Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Cancer Research / 05.08.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50542" align="alignleft" width="158"]Emeritus Professor Attila Lorincz, PhD Centre for Cancer Prevention Queen Mary University of London Dr. Lorincz[/caption] Emeritus Professor Attila Lorincz, PhD Centre for Cancer Prevention Queen Mary University of London  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The vast majority of women with cervical lesions are not at risk for cancer, however, because there is no way to accurately identify the very small proportion of women at risk of cervical cancer a recommendation for treatment is commonly given by doctors. Surgery on women with cervical lesions is risky for future pregnancies and can cause harm to the baby. Occasionally there are also problems in physical recovery and the mental well-being of the treated women. We wanted to see if the S5 DNA methylation test could identify the women who need treatment. We ran a two-year follow-up study on 149 young women with moderate dysplasia in Finland. Our results showed that the S5 test was by far the best method to reveal which women needed treatment. 
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 24.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50387" align="alignleft" width="170"]Melissa Simon, M.D., M.P.H.  George H. Gardner Professor of Clinical Gynecology Vice Chair of Clinical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Dr.Simon[/caption] Melissa Simon, M.D., M.P.H.  George H. Gardner Professor of Clinical Gynecology Vice Chair of Clinical Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Professor of Preventive Medicine and Medical Social Sciences Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Hepatitis B is a viral infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus, or HBV. HBV causes liver disease, which can be either a mild, short-term illness, or a serious, lifelong issue. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has reaffirmed its 2009 recommendation that clinicians screen all pregnant people for HBV at their first prenatal visit. This is an A recommendation.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Social Issues / 15.07.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_50215" align="alignleft" width="134"]Dr. Marina Mendonca PhD RECAP project (Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm) Department of Psychology University of Warwick, UK Dr. Mendonca[/caption] Dr. Marina Mendonca PhD RECAP project (Research on European Children and Adults Born Preterm) Department of Psychology University of Warwick, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous research on the social lives of adults born preterm (under 37 weeks gestation) was inconsistent. This meta-analysis brought together data from up to 4.4m adult participants and has shown that those who were born preterm are less likely to form romantic relationships, to have had sexual relations or experience parenthood than full terms. For example, those born preterm were 28% less likely to form romantic relationships and 22% less likely to become parents, when compared to those born full term. When looking at sexual relations, preterm born adults were 2.3 times (or 57%) less likely to ever have a sexual partner. These associations were found for both men and women, and were stronger the lower gestational age. This means that the chances of finding a romantic partner or having children were lower for those born very (<28 weeks gestation) or extremely preterm (<28 weeks gestation), with the extremely pre-term born adults being for example 3.2 times (78%) less likely to ever having had sexual relations when compared to their full term peers. Despite having fewer relationships, we found that when adults who were born preterm had friends or a partner, the quality of these relationships was at least as good as those born full term. 
ADHD, Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Pharmacology / 08.04.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48399" align="alignleft" width="128"]Dr. Angela Lupattelli, PhDSchool of PharmacyUniversity of Oslo Dr. Lupattelli[/caption] Dr. Angela Lupattelli, PhD School of Pharmacy University of Oslo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: Between 1-4% of pregnant women take at least once a benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic medication during the course of gestation. These medications are generally used intermittently in pregnancy, mainly for treatment of anxiety disorders and sleeping problems, which are not uncommon conditions among pregnant women. However, data regarding the safety of benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic in pregnancy on child longer-term development are sparse. For instance, studies on child motor skills are only available up to toddler age, and little is known in relation to other child developmental domains. So, there is an urgent need to better understand whether prenatal use of benzodiazepine and/or a z-hypnotic medication may pose detrimental longer-term child risks.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 25.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jemianne Bautista-Jia,  MD Radiology resident Kaiser Permanente MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There were a few patient experiences that took me by surprise. I had a patient come to clinic for an initial consultation for uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) and I asked her how she knew about the procedure. She told me that she heard about it on the radio. Another patient who came in told me she heard about it from a close friend. Why did these patients not hear about UFE from their primary physicians? Being a woman, I know that if I had this condition I would prefer a minimally invasive option over surgery. Surgery comes with complications, and I definitely would not want an organ removed from my body if I could avoid it. Therefore I wanted to study UAE to hopefully provide additional objective data to the scientific community to support its use for the treatment of women with fibroids.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, OBGYNE / 20.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_48001" align="alignleft" width="125"]Dr. Kara Rood MDMaternal-fetal Medicine PhysicianThe Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center Dr. Rood[/caption] Dr. Kara Rood MD Maternal-fetal Medicine Physician The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: This is a simple, rapid, non-invasive test for early recognition of preeclampsia.  MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Aid in timely diagnosis to help provide closer observations to pregnancies with complicated by preeclampsia, to prevent the devastating adverse pregnancies outcomes for mom's and babies that can occur when pregnancies become complicated by preeclampsia.
Author Interviews, Columbia, Nutrition, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 12.03.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47856" align="alignleft" width="194"]Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, MD, MScEllen Jacobson Levine and Eugene JacobsonProfessor of Women's Health in Obstetrics and GynecologyDirector, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship ProgramCo-Director, CUMC Preterm Birth Prevention Center Columbia University Dr. Gyamfi-Bannerman[/caption] Cynthia Gyamfi-Bannerman, MD, MSc Ellen Jacobson Levine and Eugene Jacobson Professor of Women's Health in Obstetrics and Gynecology Director, Maternal-Fetal Medicine Fellowship Program Co-Director, CUMC Preterm Birth Prevention Center Columbia University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In 2016 our group published the findings of the Antenatal Late Preterm Steroids (ALPS) trial in the NEJM.  We found that administration of antenatal corticosteroids to women at high risk for delivery from 34-36 weeks decreased breathing problems in their neonates.  This treatment had been traditionally only given at less than 34 weeks. The current paper is a cost analysis of that trial.  We found that the treatment was also cost effective.  From a cost perspective treatment was both low cost and highly effective (the options are low cost, low effect/low cost/high effect, high cost/low effect, high cost/high effect). 
Author Interviews, Columbia, Depression, JAMA, OBGYNE, USPSTF / 21.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_47579" align="alignleft" width="134"]Dr. Karina Davidson, PhD Professor of Behavioral Medicine (in Medicine and Psychiatry) Executive Director, Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health Columbia University Medical Center Dr. Davidson[/caption] Dr. Karina Davidson, PhD Professor of Behavioral Medicine (in Medicine and Psychiatry) Executive Director, Center for Behavioral Cardiovascular Health Columbia University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Perinatal depression, which includes depression that develops during pregnancy or after childbirth, is one of the most common complications of pregnancy and the postpartum period, affecting as many as 1 in 7 pregnant women. The Task Force found that counseling can help those who are at increased risk of developing perinatal depression, and clinicians should provide or refer pregnant and postpartum individuals who are at increased risk to counseling. Clinicians can determine who might be at increased risk of perinatal depression by looking at someone’s history of depression, current depressive symptoms, socioeconomic risk factors, recent intimate partner violence, and other mental-health related factors.
Author Interviews / 13.12.2018

MedicalResearch.comInterview with:

Hadi Shafiee, PhD
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Engineering in Medicine
Brigham and Women's Hospital

Hadi Shafiee, PhD
Harvard Medical School
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Engineering in Medicine
Brigham and Women's Hospital
Harvard Medical School

 

MedicalResearch.com:  What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings?

Response: Last year we developed a smartphone-based technology for male infertility testing at-home, which was published at Science Translational Medicine. This year, we developed a similar technology for ovulation testing at-home. Here, we developed a 3D printed smartphone-attachment similar to a cellphone case that literally turns the phone to a small microscope. 

This low-cost smartphone attachment magnifies the saliva fern structures dried on a reusable device that will be  recorded using the smartphone camera. The entire sample-to-answer time is only few minutes (~7 mins). The developed ovulation test is fully automated, simple, and easy-to-use. 

Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, OBGYNE / 02.12.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_46338" align="alignleft" width="150"]Dr. Weimin Ye, MD MSC, PhD Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institue Prof. Ye[/caption] Dr. Weimin Ye, MD MSC, PhD Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institue MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine    disorder affecting 5-10% of women of reproductive age. Characterized by hyperandrogenism and metabolic abnormalities, PCOS is known to be related to various long-term health consequences, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and endometrial cancer. Besides, inconsistent results have been reported for the associations between PCOS and the risk of ovarian and breast cancer. Studies addressing the risks of other cancers are scarce. Thus, we conducted a large, population-based cohort study with a long follow-up and rather sufficient confounding adjustment to explore the full picture of associations between PCOS and the risks of various cancer types. We found that PCOS is a risk factor for certain types of cancer, including cancers of the endometrium, ovary, endocrine gland, pancreas, kidney and skeletal & hematopoietic system.
Author Interviews, Depression, Gender Differences, OBGYNE / 07.11.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Sarah Myers PhDDr Sarah Myers PhD Honorary Research Associate UCL Department of Anthropology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Postnatal or postpartum depression is unfortunately common after giving birth; a figure often quoted is 15%, but some studies have found much higher numbers. Postnatal depression is associated with a range of poorer outcomes for mothers and their infants, and the financial costs of treating maternal mental ill health put health services under considerable strain. Studies have found that providing additional emotional support to at risk mothers, for instance via peer support programmes or regular phone calls with health visitors, can reduce the likelihood of them developing the condition. Therefore, it is really important that we understand the full range of risk factors that put women at greater risk of becoming depressed after giving birth. There is increasing evidence for a link between inflammation and depression, with factors that trigger an inflammatory immune response also increasing the likelihood of depressive symptoms. The opens up the possibility of finding new risk factors for postnatal depression based on known associations with inflammation.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Fertility, OBGYNE / 05.10.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ernest Loumaye, MD, PhD Co-Founder and CEO ObsEva SA   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this announcement? How does Nolasiban work to decrease contractions and improve uterine blood flow? Response: The WHO has recognized infertility as a global health issue, and many couples undergo IVF treatment: there are more than 700,000 annual IVF treatment cycles in Europe and more than 200,000 in the U.S. However, more than 50% of IVF procedures do not result in pregnancy, and failure has tremendous emotional and financial costs to patients.  ObsEva is dedicated to improving fertility outcomes in IVF while also supporting the use of single embryo transfer to minimize multiple births that are associated with significant health risks to mother and baby, as well as significant health costs from premature delivery. Nolasiban works by blocking the hormone oxytocin, which is known to induce uterine contractions.  Nolasiban reduces uterine contractions and could improve uterine blood flow, both effects being favourable for the embryo to properly implant.
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 23.09.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_44732" align="alignleft" width="133"]Julie Flom, MD MPH Clinical Fellow Division of Allergy & Immunology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai Dr. Flom[/caption] Julie Flom, MD MPH Clinical Fellow Division of Allergy & Immunology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?   Response: Women who are minorities and of lower socioeconomic have particularly high rates of exposure to chronic ongoing adversity such as poverty as well as traumatic stressors in their lifetime and are also more likely to have low birthweight infants.  Not all women exposed to chronic adversity or trauma transfer this risk to the next generation – it is primarily when the trauma results in changes in her bodies’ ability to handle ongoing stress that the developing child can be impacted. Our group undertook a study to investigate whether women with increased exposure to traumatic stressors over her lifetime were at higher risk of having low birthweight infants and also whether effects of trauma would only be evident among women who produced higher levels of cortisol, the major stress response hormone, while pregnant.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, OBGYNE / 12.09.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_44401" align="alignleft" width="133"]Boyd E Metzger, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine (Endocrinology) Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University Dr. Metzger[/caption] Boyd E Metzger, MD Professor Emeritus of Medicine (Endocrinology) Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study showed that higher levels of a mother’s blood sugar during pregnancy are associated with higher risks of increased birthweight, fatter babies, delivery by Cesarean Section, low blood sugar in newborn babies and high levels of insulin in the cord blood at birth. It is not clear whether levels of a mother’s blood sugar during pregnancy are associated with risk obesity later in life as is known to occur in offspring or pre-existing maternal diabetes mellitus. With funding from the National Institutes of Health, the HAPO Follow Up Study addressed this in a subset of nearly 5,000 mothers and their children from the original HAPO Study 10-14 years later (average 11.4 years).
Author Interviews, CDC, Cost of Health Care, JAMA, OBGYNE / 07.09.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_44286" align="alignleft" width="128"]Michelle H. Moniz, MD, MSc Assistant Professor Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800 Dr. Moniz[/caption] Michelle H. Moniz, MD, MSc Assistant Professor Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We wanted to examine whether Medicaid expansion in Michigan was associated with improved access to birth control/family planning services in our state.  We conducted a survey of enrollees in the Michigan Medicaid expansion program (called "Healthy Michigan Plan"). We found that 1 in 3 women of reproductive age reported improved access to birth control/family planning services after joining HMP.  Women who were younger, who were uninsured prior to joining HMP, and those who had recently seen a primary care clinician were most likely to report improved access. 
Abbvie, Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pain Research / 26.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43518" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Dawn Carlson MD MPH Vice President, General Medicine Development AbbVie  Dr. Carlson[/caption] Dr. Dawn Carlson MD MPH Vice President, General Medicine Development AbbVie  MedicalResearch.com: Please provide some background on this announcement. Would you briefly explain what endometriosis is? Whom does it affect and how does it interfere with quality of life? Response: Endometriosis is one of the most common gynecologic disorders in the U.S that affects an estimated one in 10 women of reproductive age. It occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus starts growing outside of the uterus, where it doesn’t belong. The symptoms of endometriosis, including pain with menstrual periods and between periods, and with sexual intercourse, can be debilitating and significantly impact day-to-day activities of women’s lives, personally and professionally. Unfortunately, women with endometriosis can suffer for up to 10 years and visit multiple physicians before receiving a proper diagnosis. Unresolved endometriosis pain results in higher healthcare costs from emergency department visits and repeat surgeries. 
Author Interviews, Depression, JAMA, OBGYNE / 15.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43130" align="alignleft" width="175"]Rebecca Pearson, PhD Lecturer in Psychiatric Epidemiology Centre for Academic Mental Health School of Social & Community Medicine University of Bristol Dr. Pearson[/caption] Rebecca Pearson, PhD Lecturer in Psychiatric Epidemiology Centre for Academic Mental Health School of Social & Community Medicine University of Bristol MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: We know depression and anxiety are common in young women and during pregnancy when there are also implications for the developing child. It is therefore important to investigate whether symptoms are rising given the pressures of modern life. We found that compared to their mothers generation in the 1990s young pregnancy women today are more likely to be depressed. This was driven largely by symptoms of anxiety and feeling overwhelmed rather than feeling down. 
Author Interviews, OBGYNE / 11.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_43092" align="alignleft" width="133"]Dr Elizabeth R Cluett  PhD MSc RM RGN PGCEA PFHEA Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Southampton Southampton UK Dr. Cluett[/caption] Dr Elizabeth R Cluett  PhD MSc RM RGN PGCEA PFHEA Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Health Sciences University of Southampton Southampton UK MedicalResearch.com:What is the background for this study? Response: Water immersion during labor and birth is increasingly popular and is becoming widely accepted across many countries, and particularly in midwifery-led care settings. Immersion in water during labor and birth facilitates physiological labor and birth, offers women a non-pharmacological pain relief option and facilitates a sense of choice, control and comfort; qualities strongly associated with women’s satisfaction with their birth experience.
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Nutrition, OBGYNE / 05.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42888" align="alignleft" width="135"]Joshua L. Roffman, MD Department of Psychiatry Mass General Hospital Dr. Roffman[/caption] Joshua L. Roffman, MD Department of Psychiatry Mass General Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Autism, schizophrenia, and other serious mental illness affecting young people are chronic, debilitating, and incurable at present.  Recent public health studies have associated prenatal exposure to folic acid, a B-vitamin, with reduced subsequent risk of these illnesses.  However, until this point, biological evidence supporting a causal relationship between prenatal folic acid exposure and reduced psychiatric risk has remained elusive. We leveraged the rollout of government-mandated folic acid fortification of grain products in the U.S. from 1996-98 as a "natural experiment" to determine whether increased prenatal folic acid exposure influenced subsequent brain development.  This intervention, implemented to reduce risk of spina bifida and other disabling neural tube defects in infants, rapidly doubled blood folate levels among women of childbearing age in surveillance studies. Across two large, independent cohorts of youths age 8 to 18 who received MRI scans, we observed increased cortical thickness, and a delay in age-related cortical thinning, in brain regions associated with schizophrenia risk among individuals who were born during or after the fortification rollout, compared to those born just before it.  Further, delayed cortical thinning also predicted reduced risk of psychosis spectrum symptoms, a finding that suggests biological plausibility in light of previous work demonstrating early and accelerated cortical thinning among school-aged individuals with autism or psychosis.
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, OBGYNE / 04.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42932" align="alignleft" width="133"]Gina Ogilvie | MD MSc FCFP DrPH Professor | Faculty of Medicine | University of British Columbia Canada Research Chair | Global control of HPV related disease and cancer Senior Public Health Scientist | BC Centre for Disease Control Senior Research Advisor | BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre Vancouver, BC Dr. Gina Ogilvie[/caption] Dr. Gina Ogilvie | MD MSc FCFP DrPH Professor | Faculty of Medicine | University of British Columbia Canada Research Chair | Global control of HPV related disease and cancer Senior Public Health Scientist | BC Centre for Disease Control Senior Research Advisor | BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre Vancouver, BC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: HPV is known to be the cause of 99% of cervcial cancers. In this study, we compared the routine screening test for cervical cancer, Pap test, to HPV testing. We found that by using HPV testing, women were significantly more likely to have cervical pre-cancers detected earlier. In addition, women with negative HPV tests were significantly less likely to have pre-cancers 48 months later.
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 03.07.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42854" align="alignleft" width="128"]Jennifer J. Stuart, ScD Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Reproductive & Cardiovascular Epidemiology  Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health  Division of Women's Health Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Dr. Stuart[/caption] Jennifer J. Stuart, ScD Postdoctoral Research Fellow in Reproductive & Cardiovascular Epidemiology Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Division of Women's Health Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Preeclampsia and gestational hypertension are common pregnancy complications involving high blood pressure that develops for the first time during pregnancy and returns to normal after delivery. Approximately 10 to 15% of all women who have given birth have a history of either preeclampsia or gestational hypertension. Previous studies have shown that women with a history of high blood pressure in pregnancy are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease events like heart attack and stroke later in life when compared to women with normal blood pressure in pregnancy. However, what is less clear is to what extent these women are more likely to develop chronic hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol and when these risk factors begin to emerge after pregnancy. We examined this question in a cohort of nearly 60,000 American women who we were able to follow for up to 50 years after their first pregnancy. Previous studies have been limited by small numbers, short follow-up, or a lack of information on shared risk factors, such as pre-pregnancy body mass index, smoking, and family history. This research was conducted within the Nurses’ Health Study II, which collected data on these pre-pregnancy factors in tens of thousands of women over several decades.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE, Surgical Research / 29.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42645" align="alignleft" width="141"]Sarah CM Roberts, DrPH Associate Professor ObGyn&RS Zuckerberg San Francisco General UCSF Dr. Roberts[/caption] Sarah CM Roberts, DrPH Associate Professor ObGyn&RS Zuckerberg San Francisco General UCSF MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Thirteen states have laws that require abortions to be provided in Ambulatory Surgery Centers (ASCs); many of these laws apply only in the second trimester.  We examined outcomes from more than 50,000 abortions provided in two facility types:  Ambulatory Surgery Centers and office-based settings. We found that there was no significant difference in abortion-related complications across facility type; in both settings, about 3.3% had any complication and about 0.3% had a major complication.  There also was no significant difference in complications across facility types for second trimester and later abortions.
Author Interviews, OBGYNE, Pediatrics / 23.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42683" align="alignleft" width="159"]Melissa Lorenzo MD Pediatric medical resident Dr. Lorenzo[/caption] Melissa Lorenzo MD Pediatric medical resident Dr. Lorenzo is currently training at the University of Toronto, however the research was conducted while a medical student at Queens University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Preterm infants are born before 37 weeks gestation, with late preterm neonates defined as infants born between 34 weeks to 37 weeks gestation. Of all preterm births, over 70% of babies are born in the late preterm period. Late preterm births are common, affecting 12.5% of all births in the United States. Compared to infants born at term, late preterm neonates are at increased risk for many common complications following birth such as jaundice, low blood sugar, and respiratory distress, prolong hospital stay, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and increase readmission rate after hospital discharge. There are many causes for preterm delivery- two important ones are early onset of labour either spontaneous or after premature rupture of membranes, and medically indicated delivery prior to full term gestation due to chronic diseases in mother affecting her health in pregnancy, fetal medical reasons, or placental insufficiency. There is a debate that the risk of neonatal complications is affected by the causes of preterm delivery with immaturity acting as a contributing factor. The relative contribution of immaturity versus the reason for delivery and the resulting neonatal complications is unclear.
Author Interviews, CMAJ, OBGYNE / 19.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: “Birth” by Sharon Mollerus is licensed under CC BY 2.0Giulia Muraca, PhD, MPH Postdoctoral Fellow School of Population and Public Health BC Children’s Hospital Research Institute Faculty of Medicine University of British Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: While cesarean delivery rates have increased in Canada over the last few decades, as in most industrialized settings, the rate of forceps and vacuum deliveries have declined. These opposing trends have led to recommendations to increase forceps and vacuum delivery rates as a strategy to reduce cesarean delivery rates. We found that the rate of obstetric trauma in Canada increased significantly in recent years, especially among forceps deliveries. In first-time mothers, the rate of obstetric trauma increased by 7% among forceps deliveries (from 19.4% in 2004 to 26.5% in 2014) and in women who had a previous cesarean delivery, the rate of obstetric trauma among forceps deliveries increased by 9% (from 16.6% to 25.6%). We found that a 1% increase in the forceps and vacuum delivery rate in Canada was associated with approximately 700 additional cases of obstetric trauma and 18 additional cases of severe birth trauma annually among first-time mothers alone. 
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, OBGYNE / 12.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sheryl L. Rifas-Shiman, MPH Lead Research Analyst Department of Population Medicine Harvard Medical School and Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Institute Landmark Center Boston, MA 02215  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Caesarean delivery rates remain high and variable across hospitals, regions, and countries. Caesarean delivery may be a risk factor for childhood obesity, possibly because delivery route can influence the intestinal microbiomes, which may influence energy regulation. Previously reported associations of caesarean delivery with childhood obesity may be confounded by maternal BMI and sociocultural factors. To address this possibility, we studied sibling pairs from the Linked CENTURY Study, a longitudinal clinical database of well-child visits in Massachusetts linked to each child’s birth certificate, to isolate the effect of caesarean delivery from most other factors.
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, OBGYNE / 12.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42314" align="alignleft" width="114"]Manish Sagar, MD Assistant Professor of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine Boston MA  Dr. Sagar[/caption] Manish Sagar, MD Infectious Disease Physician at Boston Medical Center Boston MA  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Women compromise the majority of new infections in the world and most of them acquire the virus after sexual exposure.  The goal of the study was to understand how HIV establishes initial infection in the female genital tract. We obtained discarded vaginal tissue and isolated cells present in the outermost layer that contact the virus during exposure.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 11.06.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_42306" align="alignleft" width="159"]Sandra T. Davidge, PhD, FCAHS Executive Director, Women and Children's Health Research Institute Canada Research Chair in Maternal and Perinatal Cardiovascular Health Professor, Depts. of Ob/Gyn and Physiology University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta Canada Dr. Davidge[/caption] Sandra T. Davidge, PhD, FCAHS Executive Director, Women and Children's Health Research Institute Canada Research Chair in Maternal and Perinatal Cardiovascular Health Professor, Depts. of Ob/Gyn and Physiology University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This research contributes to the growing body of literature that developmental programming of adult onset cardiovascular disease originates in the womb. Our study is among the first to discover that maternal age may be considered a ‘prenatal stress’ in certain circumstances.
Author Interviews, JAMA, OBGYNE / 16.05.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_41636" align="alignleft" width="165"]Dr. Cande V. Ananth, PhD, MPH Professor of Epidemiology and Vigil G. Damon Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology Columbia University Medical Center Dr. Ananth[/caption] Dr. Cande V. Ananth, PhD, MPH Adjunct professor Department of Health Policy and Management Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Preterm delivery rates have declined between 2005 and 2014 in the US and in several European countries. Since reductions in preterm and early term deliveries, and perinatal mortality remain a global health priority, determining the relationship between gestational age distribution and perinatal mortality, remains a challenge. Efforts expended to a more complete understanding of the impact of new interventions, policies, and practices on reducing the burden of early deliveries, and in turn improvements in perinatal survival will be of tremendous benefit for clinical management and care of women during their pregnancy and the newborn.