How Many Calories Do You Add To Your Coffee or Tea?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ruopeng An, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Kinesiology and Community Health College of Applied Health Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Champaign, IL 61820

Dr. Ruopeng An

Ruopeng An, PhD
Assistant Professor
Department of Kinesiology and Community Health
College of Applied Health Sciences
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Champaign, IL 61820

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Coffee and tea are among the most widely consumed beverages in U.S. adults.1,2 Unlike other popular beverages including alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages that are typically consumed in isolation, many people prefer drinking coffee and tea with add-ins like sugar or cream. These add-in items are often dense in energy and fat but low in nutritional value. Drinking coffee and tea with add-ins on a regular basis might impact an individual’s daily energy/nutrient intake and diet quality.3 The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans suggests that “coffee, tea, and flavored waters also can be selected, but calories from cream, added sugars, and other additions should be accounted for within the eating pattern.”4

To our knowledge, no study has been conducted to assess consumption of coffee and tea with add-ins in relation to daily energy and nutrient intake at the population level. Bouchard et al. examined the association between coffee and tea consumption with add-ins and body weight status rather than energy/nutrient intake, and consumption was measured by a few frequency-related questions instead of a 24-hour dietary recall.5

The purpose of this study was to examine consumption of coffee and tea with add-ins (e.g., sugar, cream) in relation to energy, sugar, and fat intake among U.S. adults 18 years of age and above. Data came from 2001-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), comprising a nationally-representative (biennially) repeated cross-sectional sample of 13,185 and 6,215 adults who reported coffee and tea consumption in in-person 24-hour dietary recalls, respectively.

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Type of Sugar, Not Just Amount, Influences Metabolic Effects

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Marta Alegret

Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutic Chemistry
Pharmacology Section
School of Pharmacy and Food Sciences
University of Barcelona

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: In humans, an excessive intake of sugars has been linked to the development of metabolic disturbances, and therefore to an increase in the risk for cardiovascular diseases. Specifically, increased consumption of simple sugars in liquid form, as beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup or sucrose, has been linked to obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, two questions remain unresolved: what is/are the underlying molecular mechanism(s) linking these metabolic alterations to cardiovascular diseases? Are the adverse cardiovascular and metabolic effects of sugar-sweetened beverages merely the consequence of the increase in caloric intake caused by their consumption?

To answer to these questions, we performed a study in female rats, which were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group, without any supplementary sugar; a fructose-supplemented group, which received a supplement of 20% weight/volume fructose in drinking water; and a glucose-supplemented group, supplemented with 20% weight/volume glucose in drinking water.

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Most Gastric Bypass Patients Keep Weight Off After Surgery

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Matthew Leonard Maciejewski, PhD Professor in the Division of General Internal Medicine Department of Medicine Duke University School of Medicine Research Career Scientist and Director of the Health Economics and Policy Unit in the Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care Durham VA Medical Center

Dr. Matt Maciejewski

Matthew Leonard Maciejewski, PhD
Professor in the Division of General Internal Medicine
Department of Medicine
Duke University School of Medicine
Research Career Scientist and Director of the Health Economics and Policy Unit in the Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care
Durham VA Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: No study based on a US cohort undergoing current procedures has examined weight change comparing surgical patients and nonsurgical patients for as long as we have. This is the first study to report 10-year outcomes on gastric bypass patients and compare them to matched patients who did not get surgery. At 1 year, gastric bypass patients lost 31% of their baseline weight compared controls who only lost 1.1% of their baseline weight. At 10 years, gastric bypass had lost 28% of their baseline weight.

We also compared weight loss at 4 years for Veterans who received the 3 most common procedures (gastric bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, and adjustable gastric banding). At 4 years, patients undergoing gastric bypass lost more weight than patients undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or gastric banding. Given that few high quality studies have examined sleeve gastrectomy to 4 years, the 4-year sleeve outcomes contribute to filling this important evidence gap as the sleeve gastrectomy is now the most commonly performed bariatric procedure worldwide.

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Metformin Can Stop Weight Gain Seen With Some Autism Spectrum Disorder Medications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Evdokia Anagnostou MD Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in Translational Therapeutics in Autism Senior Clinician Scientist and co-lead of the Autism Research Centre Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital

Dr. Evdokia Anagnostou

Evdokia Anagnostou MD
Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in Translational Therapeutics in Autism
Senior Clinician Scientist and co-lead of the Autism Research Centre
Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Researchers from Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital / University of Toronto (Canada), Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Columbia University, and Vanderbilt University, led a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to examine whether metformin, a common type-2 diabetes drug, may be effective in counteracting weight gain commonly seen with the use of atypical antipsychotic medications, indicated by the FDA for the treatment of irritability in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Results showed that metformin was effective in helping overweight children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who take antipsychotic medications lower their body mass index (BMI).

Both FDA-approved antipsychotic medications for treating irritability and agitation symptoms in children and adolescents with ASD can cause a significant increase in weight gain, which in addition to increasing BMI, enhances long-term risk of diabetes. This complicates an already challenging issue as adolescents with autism spectrum disorder are ~ two times more likely to be obese than adolescents without developmental disabilities. Findings of this research are important, especially for families of children with ASD, as managing long-term physical health while also treating irritability/agitation symptoms, can help ensure that their child can participate fully in life (school, etc.).

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Focusing on Eating Healthy Foods You Enjoy May Be Your Path To More Successful Dieting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Meredith E. David
Marketing Department
Hankamer School of Business
Baylor University
Waco, TX 76798  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In the midst of the ongoing “obesity epidemic” in the United States and many other developed nations, programs and advice abound for encouraging individuals to manage their health and well-being through changes in food consumption. One common approach resurfaces time and time again: suggesting to the would-be dieter what foods they should avoid eating (e.g., “The following 10 foods should never be eaten . . . ,”) and/or what foods they should eat (e.g., “10 foods everyone should include in a healthy diet,”). Our research investigates the commonly heralded advice given to consumers to either focus on avoiding unhealthy foods, such as cake, or approaching and consuming healthy foods, such as kale. We demonstrate important differences in the implementation of and outcomes of these approach versus avoidance strategies for meeting one’s health-related goals.

Individuals who have high self-control are generally better at reaching their goals. We investigate how individuals with varying levels of general self-control differ in the way that they apply approach and avoidance dieting strategies. Our findings, as detailed below, reveal a novel explanation of the better outcomes observed by individuals who are generally more successful in their goal pursuit. The key findings are as follows:

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Whole Grains and Pasta Linked To Better Diet and Lower Body Weight

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Yanni Papanikolaou PhD Candidate, Masters in Public Health Nutrition
Nutritional Strategies Inc.
Paris, ON, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010, which consisted of information from more than 14,000 U.S. adults 19 years old and older. We looked at dietary eating patterns and compared those individuals that consumed grain and grain-based foods (both in whole and enriched forms) and compared to those who omit main grain foods from their diet. We examined nutrient intakes, diet quality and various health measures, including body weight and waist circumference, within each grain group and compared to adults not eating grain foods.
We found that people consuming certain grain foods had better overall diet quality, lower average body weight and a smaller waist circumference.

Specifically, adults consuming pasta, cooked cereals and rice weighed 7.2 pounds less and had waist circumferences that were 1.2 inches smaller compared to adults who didn’t eat grains. Although the public is quick to demonize enriched grains, our findings show that enriched grains provide vital nutrients many Americans fall short on, such as fiber, folate, calcium, iron, and magnesium.  Eliminating grain-based foods can have negative effects on diet quality and intake of essential nutrients. Continue reading

Early Postpartum Period Important To Prevent Long-Term Weight Gain

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Laura Mullaney

School of Biological Sciences
Dublin Institute of Technology
Dublin Ireland.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  There are gaps in our knowledge regarding postpartum changes in weight. There continues to be a dramatic increase in adult obesity and the postpartum period is a vulnerable life-stage for weight gain in women. Maternal obesity matters because it is associated with an increase in both fetal and maternal complications, it is technically challenging, it is economically costly and it carries potential lifelong health consequences for the woman and her offspring.

Thus, our aim was to compare trajectories in maternal weight and BMI between early pregnancy and four months postpartum and nine months postpartum, and to analyse these trajectories by BMI category.

Of the 328 women who attended all appointments, mean weight at the first antenatal visit was 69.3 ±14.3 kg, mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 25.3 ±5.0 kg/m2 and 14.4% were obese. At four months postpartum, the mean change in weight from the first antenatal visit was +1.6 ±4.2 kg, the mean change in BMI was +0.6 ±1.5 kg/m2 and 19.2% were obese. At nine months postpartum, the mean change in weight was +0.2 ±4.7 kg, the mean BMI change was -0.06 ±1.8 kg/m2 and 16.8% were obese.

Of women who had an ideal BMI in early pregnancy, 16.6% and 11.1% were overweight at four and nine months postpartum respectively. Of women who were overweight in early pregnancy, 20.3%and 14.3% had become obese at four and nine months postpartum respectively. Ninety percent of women who were obese in early pregnancy remained obese at four and nine months postpartum.

Women who had gained weight between early pregnancy and four months postpartum had a lower early pregnancy BMI and were less likely to be obese in early pregnancy. However women who gained weight between four and nine months postpartum were more likely to be obese in early pregnancy.

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Instant Oatmeal at Breakfast Reduced Hunger and Food Intake At Lunch

Candida Rebello, PhD candidate Louisiana State University Pennington Biomedical Research Center School of Nutrition and Food Sciences Baton Rouge , Louisiana
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Candida Rebello, PhD candidate
Louisiana State University
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
School of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Baton Rouge , Louisiana

 

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Oats contain a soluble fiber called beta-glucan. When mixed with liquids, this fiber induces viscosity or what is commonly called thickening. The degree of thickening depends on a number of factors such as the structure and concentration of the fiber, its molecular weight, and the ease with which the fiber will absorb water. These qualities of the fiber can be affected by various processing techniques used in the preparation of food products. Viscosity affects appetite by influencing the way foods interact with the mouth, as well as the stomach and intestines. Viscosity in the stomach can cause distension and promote a feeling of fullness. Viscosity in the intestinal tract delays digestion and absorption allowing nutrients to interact with cells and release hormones that reduce hunger and keep a person full for a prolonged period after eating a meal which is termed satiety. Viscosity in the mouth also affects appetite and all these effects often work in concert. In animal studies, oat beta-glucan has been shown to influence appetite regulating hormones, as well as reduce food intake and body weight.1,2 In human trials, several studies have shown that oat beta-glucan reduces appetite.3-10 In this study, we found that instant oatmeal eaten at breakfast reduced hunger, increased fullness, and reduced food intake at lunch, compared to an oat-based ready-to-eat cereal containing equal calories. Instant oatmeal had greater viscosity than the ready-to-eat cereal.

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Spinach Extract May Reduce Hunger and Caloric Intake

Candida J. Rebello and Dr. Frank Greenway Pennington Biomedical Research Center Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Candida J. Rebello

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Candida J. Rebello and
Dr. Frank Greenway
Pennington Biomedical Research Center
Baton Rouge, Louisiana

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Appethyl™ contains concentrated thylakoid membranes extracted from spinach leaves. By interacting with fats and slowing fat digestion thylakoid membranes promote the release of hormones that reduce feelings of hunger and keep consumers full for a prolonged period. In previous studies the spinach extract has been shown to promote reduction of body weight and fat mass (1-3). Studies have also shown that consuming the thylakoid membranes reduces the urge for chocolate and sweet foods in women (2) (4, 5). Research suggests that women tend to crave sweet foods whereas men prefer savory foods. Hence, thylakoids may influence reward mechanisms to promote an inhibition over eating, especially since some of the hormones released in response to delayed fat digestion influence areas of the brain that control reward-induced eating. Further, unlike pharmaceutical drugs such as orlistat, the spinach extract delays but does not prevent fat digestion. Therefore, the excretion of undigested fat which is an unpleasant side effect of these drugs is avoided. Thus, the effect of the extract on reducing the desire to eat is of great interest, especially if its effects are mediated in part through the reward system. Reward mechanisms can be activated outside of conscious control. In the current food environment which is rife with enticing food choices, reward-induced eating assumes importance.

The main findings of the study are that consuming 5 g of the spinach extract reduced hunger and increased fullness over a two hour period. Males in the study ate 126 kcal less under the thylakoid condition compared to the placebo.

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Mutated Gene Associated with Metabolic Syndrome

MedicalResearch Interview with:
Arya Mani, M.D. Department of Internal Medicine and Genetics Yale Cardiovascular Research Center Yale, New Haven CT Arya Mani, M.D.
Department of Internal Medicine and Genetics
Yale Cardiovascular Research Center
Yale, New Haven CT

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Mani: Our group has identified a gene that when mutated it causes a form of truncal (central) obesity that is associated with a cluster of coronary artery disease risk factors, including high blood pressure, insulin resistance and possibly elevated blood lipids. These associated risk factors are collectively known as the metabolic syndrome, which may lead to development of diseases such as diabetes and coronary artery disease, both of which were very prevalent in the populations we studied. All identified mutations by our group have been so far gain of function mutations, which means they increased the activity of the gene in pathways related to adipogenesis and gluconeogenesis.
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