Older Women Face Greater Risk of Diabetes From Statins

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Mark Jones, Senior Lecturer
Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, School of Public Health
The University of Queensland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Multiple clinical trials have shown statins reduce LDL cholesterol, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. However statins are also associated with adverse events, including type 2 diabetes. There have been very few older women included in statin trials hence effects of the drug in this population are somewhat uncertain. Also, more generally, results from clinical trials may not translate well into clinical practice.

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Acute Kidney Injury Is A Frequent Complication of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Constadina Panagiotopoulos, MD, FRCPC Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology & Diabetes Unit British Columbia Children’s Hospital Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

Dr. Panagiotopoulos

Constadina Panagiotopoulos, MD, FRCPC
Department of Pediatrics, Endocrinology & Diabetes Unit
British Columbia Children’s Hospital
Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: I decided to conduct this study after observing a few cases of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) in children hospitalized with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (with two patients requiring dialysis) while on call in the 18 months prior to initiating the study. While caring for these patients, I scanned the literature and realized that aside from 2 published case reports, there had been no large-scale systematic studies assessing AKI in children with DKA. It immediately became apparent to me that managing patients with AKI and DKA was more challenging. On presentation to hospital, many of these children with DKA present quite volume depleted but fluid management is conservative because of the risk for cerebral edema.

One of the most important management strategies for acute kidney injury in patients with DKA is early detection and correcting volume depletion in a timely manner to prevent further injury. I discussed my observations and these clinical cases with pediatric nephrologist and co-investigator Dr. Cherry Mammen, a pediatric AKI expert, and he confirmed my initial literature review findings. Thus, we decided to conduct this study to better understand the scope of the problem and any associated risk factors.

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Diabetes Prevention Program Reduced Health Care Costs In First Year

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Maria L. Alva, DPhil Public Health Economics Program RTI International 701 13 Street, NW, Suite 750 Washington, DC 20005

Dr. Maria Alva

Maria L. Alva, DPhil
Public Health Economics Program
RTI International
701 13 Street, NW, Suite 750
Washington, DC 20005 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response:  Diabetes affects more than 25 percent of Americans over 65. The estimated economic cost of diagnosed diabetes is $245 billion a year. In spite of this we have almost no evidence of the impact of programs geared to stave off the cost of diabetes.

The Y-USA received a Health Care Innovation Award of $11.8 million from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services to offer a diabetes prevention program to individuals 65 and over with prediabetes. The goal of the Y-USA model is to get participants to lose 5 percent or more of their body weight and gradually increase their physical activity to 150 minutes per week.  The program lasts a year. The curriculum comprises sixteen weekly core sessions about healthy eating, exercise and motivation followed by eight monthly maintenance sessions.

Epidemiological data from other studies have shown that the risk of diabetes increases with increased levels of BMI. There is mounting evidence that it is possible to prevent or delay diabetes through life-style intervention. It is unclear, however, whether weight-loss interventions can yield reductions in medical spending.

The objective of our analysis was to establish whether the -USA Diabetes Prevention Program reduces health care spending and utilization among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries.

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Diabetes Drug Reverses Aging Medium That Promotes Melanoma

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Reeti Behera, Ph.D. Postdoctoral fellow in the Weeraratna lab The Wistar Institute Philadelphia PA

Dr. Behera

Reeti Behera, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral fellow in the Weeraratna lab
The Wistar Institute
Philadelphia PA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Malignant melanoma is an aggressive disease and is the cause of the majority of skin cancer deaths. In particular, older individuals have a much poorer prognosis for melanoma and are more resistant to targeted therapy than compared to young individuals. A recently published study from our lab has shown that age-related changes in secreted factors in the microenvironment can drive melanoma progression and therapy resistance.

Klotho is a protein whose expression levels decreases with aging. In this study, we have shown that a decrease in klotho levels in the aged microenvironment drives melanoma aggression and therapy resistance by promoting the oncogenic signaling pathway Wnt5A. We also have shown that reconstituting klotho levels in the aged microenvironment by using rosiglitazone, an FDA-approved drug used to treat diabetes, can reduce tumor burden in aged mice. We also show that Klotho expression is decreased in therapy-resistant melanoma tumors. Reconstituting klotho levels in therapy-resistant melanoma cells by treating with rosiglitazone can inhibit Wnt5A levels and MAPK pathway. We also show that rosiglitazone can significantly decrease therapy-resistant tumor burden in the aged mice, but not in the young.

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More Complications In Type 2 Than Type 1 Adolescent Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD Conrad M. Riley Professor of Epidemiology and Pediatrics Director, Lifecourse Epidemiology of Adiposity and Diabetes (LEAD) Center University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus Aurora, CO 80045

Dr. Dana Dabelea

Dana Dabelea, MD, PhD
Conrad M. Riley Professor of Epidemiology and Pediatrics
Director, Lifecourse Epidemiology of Adiposity and Diabetes (LEAD) Center
University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus
Aurora, CO 80045

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: These recent increasing trends in type 1 and 2 diabetes diagnosed in young individuals raise the question of whether the pattern of complications differs by diabetes type at similar ages and diabetes duration. The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Stud, looked at five health complications and co-morbidities of diabetes, including: retinopathy, diabetic kidney disease, peripheral, arterial stiffness and high blood pressure. The researchers studied 1,746 adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes and 272 with type 2 diabetes diagnosed when < 20 years, with a similar average duration of 7.9 years and at a similar age of 21 years.

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Diabetes Drug May Enhance Melanoma Chemotherapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Bin Zheng, PhD Assistant Professor Cutaneous Biology Research Center Massachusetts General Hospital Harvard Medical School Charlestown, MA 02129

Dr. Bin Zheng

Bin Zheng, PhD
Assistant Professor
Cutaneous Biology Research Center
Massachusetts General Hospital
Harvard Medical School
Charlestown, MA 02129 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer with more than 75,000 newly diagnosed cases in the US each year. Over the years, various genetic driver mutations have been identified that cause melanoma, including mutations in the genes BRAF and NRAS. Recent genetic insights into the development of melanoma showed that also mutations in NF1 can lead to melanoma. While there are targeted therapies available for BRAF-mutant melanoma, thus far no such therapies are available for NF1-mutant melanoma. We identified that using a combination of an ERK inhibitor, SCH772984, and the antidiabetic drug phenformin could provide a novel therapeutic strategy for NF1-mutatnt melanomas.

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A1C May Be Less Accurate Measure of Diabetes in African Americans with Common Sickle Cell Trait

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Mary E. Lacy, MPH

Department of Epidemiology
Brown University School of Public Health
Providence, RI

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hemoglobin A1c (A1C) is a blood test that is used to screen for and monitor diabetes. It measures average blood sugar control over the past 2-3 months.

A person with sickle cell trait is a carrier for sickle cell disease but often doesn’t have any clinical symptoms. African Americans are more likely than Whites to have diabetes and are more likely to have sickle cell trait. In this article we examined if A1C can be interpreted in the same way in people with and without sickle cell trait.

We found that, despite similar results on other measures of blood sugar control, people with sickle cell trait had lower A1C results than people without sickle cell trait. This means that A1C may underestimate diabetes risk in people with sickle cell trait.
We also found that, when using standard A1C cutoffs to screen for disease prevalence, we identified 40% fewer cases of prediabetes and 48% fewer cases of diabetes in individuals with sickle cell trait than in those without sickle cell trait. To me, this finding really underscores the potential clinical impact that the observed underestimation of A1C in those with sickle cell trait could have.

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Treatment With Liraglutide (Victoza) Reduces Fat Around the Heart

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism Department of Medicine University of Miami, FL

Dr. Gianluca Iacobellis

Gianluca Iacobellis MD PhD
Professor of Clinical Medicine
Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Department of Medicine
University of Miami, FL

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that epicardial fat, the visceral fat of the heart, is associated with coronary artery disease, diabetes and obesity. My studies have shown that epicardial fat can be easily measured with non invasive imaging procedures. Remarkably, epicardial fat has recently emerged as therapeutic target responding to medications targeting the fat. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog has shown to provide modest weight loss and beneficial cardiovascular effects beyond its glucose lowering action. So , we sought to evaluate the effects of liraglutide on epicardial fat.

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SYNTAX Score Predicts Better Results With Bypass Surgery For Type II Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Fumiaki Ikeno M.D. Program Director (U.S.) Japan Biodesign Stanford Biodesign Medical Director/Research Associate Experimental Interventional Laboratory Division of Cardiology Stanford University

Dr. Fumiaki Ikeno

Fumiaki Ikeno M.D.
Program Director (U.S.) Japan Biodesign
Stanford Biodesign
Medical Director/Research Associate
Experimental Interventional Laboratory
Division of Cardiology
Stanford University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We sought to determine whether the extent of coronary disease in terms of the number of lesions and their complexity in Type 2 Diabetes patients could predict major cardiovascular events, and hypothesized that revascularization would have greater effectiveness relative to medical therapy among patients with more number of lesions and higher complexity in coronary artery disease.

Coronary bypass surgery, catheter-based treatment, and medical therapy all had similar cardiovascular outcomes among patients with less complexity of coronary artery disease who had type 2 diabetes mellitus, stable ischemic heart disease, and no prior coronary revascularization. Among patients with mid or high complexity coronary artery disease, coronary revascularization with bypass surgery significantly reduced the rate of major cardiovascular events during 5 years of follow-up.

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Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Claims Rise Sharply in Pediatric Population

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Robin Gelburd, JD President FAIR Health

Robin Gelburd, JD

Robin Gelburd, JD
President
FAIR Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: For more than 20 years, an epidemic of obesity has been contributing to increasing rates of type 2 diabetes in the United States. During at least part of that period, both conditions have been found to be rising in young people as well as adults. Using our FAIR Health database of billions of privately billed healthcare claims, we sought to ascertain recent trends in obesity and obesity-related conditions (including type 2 diabetes) in the national, privately insured, pediatric population, which we defined as spanning the ages from 0 to 22 years. Our study period was the years 2011 to 2015.

We found that claim lines with a diagnosis of obesity increased across the pediatric population during the study period. The largest increase among pediatric patients was 154 percent, in the age group 19 to 22 years. Claim lines with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis more than doubled in the pediatric population, increasing 109 percent.

In most pediatric age groups, claim lines with an obesity diagnosis occurred more often in females than in males; by contrast, claim lines with a type 2 diabetes diagnosis were more common for males than females in most pediatric age groups.

Other conditions associated with obesity also increased in claim lines among young people. The conditions included obstructive sleep apnea and hypertension, both of which were more common in claim lines for males than females.

We also compared the percent of claim lines for pediatric type 2 diabetes diagnoses to the percent of claim lines for all pediatric medical claims by state. Using that standard, pediatric type 2 diabetes was most prevalent in Ohio, Pennsylvania, North Dakota, Utah and South Dakota. It was least prevalent in New Hampshire, Vermont, Delaware, Hawaii and Rhode Island.

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Continuous Glucose Monitoring System Improves Blood Sugar Control in Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr Marcus Lind

Associate Professor of Diabetology at the University of Gothenburg
Gothenburg, Sweden
Chief Physician of Diabetology, Uddevalla Hospital
Uddevalla, Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This was a randomized trial over 16 months (cross-over study with 26 weeks of each treatment and a between wash-out period of 17 weeks) of 161 persons with type 1 diabetes. The main purpose was to evaluate whether a “diabetes tool”, denoted continuous glucose monitoring improves the glycaemic control, known to be essential to lower risks for diabetic complications such as injuries on eyes, kidneys, nerves and the cardiovascular system. The study also evaluated whether the glucose could be stabalised, i.e. having less fluctutations (beside the average level per se) and whether well-being, treatment satisfaction and feeling more confident in the daily living to avoid low glucose values which lead influence the cognitive function and can lead to unconciousness. Earlier trials exist of this therapy in connection to insulin pumps. But it has not been tested in randomized trials with persons only using multiple daily insulin injections to administer insulin which is the most common therapy among adults with type 1 diabetes.

Another novelty is that the current CGM-system (DexCom G4) has earlier shown a high accuracy and positive treatment experience among persons with type 1 diabetes, but it has not been tested in long-term randomized trials. Of note this trial was performed among adults with type 1 diabetes.

Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a system where the patient has a sensor subcutaneously that he/she easily can change every week. It estimates the glucose level every minute and shows values on a hand-held small monitor (size of a small cell-phone) and whether the glucose levels are rising or declining. The hypothesis with the study is that if the patient has continuous information of the glucose level and trends it will improve treatment variables. The comparison group was that patients got information of their glucose control via capillary finger sticks which has been the general treatment for a long time period but can only be made at certain occasions since a procedure where blood must be taken from the finger tips.

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Gut Inflammation & Bacterial Changes Linked to Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof Lorenzo Piemonti, MD Professor of Endocrinology Deputy Director, Diabetes Research Institute (SR-DRI) Head, Beta Cell Biology Unit Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, San Raffaele Scientific Institute Milano Italy

Prof Lorenzo Piemonti

Prof Lorenzo Piemonti, MD
Professor of Endocrinology
Deputy Director, Diabetes Research Institute (SR-DRI)
Head, Beta Cell Biology Unit
Vita-Salute San Raffaele University,
San Raffaele Scientific Institute
Milano Italy

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The potential role of gut inflammation and microbiome is becoming a hot topic in the field of diabetes. Several very recent publications report the presence of intestinal abnormalities associated with autoimmune diabetes in both experimental rodent models and patients. We have previously published that, compared to healthy subjects, patients with type 1 diabetes or at high risk of developing type 1 diabetes shows increased intestinal permeability.

Among the factors that may modify the intestinal barrier and impact on its immune activation, the gut microbiota is at present the main suspect. Our study is the first in literature that had the opportunity to analyze the inflammatory profile, the microbiome and their correlation on duodenum biopsies of patients with type 1 diabetes, in comparison with patients with celiac disease and healthy controls. Previous papers pointed out a significant difference in the composition of the stool microflora in subjects with autoimmune diabetes.

A major advancement of our work comes from the direct analysis of small intestine, instead of studies on stool samples. In fact, because of their close functional and spatial relationships, as well as a shared blood supply, it is logical to consider the duodenum and the pancreas correlated. We found big differences among the groups: gut mucosa in diabetes shows a peculiar signature of inflammation, a specific microbiome composition and we also discovered a strong association between some analysed inflammatory markers and specific bacteria genera. We think that our data add an important piece to disentangle the complex pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes and more generally of autoimmune diseases.

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