
PhD Candidate Biomechanics and Movement Science 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recently, there has been increased concern regarding the adverse effects of repetitively heading soccer balls on brain function. While some studies have shown impaired balance and vision, it is unclear if these deficits are acute or chronic adaptations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in postural control and vestibular/ocular motor function immediately following an acute bout of 12 purposeful soccer headers.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: The main finding of this study was that women’s soccer players showed an increase in sway velocity, but no other changes in balance or vestibular/ocular motor function were identified.

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More Concussions When NFL Games Played in Below Freezing Temperatures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. David W. Lawrence, MD
Department of Family & Community Medicine
St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Lawrence: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion for NFL athletes is significant. There has been a lot of discussion recently about this risk of injury in the NFL and general player safety, particularly regarding concussions. The first step in improving player safety and lowering that risk is to identify the factors affecting injury rates. Once we can answer those questions, we can begin to modify player exposure.

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Wrestlers Face High Risk of Skin Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

High School Wrestling Wikipedia

High School Wrestling
Wikipedia Image

Kurt Ashack
Fourth year medical student at Michigan State University, Michigan
Kyle Burton
University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando, Florida

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Skin infections associated with high school athletics have been reported in literature since the late 20th century and while many skin infections are relatively minor, others can cause serious morbidity. Prior reports on skin infections among high school athletes have focused on specific sports or have evaluated relatively small numbers of athletes. No prior report has evaluated skin infections in a large national sample of United States (US) high school athletes across multiple sports.

During the study period, 474 skin infections were reported among 20,858,781 athlete exposures (AE); a rate of 2.27 infections per 100,000 AE. The largest number of skin infections occurred in wrestlers (73.6%), followed by boys’ football (17.9%) and boys’ basketball (1.9%). Baseball and swimming had much fewer cases. The most common infections were bacterial (60.6%), tinea (28.4%) and herpetic (5.2%) infections. Body parts most often affected were the head/face (25.3%), forearm (12.7%) and upper arm (8%). The average time for return to play was 3-6 days (45.5%). It was also interesting to note how many more infections there were in boys than girls. Girls’ volleyball had the most of girls’ sports, but all girl reports did not near the boy’s number.

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Pre-College Youth Sports Concussions Occur More Often During Practice

Thomas P. Dompier, PhD, ATC President and Injury Epidemiologist Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention, Inc Indianapolis, IN 46202 Adjunct Faculty Appointments Ohio University Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions University of South CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Thomas P. Dompier, PhD, ATC
President and Injury Epidemiologist
Datalys Center for Sports Injury Research and Prevention, Inc
Indianapolis, IN 46202
Adjunct Faculty Appointments
Ohio University Rocky Mountain University of Health Professions
University of South Carolina

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

D: Dompler: Per the Institute of Medicine’s recent recommendations to better describe the incidence of concussion in sport across the entire spectrum of youth sports (5-23 years), this study is the first to provide an apples-to-apples comparison using epidemiologic data provided by healthcare providers (athletic trainers) who attended all practices and games and used the same methodology to report concussions and student-athlete exposure information.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

D: Dompler:
a.  The main findings are that the risk (how many players out of 100 can expect to suffer at least one concussion during the season) is lowest in the youth, and increases with age.

b. Game concussion rates (how many players out of 1000 exposed during a practice or game, includes multiple concussions to the same player) are highest in college but practice concussion rates are lowest in college during practice.  This suggests more can be done during high school and youth practices to reduce concussion frequency (e.g. limiting how much time can be devoted to full contact, reducing player-to-player contact by teaching proper tackling without using full contact drills such as the Oklahoma drill and others).

c. While the rate is higher, there is still a substantial number of concussions that occur during practice (because there are more practices), therefore sports medicine staff should be available at both if possible (this is difficult at the youth level because of cost, however).

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Some Athletes May Need Salt Supplementation During Endurance Events

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Juan Del Coso Garrigós
Profesor CC. de la Act. Física y del Deporte
Responsable del Laboratorio de Fisiología del Ejercicio
UNIVERSIDAD CAMILO JOSÉ CELA

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: From a scientific point of view, it is well known that salt (either in capsules or included in a drink) can improve physical performance and several other physiological factors such as plasma volume maintenance, thermoregulation, etc in endurance activities.  These effects are more evident when the amount of salt ingested during exercise matches the amount of salt lost by sweating.  By using only sports drinks, it is impossible to replace all the salt lost by sweating because they only contain a relatively small amount of salt in their compositions (between ½ and 1/3 of the amount of salt lost by sweating).

In fact, some of the investigations that determined the effectiveness of ingesting salt in sports have been financed by most popular sport drinks trademarks.  However, sports drink companies only include a part of the salt lost by sweating because for them, taste is elemental for their markets!  I suppose that, if they include more salt in their commercially available drinks, they would be more effective to prevent dehydration and performance decline, but at the same time, the taste of the drink would diminish the amount of beverage ingested worldwide.

In this case, in the sport drinks market there is a well- established balance between taste and physiological effectiveness.

As an example, most “salted” sport drinks contain 20-25 mM of sodium while it is well known that sweat sodium concentration ranges from 20 to 60 mM (salty sweater can reach 100 mM!!).  This is not a regulatory limitation, because UE considers sports drinks to carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions that contain sodium between 20 and 50 mM.

Our main finding is: To ingest salt capsules, in addition to the habitual rehydration routines with sports drinks, improves performance in a triathlon.  This ergogenic effect was mediated by better maintenance of body water and electrolytes balances.

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Law Brings More Student Athletes To ER For Sports-Related Concussions

Dr. Pina Violano, RN, PhD Trauma Department, Yale-New Haven Hospital, Injury Free Coalition for Kids of New Haven Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital New Haven 06510, CTMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Pina Violano, RN, PhD

Trauma Department, Yale-New Haven Hospital,
Injury Free Coalition for Kids of New Haven
Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital
New Haven 06510, CT

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Violano: In July of 2012, Connecticut became one of the first states to enact legislation to ensure the safety and appropriate evaluation and management of sports-related concussions (SRC) among High School students. SRCs are a common occurrence in high school sports with their diagnosis increasing over the last decade. While the exact reasons are not known, public health campaign efforts and education may have facilitated improvement in the evaluation and detection of sports-related concussions and may have contributed to increase awareness and treatment.

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings?

Dr. Violano: Evaluation of two emergency department records revealed a marked increase in the frequency of high school student athletes being treated for sports-related concussions after the implementation of Connecticut’s SRC law. This suggests that Connecticut’s legislation is effective in improving the evaluation and detection of sports-related concussions in high school students.

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