Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, USPSTF, Weight Research / 23.03.2022

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lori Pbert, Ph.D Professor, Department of Population and Quantitative Health Sciences Associate chief of the Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Founder and Director of the Center for Tobacco Treatment Research and Training University of Massachusetts Medical School Dr. Pbert joined the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in January 2019 MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  Response: This is the first time that the Task Force has looked at the evidence around screening for eating disorders. It was important to address this topic because of the serious harm that these conditions can cause to people’s physical and mental health, and the tremendous toll eating disorders have on individuals and families. MedicalResearch.com:  What are the main findings? Response: After reviewing the limited available research, we determined there is not enough evidence to recommend for or against screening teens and adults for eating disorders in adolescents and adults who do not have signs or symptoms of an eating disorder or concerns about their eating. It’s important to note that this recommendation is not for people who are showing signs or symptoms of eating disorders, like rapid weight loss or gain, slow heart rate, delayed puberty, or a disruption of menstruation, or for those expressing concern about their eating. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA / 13.12.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Liise-anne Pirofski, M.D. Mitrani Professor of Biomedical Research Chief, Division of Infectious Diseases Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Medical Center Liise-anne Pirofski, MD on behalf of lead authors Mila Ortigoza MD, PhD, Assistant professor at NYU Langone Health and Hyunah Yoon MD, Assistant Professor, Albert Einstein Medical Center and the CONTAIN COVID-19 trial authors and team MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The study was designed to determine the efficacy of COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. It was designed and launched in New York City in April 2020 during the height of the first COVID-19 pandemic wave and later extended to sites in Miami, Houston, and other regions affected by subsequent waves of the pandemic. At that time, there were no validated therapeutic options for COVID-19, and there was clinical equipoise for CCP use in hospitalized patients. COVID-19 convalescent plasma was considered worthy of investigation because of the historical success of convalescent plasma in prior pandemics and epidemics dating to the beginning of the 20th century, and importantly, biological plausibility because convalescent plasma contains antibodies to agents from which people have recovered, and case series and observational studies showing signals of CCP efficacy in patients with COVID-19. The trial was designed to focus on patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 who required supplemental oxygen, but not mechanical intubation. At the time the trial was designed, hospitals in New York City were overwhelmed with severely and critically ill patients with COVID-19, an entirely new disease about which more and more was learned over the 11 months the trial was conducted.  (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, University of Michigan / 10.02.2020

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renuka Tipirneni, MD, MSc, FACP Assistant Professor Holder of the Grace H. Elta MD Department of Internal Medicine Early Career Endowment Award 2019-2024 University of Michigan Department of Internal Medicine Divisions of General Medicine and Hospital Medicine and Institute for Healthcare Policy & Innovation Ann Arbor, MI 48109 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: While U.S. adults age 50-64 previously had more limited options for health insurance before Medicare at age 65, the Affordable Care Act expanded the number of options, including Marketplace plans (e.g., through HealthCare.gov) and Medicaid. This expanded set of options may complicate decisions about health insurance near retirement. In addition, several policy challenges to the Affordable Care Act may add uncertainty to the decision-making process. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Sleep Disorders / 23.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chenlu Gao, MA Graduate Student Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Baylor University Michael Scullin, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Psychology and Neuroscience Baylor University  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: According to the World Alzheimer Report, dementia affects 50 million adults worldwide, and this number is expected to approach 131 million by 2050. Dementia patients often require assistance with daily activities from caregivers. The Alzheimer’s Association reported that, in the United States, 16 million caregivers spend on average 21.9 hours per week providing care for patients with dementia. Being a caregiver is stressful, which not only challenges emotional, cognitive, and physical health, but is also associated with shorter and poorer sleep at night. If a caregiver cannot obtain restorative sleep at night, their quality of life and their abilities to perform the caregiving role can be compromised. For example, sleep loss may jeopardize caregivers’ memory, causing them to forget medications or medical appointments for the patients. Sleep loss can also impair immune functions, causing the caregivers to suffer from illnesses. In the long-term, sleep loss is associated with cortical thinning and accumulation of beta-amyloid and tau, which increase the risks of dementia. Undoubtedly, there is a need to systematically study whether caregivers sleep less or worse during the night and whether we can improve their sleep quality through low-cost behavioral interventions. To answer these questions, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed 35 studies with data from 3,268 caregivers of dementia patients.     (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA / 04.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lucy Schulson, MD MPH Section of General Internal Medicine Boston University School of Medicine Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Research in the early 2000s in California demonstrated that racial and ethnic minorities, immigrants, and those with limited English proficiency (LEP) experienced high rates of discrimination in healthcare. Since those studies were published, California has made concerted efforts at the state and local level to address health equity; these efforts may have impacted perceptions of discrimination in health care. However, it is not known how perceptions of discrimination in healthcare have changed over the last ten years overall and for specific groups. This study sought to compare perceptions of discrimination in health care in 2003-2005 compared to 2015-2017 overall, for racial and ethnic minorities, among immigrants, and among those with Limited English Proficiency (LEP).  (more…)