Abuse and Neglect, Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, Pediatrics / 27.03.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aaron Drucker MD, ScM, FRCPC Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, Women’s College Hospital Scientist, Women’s College Research Institute Assistant Professor, Department of Medicin and Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation University of Toronto Adjunct Scientist, ICES  MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?   Response: Because atopic dermatitis is a chronic condition that is common in children, parents and physicians often wonder if it will affect overall child well-being, including their growth parameters. Previous studies were mostly cross-sectional, so we conducted a longitudinal study to follow children over time. We found that although young children with atopic dermatitis were somewhat shorter with higher BMI than children without atopic dermatitis, these differences were small and attenuated as children grew older. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Pediatrics, Toxin Research / 07.03.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeanette Stingone PhD Assistant Professor, Epidemiology Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: Lead is a well-established neurotoxin, particularly when exposure occurs early in life and in childhood. Associations between elevated blood lead levels and lower scores on tests of neurodevelopment and cognition are seen consistently across studies, even when examining lower levels of exposure. While reducing exposure to lead is the primary intervention to prevent these adverse outcomes, there aren’t many interventions designed to support the neurodevelopment of children who have been exposed to lead. Some municipalities consider elevated blood lead levels as a criteria for inclusion in Early Intervention programs. Early Intervention programs are mandated under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and provide services for children younger than 3 years old with disabilities or developmental delays. The objective of this study was to compare 3rd grade standardized test scores among children who had elevated blood lead levels early in life to see if children who had received Early Intervention services performed better on these tests than those who did not receive services. Using matching methods and an existing administrative data linkage of children who were born and attended public school in New York City, we observed that children exposed to lead who received Early Intervention services scored higher on standardized tests in both math and English Language arts than children exposed to lead who did not receive services.  (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 16.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Izzuddin M Aris, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Population Medicine, Harvard Medical School Division of Chronic Disease Research Across the Lifecourse Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: Puberty is a key stage during child development. Previous research indicates that children in the United States are entering puberty at younger ages. These children may be in danger of developing certain diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, later in life. A better understanding of how early life factors affect puberty development is important for combating earlier puberty onset. . (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Pediatrics, Respiratory, Yale / 03.02.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas Murray MD PhD Associate Professor, Yale School of Medicine Department of Pediatrics, Infectious Disease and Global Health Associate Medical Director, Infection Prevention Yale New Haven Children's Hospital MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: This study was performed by Yale- CARES (Children and Adults Research in Early Education Study Team) a multidisciplinary group of researchers that are interested in learning how the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted early child care programs in the US including the effects on both the children and those who care for them in this setting. This is important because when child care programs close it becomes very difficult for working families to find safe, affordable alternative care. We surveyed over 6000 child care workers from across the US in May/June 2020 with a follow up survey in May/June 2021. This includes both center based and home based child care programs. One question we were interested in was what things they were doing in their programs to reduce the risk of COVID-19. We then asked whether their program closed at any time in that year because of COVID-19. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA, Pediatrics / 18.01.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward Bell, MD Professor of Pediatrics-Neonatology Vice Chair for Faculty Development, Stead Family Department of Pediatrics Roy J. and Lucille A. Carver College of Medicine University of Iowa MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has supported the Neonatal Research Network (NRN) since 1986. The NRN, a group of US academic centers, is tasked with conducting research to improve the treatment and health outcomes of premature and critically-ill babies in US neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Every few years, the NRN publishes reports on the survival rates and outcomes of surviving extremely premature babies, those born before 28 weeks of gestation. These reports help us to judge progress in the care and outcomes of these infants. This paper is the 9th in this series of reports but the first that includes not only survival and in-hospital outcomes but also outcomes at 2 years of age.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, JAMA, Pediatrics / 25.10.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carmen Lim BSc(Hons), MSc, CStat PhD Candidate National Centre for Youth Substance Use Research Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences The University of Queensland Brisbane Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This review has systematically summarized the trends and products used for cannabis vaping using 17 studies published globally between Jan 1, 2003 and August 19, 2020. The pooled prevalence has increased for lifetime use (6.1% in 2013 to 13.6% in 2020), past-year use (7.2% in 2017 to 13.2% in 2020) and past-month use (1.6% in 2013 to 8.4% in 2020). Adolescents' preference for cannabis products may be shifting from less potent products (e.g., herbal cannabis) to highly potent vape oil and concentrates. (more…)
Author Interviews, Columbia, Emergency Care, JAMA, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Yale / 17.09.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Destiny Tolliver, MD National Clinician Scholars Program Yale University School of Medicine New Haven, CT 06510-8088 Katherine Nash MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Pediatrics Columbia University Irving Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study was motivated by work from our colleagues in the adult Emergency Medicine world. Earlier this year Dr. Ambrose Wong and colleagues published work describing racial disparities in the physical restraint of adults in the ED. This prompted our group to consider whether these disparities were also present for children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Duke, JAMA, Nursing, Sexual Health, STD / 12.08.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, PhD MPH, LCSW, RN, ANP-BC, PMHNP-BC, AAHIVS, FAAN Vincent Guilamo-Ramos is dean and professor at the Duke University School of Nursing, vice chancellor for nursing affairs, Duke University, and director of the Center for Latino Adolescent and Family Health (CLAFH) at Duke. Dr. Guilamo-Ramos served as a member of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (National Academies) Committee on Prevention and Control of STIs in the U.S. that wrote the recent consensus study report. He also serves as a member of the Presidential Advisory Council on HIV/AIDS (PACHA) and the HHS Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (National Academies) recently released a consensus study report on prevention and control of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the United States. The report entitled “Sexually Transmitted Infections: Adopting a Sexual Health Paradigm” includes a strong emphasis on adolescents and young adults as an important priority population for the response to record-level STI rates that have reached an all-time high for the sixth year in a row in 2019. The report also highlights the well-supported and crucial role of parents in addressing STIs and promoting sexual health among adolescents and young adults. In this new Viewpoint article, my co-authors and I, who contributed to the National Academies report as committee members or consultants, discuss the practical implications for health care professionals of engaging parents in adolescent sexual health services. (more…)