Low-Fat Dairy Products Linked To Decreased Abdominal Fat, Increased Lean Body Mass

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Nita Forouhi, MRCP, PhD, FFPHM Programme Leader MRC Epidemiology Unit University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine Institute of Metabolic Science Cambridge Biomedical Campus

Dr Nita Forouhi

Dr Nita Forouhi, MRCP, PhD, FFPHM
Programme Lead & Consultant Public Health Physician
MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine
Institute of Metabolic Science
Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Past research has shown a beneficial link between some dairy products and risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms are not well understood. Body composition (total fat and lean mass) has been suggested as one pathway for the link, but the distribution of body fat and lean mass in relation to dairy consumption is not well studied. Based on this research gap, we aimed to investigate associations between types of dairy consumption and markers of body fat and lean mass distribution including: peripheral fat, the ratio of visceral (fat that surrounds the body organs) to abdominal subcutaneous fat (fat that accumulates under the skin) and appendicular lean mass (i.e., in the limbs).

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Childhood Antibiotic Use Linked To Higher BMI At Age 3

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Melissa N. Poulsen, PhD, MPH</strong> Postdoctoral Fellow Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Geisinger Center for Health Research

Dr. Melissa N. Poulsen

Melissa N. Poulsen, PhD, MPH
Postdoctoral Fellow
Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Geisinger Center for Health Research

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Several past studies report positive associations between early childhood antibiotic use (particularly in the first year of life) and body mass index (BMI) later in childhood. Studies have also observed positive associations with prenatal antibiotic use and BMI, but without information on childhood antibiotics, such studies cannot rule out an underlying causal relationship between prenatal antibiotic exposure and early childhood antibiotic use.

No study to date has concurrently evaluated prenatal and early childhood antibiotic exposure. We used mother-child linked electronic health record data to determine whether prenatal and childhood antibiotic use are independently associated with BMI at age 3 years.

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To Stay Healthy: “Keep your waist to less than half your height”

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Margaret Ashwell OBE, FAfN, RNutr (Public Health)
Ashwell Associates
Ashwell, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom.
Visiting Research Fellow, Oxford Brookes University

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings from this study?

Dr. Ashwell: In this study, the authors explore the differences in CVD risk factors between overweight and non-overweight people (by BMI) according to their shape (waist-to-height ratio -WHtR) Data for their analysis was taken from the Health Survey for England 2009 (HSE). They found significant differences in levels of total cholesterol (TC) and glycat­ed haemoglobin (HbA1c—a measure of blood sugar control used to diagnose diabetes).

Out of 2917 people aged 16 years and over, 346 classified as ‘normal’ by BMI, have WHtR exceeding 0.5 (12% of the total,sample, or 34% of normal weight people). These could be called non-overweight ‘apples’, who have a lot of fat around the waist but not a high BMI.

The researchers classified the HSE population into four groups (2×2) using standard boundary values of BMI (above or below 25kg/m2) and WHtR (above or below 0.5). The group with ‘low/normal BMI but high WHtR (non-overweight ‘ap­ples’) had significantly higher mean TC than the group with high BMI but low WHtR (overweight ‘pears’—people with a higher than normal BMI but less fat around the waist): 5.73mmol/L vs. 4.98mmol/L. Similarly, HbA1c levels were higher among non-over­weight ‘apples’ than among overweight ‘pears’ (5.62% vs. 5.33%). These differences were similar and also significant in both sexes.

MedicalResearch: Why do you say that piece so string can be used for primary screening?

Dr. Ashwell: Since a good boundary value for waist-to-height ratio is 0.5, you don’t even need a tape measure to screen those at risk. It can be done with a piece of string. Measure the height of child with string, fold it in half and see if it fits around his/her waist.   If it doesn’t, that child should proceed to the next stage of screening.

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Genes Influence Body Weight in Smokers and Never-Smokers

Marcus Munafò PhD Professor of Biological Psychology MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies School of Experimental Psychology University of Bristol United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Marcus Munafò PhD
Professor of Biological Psychology
MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit
UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies
School of Experimental Psychology
University of Bristol United Kingdom

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Munafo: We were conducting an analysis of data on smoking behaviour and body mass index (BMI), in order to better understand the potential causal effects of smoking on different measures of adiposity. Mendelian randomisation uses genetic variants associated with the exposure of interest (in this case smoking) as proxies for the exposure, in order to reduce the risk of spurious associations arising from confounding or reverse causality. As expected, we found that, among current smokers, a genetic variant associated with heavier smoking was associated with lower BMI, providing good evidence that smoking reduces BMI. However, we also unexpectedly found that the same variant was associated with higher BMI in never smokers. This suggests that this variant might be influencing BMI via pathways other than smoking.
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Type 2 Diabetes: U-shaped Association of BMI With All-Cause Mortality

Gang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA Assistant professor & Director, Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health, LSU Health Sciences Center Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LouisianaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA
Assistant professor & Director
Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab
Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health
LSU Health Sciences Center
Pennington Biomedical Research Center,
Baton Rouge, Louisiana
Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Hu: Many previous studies had small samples, and thus lacked adequate statistical power when the analysis was focused on those who are extremely obese (BMI ≥40 kg/m2). In addition, most epidemiological studies only use a single measurement of BMI at baseline to predict risk of all-cause mortality, which may produce potential bias. The current study indicated a U-shaped association of BMI with all-cause mortality risk among African American and white patients with type 2 diabetes. A significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed among African Americans with BMI<30 kg/m2 and BMI ≥35 kg/m2, and among whites with BMI<25 kg/m2 and BMI ≥40 kg/m2 compared with patients with BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2.

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Waist Circumference May Not Be Associated With Cardiometabolic Factors

Gerard Ngueta Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit, CHU de Québec Research Centre, Québec Québec, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Gerard Ngueta
Population Health and Optimal Health Practices Research Unit,
CHU de Québec Research Centre, Québec
Québec, Canada

MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main findings of our study are as follows :

1- Contrary to body mass index (BMI), the waist circumference alone (which indicate central obesity or fat distribution) is not associated with cardiometabolic factors under study (i.e., insulin, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and high-density lipoproteins levels). Thus, the apparent association –as found in previous studies- appears to be mediated through overall obesity (i.e., BMI). In the other words, the association observed in the previous studies between waist circumference and the cardiometabolic risk factors cited above could be mainly due to the strong correlation between waist circumference and BMI.

2- It is possible to estimate the independent contribution of overall fat and central fat on cardiometabolic risk factors by applying the residual model as previously suggested by Willet and Stampfer.

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Fried Food Consumption and Obesity Linked to Genetic Predisposition

Prof. Lu Qi, Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Lu Qi,
Assistant Professor, Department of Nutrition
Harvard School of Public Health and Channing Division of Network Medicine
Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Lu Qi: In this study, we for the first time provide reproducible evidence from three large cohort studies to show that the association between regular consumption of fried foods and higher BMI was particularly pronounced among people with a greater genetic predisposition to obesity. On the other hand, the adverse genetic effects on BMI were also amplified by consuming more fried foods, the effects among those who ate fried foods more than four times a week was about twice as large compared with those who ate them less than once a week.

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Genetically Elevated BMI Raises Risks of Hypertension and Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brendan Keating D.Phil Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics and Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Lead Clinical Data Analyst, Center for Applied Genomics Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Brendan Keating D.Phil
Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics and Surgery, University of Pennsylvania
Lead Clinical Data Analyst, Center for Applied Genomics
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

Michael V. Holmes, MD, PhD, MSc, BSc, MRCP Transplant Surgery Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USAMichael V. Holmes, MD, PhD, MSc, BSc, MRCP
Transplant Surgery
Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA


MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: We found that individuals with a genetically-elevated BMI had higher
blood pressure, inflammatory markers, metabolic markers and a higher
risk of type 2 diabetes, although there was little correlation with
coronary heart disease in this study population of over 34,500
European-descent individuals of whom over 6,000 had coronary heart
disease.
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Hearing Loss in Women: BMI, Waist Circumference, Physical Activity

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Sharon Curhan, MD, ScM
Channing Division of Network Medicine
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Boston, MA 02115

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Dr. Curhan: The main findings of our study are that higher body mass index and larger waist circumference are associated with an increased risk of acquired hearing loss, and higher level of physical activity is associated with a decreased risk of acquired hearing loss in women. Specifically, after adjusting for potential confounders, compared with women with BMI <25 kg/m2, the relative risk for hearing loss was 25% higher for women with BMI >40. Compared with women with waist circumference <71 cm, the relative risk for hearing loss was 27% higher for women with waist circumference >88 cm. Higher physical activity was inversely related to risk; compared with women in the lowest quintile of physical activity, women in the highest quintile of physical activity had a 17% lower risk of hearing loss. Walking, the most common form of physical activity among these women, was associated with a lower risk; women who walked 2 hours per week or more had a 15% lower risk of hearing loss than women who walked less than one hour per week. These findings provide evidence that maintaining healthy weight and staying physically active, potentially modifiable lifestyle factors, may help reduce the risk of hearing loss.

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CVD Risk: Metabolic Health, not BMI, determined risk in young women

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Søren Skøtt Andersen and Dr Michelle Schmiegelow
Study done in collaboration between Roskilde University Hospital
and Gentofte University Hospital in Denmark.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study?

Answer: The main finding of this study of young women was that a body mass index above or equal to 25 kg/m2 in metabolically healthy women was not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke) within 5 years of follow-up. A BMI >= 25 kg/m2 in women with any metabolic disorder was associated with a 4-fold significant increased risk of the end-point. As increasing BMI is strongly associated with risk of developing metabolic disorders, the key message of this study is to stress the importance of preventing the development of metabolic disorders in overweight/obese women during this possible “window of opportunity”.
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