How Do Viruses Trigger Cough In Asthmatic Children, Even Without Allergies

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education Professor & Chair of Pediatrics Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Case Western Reserve University

Dr. Piedimonte

Giovanni Piedimonte, MD
Steven and Nancy Calabrese Endowed Chair for Excellence in Pediatric Care, Research, and Education
Professor & Chair of Pediatrics
Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine
Case Western Reserve University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study proves that asthmatic children already have a hyperactive calcium channel that’s extremely sensitive to environmental triggers.

If these children contract a virus, such as RSV, the hyperactive channel causes more severe symptoms that may require care in a hospital setting.

When a child developed asthma or bronchitis in the past, doctors thought these conditions could only be triggered by environmental allergens. There was no explanation why two out of three children ages five and under who wheeze and cough – and still test negative for allergies.

We needed to explore the mechanisms of the calcium molecule and the epithelial cells, which seem to trigger these symptoms without an allergic reaction. If the molecule’s behavior is producing the cough, we just need to figure out how to control the molecule to properly deactivate the cough mechanism in the asthmatic child

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Small Kit Can Easily Detect Food Allergens On-Site

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Lee, Hakho, PhD Department of Systems Biology Harvard Medical School Boston, Massachusetts

Dr. Lee

Lee, Hakho, PhD
Department of Systems Biology
Harvard Medical School
Boston, Massachusetts

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The incidence of food allergy is increasing worldwide, particularly among children, and yet no handy test is available for general public. We wanted to solve this issue. Our pilot test showed wide variation in allergen contents in packaged food products and restaurant meals. Hidden allergens (like gluten in salad dressing, likely from additives) were also found.

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When Should Babies Be Introduced To Peanuts, Eggs and Cow’s Milk?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Malcolm Sears, Professor  MB, ChB, FRACP, FRCPC, FAAAAI Co-director of the CHILD Study Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine, McMaster Universi

Dr. Sears

Dr. Malcolm Sears, Professor
MB, ChB, FRACP, FRCPC, FAAAAI
Co-director of the CHILD Study
Division of Respirology, Department of Medicine,
McMaster University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study is a longitudinal birth cohort study commenced in 2008 with 3,495 families across Canada.  We recruited the mothers during pregnancy and are following their children to age 5 with the intent of determining the underlying developmental causes of allergy and asthma.

In the current analysis, we have looked at the relationship between the timing of first introduction of three “allergenic” foods (milk products, egg and peanut) and the likelihood of sensitization to these foods at age 1 year.  We found that earlier introduction was associated with a reduced risk of sensitization, which is consistent with some recent randomized controlled trials.  For instance, infants who avoided cow’s milk product in their first year of life were nearly four times as likely to be sensitized to cow’s milk compared with infants who did consume cow’s milk products before age 12 months.  Similarly, infants who avoided egg or peanut in the first year were nearly twice as likely to be sensitized to those foods compared to infants who consumed them before 12 months of age.

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Exposure To Furry Pets During Pregnancy and Babyhood May Help Keep Your Child Lean

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD Department of Pediatrics Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry University of Alberta

Dr. Anita Kozyrskyj

Anita Kozyrskyj, PhD
Department of Pediatrics
Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry
University of Alberta

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We have known for a while that early-life exposure to household pets can reduce risk for allergic disease; new studies also suggest a benefit in preventing overweight. Our pilot study in 2013 showed that postnatal pet exposure increases the number of different beneficial microbes in the infant gut. My team of 12, including first author and Albert Innovates-Health Solutions (AIHS) postdoctoral fellow Hein Min Tun, took the science one step closer to understanding this connection in our recently published work in the Microbiome journal. In a study of 746 infants from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study (CHILD) birth cohort, we investigated the impact of pet exposure during pregnancy or afterwards on infant gut microbes, and whether this depended on how infants were born.

In infants born vaginally or by cesarean section, pet exposure during pregnancy or pre and postnatally up to 3 months after birth increased the amounts of 2 bacteria found on dogs and cats. One is Ruminococcus, linked to lower rates of allergies in children. The other is a relatively unknown microbe, Oscillospira, reported to promote leanness. Another important finding suggested that contact with pets during pregnancy could reduce transmission of vaginal GBS (group B Streptococcus) during birth.

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Number Of Epipen Prescriptions for Kids Skyrockets

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lavanya Diwakar, FRCPath

Honorary consultant in immunology
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, and
Research fellow in health economic
University of Birmingham
Birmingham UK

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The rate of anaphylaxis (serious, potentially life threatening manifestation of allergy) has increased in the last decade. There have been some reports from other countries about an increase in the number of adrenaline autoinjectors being prescribed in children, but this has not been systematically examined in the UK.
We looked at a database of patient records from over 500 general practices, THIN (the Health Improvement Network), between 2000 and 2012. We found nearly 24,000 children who had been identified as being at risk of anaphylaxis by General Practitioners and prescribed epipens.

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Skin Testing Plus APP May Reduce Overdiagnosis of Penicillin Allergy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kimberly Gold Blumenthal, M.D
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Massachusetts General Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Over-reported penicillin allergies negatively impact patient care, as alternative drugs that are often used can be less effective, more toxic, more broad-spectrum (killing all of the good bacteria and leaving patients increasingly vulnerable to C.diff colitis), and more expensive. Most hospitalized patients who have a recorded penicillin allergy are not actually allergic. This has drawn attention by national organizations such as the CDC, National Quality Forum, and both allergy and infectious diseases professional societies. The message is clear: Address reported penicillin allergies in some way to improve care.
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Mouse Allergens Drives Asthma Symptoms In Many Children

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Elizabeth C. Matsui, MD MHS Professor of Pediatrics, Epidemiology, and Environmental Health Sciences Johns Hopkins University Baltimore, MD 21287

Dr. Matsui

Elizabeth C. Matsui, MD MHS
Professor of Pediatrics, Epidemiology, and Environmental Health Sciences
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD 21287 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We designed this study after our previous work indicated that mouse allergy was common among low-income children living in some urban neighborhoods in the US, that these children also had high levels of mouse allergen exposure in their homes, and that children who are both allergic to mice and exposed to high levels of mouse allergen are at greater risk of asthma symptoms, emergency room visits and hospitalization.   Given this background, we designed a randomized clinical trial to determine if an intensive professionally delivered mouse intervention was better than education about mouse control in reducing asthma symptoms and lowering home mouse allergen levels.

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Allergic Rhinitis: Three Years of Immunotherapy Gives Longer Lasting Symptom Control

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Stephen R. Durham, MD

Imperial College, London, and Royal Brompton and Harefield Hospitals
NHS Foundation Trust
London, United Kingdom

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Allergic rhinitis affects 1 in 4 the UK population and may compromise sleep and work/school performance and be associated with bronchial asthma. When nasal steroids and antihistamines do not work or cause side effects, allergen immunotherapy is an alternative. Immunotherapy using high doses of grass pollen allergen as monthly injections or daily tablets under the tongue are highly effective. Treatment for 3 years not only gives sustained improvement on treatment but also long-term benefits and disease remission for at least 2-3 years after stopping treatment.

This single centre study at Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital London included 106 adults with severe Hayfever followed up for 3 years, 2 years on treatment and 1 year after stopping treatment. In this double-blind trial, 3 randomised groups took sublingual immunotherapy, subcutaneous immunotherapy and placebo treatment. 92 completed the trial. Results showed that 2 years treatment with both modalities did not result in persistent benefit at year 3, although the researchers found that both treatments were effective compared to placebo during years 1 and 2.

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Protein Found To Enhance Ability To Kill MRSA

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Warren Leonard, M.D. NIH Distinguished Investigator Laboratory of Molecular Immunology NHLBI, NIH

Dr. Warren Leonard

Warren Leonard, M.D.
NIH Distinguished Investigator
Laboratory of Molecular Immunology
NHLBI, NIH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: TSLP is a cytokine that has been well studied in the context of T cell helper type 2 (TH2) responses and the promotion of atopic diseases. TSLP is naturally expressed at barrier surfaces, such as the skin; however, its role in skin infections was not previously explored.

In our study, we investigated whether TSLP plays a role in host defense to Staphylococcus aureus skin infections, using the most common strain of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) present in the United States.

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Many Children With Asthma Still Not Receiving Flu Vaccine

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Deepa Patadia, MD Wexner Medical Center The Ohio State University

Dr. Deepa Patadia

Deepa Patadia, MD
Wexner Medical Center
The Ohio State University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Influenza vaccination is recommended every autumn for all children 6 months of age and older. It is particularly important for children with asthma, who are at high risk of hospitalization or severe illness if they contract influenza infection. The rates of influenza vaccination in children with asthma have not previously been well studied, but Healthy People 2020 has set a target goal to vaccinate 70% of all children for influenza. We found that rates of vaccination in our large primary care population was much lower than the target rate, with less than 50% of all children receiving the vaccine each year over a 5 year period; however rates were higher in children with asthma, albeit still only at 55%.

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