Author Interviews, JAMA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Pediatrics, University Texas, UT Southwestern / 26.12.2014

Ron B. Mitchell, MD Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology UT Southwestern and Children's Medical Center Dallas ENT Clinic Dallas, TX 75207MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ron B. Mitchell, MD Professor of Otolaryngology and Pediatrics William Beckner Distinguished Chair in Otolaryngology Chief of Pediatric Otolaryngology UT Southwestern and Children's Medical Center Dallas ENT Clinic Dallas, TX 75207 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mitchell: The “gold standard” for the diagnosis of and quantification of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is polysomnography (PSG or a ‘sleep study’). However, the majorities of T&A procedures are done without PSG and are based on a clinical diagnosis. This is because PSG is expensive, requires overnight observation and is often unavailable. It is important to diagnose and quantify OSA as it allows for surgical planning and predicts the need and type of treatment after surgery. We used data from the Childhood Adenotonsillectomy (CHAT) study; a large multicenter trial (RCT), to look at the ability of clinical parameters to predict the severity of obstructive sleep apnea in children scheduled for a T&A. The main findings of the study are that certain clinical parameters such as obesity and African American race as well as high scores on certain validated questionnaires (such as the pediatric sleep questionnaire- PSQ) are associated, but cannot predict OSA severity. PSG remains the only way to measure objectively the severity of OSA. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, PLoS / 26.11.2014

Dr. Marcus Povitz MD Department of Community Health Sciences University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Adjunct Professor and Clinical Fellow Western University Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marcus Povitz MD Department of Community Health Sciences University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada Adjunct Professor and Clinical Fellow Western University Department of Medicine, Western University, London, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Povitz: Both depression and obstructive sleep apnea are important causes of illness and have overlapping symptoms. Both feature poor quality sleep, difficulty with concentration and memory as well as daytime sleepiness or fatigue. Previous research showed that depression is common in individuals with sleep apnea, but studies investigating the effect of treating sleep apnea on depressive symptoms have had conflicting results. Our study combined the results of all randomized controlled trials of participants who were treated for sleep apnea with CPAP or mandibular advancement devices where symptoms of depression were measured both before and after treatment. We found that in studies of individuals without a lot of symptoms of depression there was still a small improvement in these symptoms after treatment with CPAP or mandibular advancement device. In 2 studies of individuals with more symptoms of depression there was a large improvement in symptoms of depression. (more…)
Cognitive Issues, Menopause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 22.10.2014

Chitra Lal, MD. Assistant Professor Medical University of South CarolinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chitra Lal, MD. Assistant Professor Medical University of South Carolina     Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lal: We studied the prevalence of cognitive problems in early postmenopausal women (age 45-60 years) with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS+) and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS-) using a questionnaire called the Mail-In Cognitive Function Screening Instrument (MCFSI). We found that the mean MCFSI scores after adjusting for depression were significantly higher in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome+ then the OSAS- group, indicating more self-reported cognitive difficulty in OSAS+ women (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 19.10.2014

Adrian Baranchuk MD FACC FRCPC Associate Professor of Medicine Director, EP Training Program Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adrian Baranchuk MD FACC FRCPC Associate Professor of Medicine Director, EP Training Program Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baranchuk: In this study, we investigated whether obstructive sleep apnea increases the risk of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. We found the risk to increase by approximately two-fold for patients with obstructive sleep apnea, suggesting that this disease is a strong predictor of atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery. We also found that the risk increases in patients with more severe obstructive sleep apnea. This is an important association to explore since atrial fibrillation after coronary artery bypass surgery increases patient mortality, the risk of stroke, hospital stay, healthcare costs, and has substantial burden on patients and their families. It is also a common complication of the surgery, occurring in up to half of the patients. Knowing which factors increase its risk gives us a better understanding of how to manage it and mitigate its negative consequences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 12.09.2014

Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research Institute Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macey: People with sleep apnea are less able to control the blood flowing to their brain, in particular when they grip tightly, or have their foot put in cold water. We measured changes in blood flowing through the brain using an MRI scanner while people gripped hard, had their foot placed in cold water, and breathed out hard into a tube with a very small hole in it. These activities all lead to more blood flowing to the brain in healthy people, which probably helps protect the cells from being starved of blood and oxygen. However, people with sleep apnea send less blood that the healthy participants during the gripped and cold foot activities. A further important finding is that women with sleep apnea are worse off than men. The female patients showed much weaker blood flow than the males, even accounting for normal differences between men and women. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcia Klein M.D., Ph.D. Adjunctive professor Rio de Janeiro State University This study was conducted at the Discipline of Clinical and Experimental Pathophysiology - Rio de Janeiro State University and the financial support of FAPERJ. Medical Research: What was the main findings of the study? Dr. Klein: The main findings were that a diet with moderate calories restriction in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be able not only to reduce body fat but also to reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity and blood pressure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lancet, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 30.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Mary J Morrell Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute Professor of Sleep & Respiratory Physiology Imperial College, London Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Morrell: Our results showed that when older patients with obstructive sleep apnea were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) they had significantly less daytime sleepiness than those not treated with CPAP. A comparison of the costs and benefits of treatment suggested that CPAP would meet the usual criteria for being funded by the NHS. (more…)
Author Interviews, NEJM, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, University of Pennsylvania, Weight Research / 13.06.2014

Julio A. Chirinos, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Director, CTRC Cardiovascular Phenotyping Unit Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Director of Non-Invasive Imaging Philadelphia VA Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julio A. Chirinos, MD, PhD Assistant Professor of Medicine Director, CTRC Cardiovascular Phenotyping Unit Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Director of Non-Invasive Imaging Philadelphia VA Medical Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chirinos: The main findings of the study is that, among patients with obesity and moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea, obesity, rather than OSA, appears to be the primary cause of inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, both obesity and obstructive sleep apnea appear to be causally related to hypertension. In this population, weight loss, but not CPAP, can be expected to reduce the burden of inflammation, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. However, CPAP, among patients who comply with therapy, can be expected to provide a significant incremental benefit on blood pressure. The latter is an important potential benefit of CPAP and should not be disregarded. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 11.06.2014

Tetyana   Kendzerska MD, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow        Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ONMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tetyana Kendzerska MD, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.  Kendzerska: Based on a large sample of more than 8,500 participants with suspected sleep apnea, our study shows that among people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and controlling for risk factors for diabetes development, initial OSA severity predicted risk for incident diabetes. Measures of the physiologic consequences of OSA (e.g., low level of oxygen, sleep deprivation) were also risk factors for diabetes in this population. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Menopause, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 20.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rodrigo Pinto Pedrosa, MD, PhD Sleep and Heart Laboratory, Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco Pernambuclo, Brazil MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pedrosa: Perimenopause is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. This study evaluated the association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and arterial stiffness and hypertension in perimenopausal women. OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: ≥5 events/hour) and moderate/severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index: ≥15 events/h) were diagnosed in 111 (40.1%) and 31 (11.1%) of women, respectively.  Women with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea  had a higher prevalence of hypertension, were prescribed more medications for hypertension, had higher awake blood pressure,  nocturnal blood pressure,  diastolic blood pressure, as well as higher arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity: 11.5 [10.1 to 12.3] vs 9.5 [8.6 to 10.8] m/s, p<0.001) than women without obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Oxygen desaturation index during the night was independently associated with 24h arterial blood pressure and with arterial stiffness. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Respiratory / 02.01.2014

Dr. Peter Lindenauer MD MS Director, Center for Quality of Care Research Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, USMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Peter Lindenauer MD MS Director, Center for Quality of Care Research Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA, US MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Among a cohort of 250,000 patients hospitalized for pneumonia at 347 US hospitals, those with a diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea were twice as likely to be intubated at the time of hospital admission than patients without sleep apnea.  In addition, patients with sleep apnea had approximately 50% higher risk of needing to be transferred to the ICU after initial admission to a regular bed, and a 70% increased risk of requiring intubation later in the hospital stay.  Patients with sleep apnea stayed longer in the hospital and incurred higher costs than those without sleep apnea. (more…)
Author Interviews, Metabolic Syndrome, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Weight Research / 15.11.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Emilia Mazzuca Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine (DIBIMIS) Section of Pneumology and Dr. Maria R Bonsignore, MD Associate Professor in Respiratory Medicine University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main goal was to investigate gender-related interactions between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and obesity while taking associated metabolic abnormalities into account. We analyzed 423 men and 105 women previously studied for the association of OSA and the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (Bonsignore et al, Eur Respir J, 2012), to assess whether markers of general and visceral obesity were differently associated with OSA in men and women. Multivariate analysis showed that in men the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), an indicator of OSA severity, was associated with waist circumference, a marker of visceral obesity, and body mass index (BMI); conversely, in women AHI was associated with hip circumference, a marker of subcutaneous fat deposition, and neck size.  The results were similar when patients without a diagnosis of MetS were analyzed; conversely, in patients with MetS, waist circumference was the only significant marker of OSA in both genders. (more…)
Author Interviews, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disorders / 21.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marc L. Benton, MD, FCCP, FAASM Morristown Medical Center and Atlantic Sleep & Pulmonary Associates, 300 Madison Ave. Third Floor Madison, NJ 07940 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Benton:  When compared to a group of matched controls, 12 male golfers who had moderate-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) demonstrated statistically significant improvement in their ability to play golf (as measured by changes in the Handicap Index, the standardized indicator of golfing performance) after undergoing CPAP treatment for their condition.  Treatment adherence among the group placed on CPAP was unusually high. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM, OBGYNE, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, Sleep Disorders / 22.08.2013

Sirimon Reutrakul MD Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois 60612MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Sirimon Reutrakul MD Section of Endocrinology Department of Medicine Rush University Medical Center Chicago, Illinois 60612   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found a strong association between obstructive sleep apnea and gestational diabetes mellitus. In pregnant women diagnosed with gestational diabetes, the risk of obstructive sleep apnea is increased nearly 7-fold compared to those without gestational diabetes.  In addition, we found that in non-diabetic women, pregnancy is associated with more disrupted sleep. (more…)