Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, Chemotherapy, End of Life Care / 05.03.2014

Holly G. Prigerson, Ph.D. Irving Sherwood Wright Professor in Geriatrics Professor of Sociology in Medicine Co-Director, Center for End-of-Life Research Weill Cornell Medical College New York Presbyterian Hospital New York City, New York 10065 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Holly G. Prigerson, Ph.D. Irving Sherwood Wright Professor in Geriatrics Professor of Sociology in Medicine Co-Director, Center for End-of-Life Research Weill Cornell Medical College New York Presbyterian Hospital New York City, New York 10065 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Prigerson: The main outcome of the research was end-of-life treatment and location of death with secondary outcomes being length of survival, late hospice referrals and attainment of preferred place of death. We found that 56 percent of patients receiving palliative chemotherapy in their final months. Patients treated with palliative chemotherapy were five to 10 times more likely to receive intensive medical care and to die in an intensive care unit (ICU). Fewer than half died at home as compared with two-thirds of patients with metastatic cancer not treated with palliative chemotherapy. More specifically, we found that palliative chemotherapy was associated with:
  • Increased use of CPR and mechanical ventilation: 14% versus 2%
  • Late hospice referral: 54% versus 37%
  • Death in an ICU: 11% versus 2%
  • Death away from home: 47% versus 66%
  • Death away from their preferred place: 65% versus 80%
Survival did not differ significantly between patients who received palliative chemotherapy and those who did not (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 0.90-1.38). Additionally, patients receiving palliative chemotherapy were less likely to acknowledge their illness as terminal (35% versus 49%, P=0.04), to have discussed end-of-life wishes with a physician (37% versus 48%, P=0.03), and to have completed a do-not-resuscitate order (36% versus 49%, P<0.05). (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 05.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Julia Brotherton Victorian Cytology Service, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Dr Elizabeth Crowe The University of Queensland, School of Population Health, Brisbane, Australia NHS Borders, Department of Public Health, Melrose, Scotland, UK Prof. David Whiteman Group Leader / Department Coordinator QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Royal Brisbane Hospital, QLD 4029 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? 1. We conducted a case-control study in which we retrieved the HPV vaccination histories of young Australian women who were notified to the Pap smear registry with high-grade cervical lesions or with other types of cervical lesions, and compared them with the vaccination histories of women whose Pap smears showed only normal cytology. 2. We found that women with high grade cervical lesions were significantly less likely than women with normal cytology to have received 3 doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, equivalent to a vaccine effectiveness of 46%. 3. The vaccine effectiveness among 15-19 year old women was even higher at 57%. We believe this reflects the fact that HPV16 causes an even higher proportion of high grade disease in young women due to its higher oncogenicity and shorter latent period. 4. The HPV vaccine had 34% effectiveness against other cervical lesions (i.e. those not proven to be high grade lesions on histology). 5. We also observed that 2 doses of the vaccine were 21% effective in preventing both high grade lesions and other grade lesions. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, University of Michigan / 04.03.2014

Sameer Saini MD Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sameer Saini MD Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research, VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Saini: The way that quality measures are defined can have important implications for how care is actually delivered. Current colorectal cancer screening quality measures use age to identify screen-eligible patients, encouraging screening in patients between 50 and 75 years of age. But they do not explicitly incorporate health status. In this context, our study had two main findings.
  • First, by focusing on age alone, we are not screening everyone who is likely to benefit. Specifically, many healthy people over 75 years of age (who are outside the target age range of the quality measure) may benefit from screening, but the current measure does not encourage screening in this population, leading to low screening use.
  • Second, some people who are NOT likely to benefit are being screened unnecessarily, like those with serious health problems. For example, people between ages 70-75 with serious health problems (who have limited life expectancy) are unlikely to benefit from screening, and may even be harmed by it. But the current quality measure encourages screening in such individuals due to their age, yielding relatively high screening rates. If the system focused on age and health status (rather than age alone), screening use would be more aligned with screening benefit, and we would have better health outcomes.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors, Cancer Research, NEJM / 22.02.2014

Minesh P. Mehta, M.B., Ch.B. F.A.S.T.R.O. Professor of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine Radiation oncologist, University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center, Chair, RTOG brain tumor committee MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Minesh P. Mehta, M.B., Ch.B. F.A.S.T.R.O. Professor of Radiation Oncology, University of Maryland School of Medicine Radiation oncologist, University of Maryland Marlene and Stewart Greenebaum Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mehta: RTOG 0825 was a clinical trial evaluating whether the addition of a novel drug that inhibits tumor vascular growth, bevacizumab, to the standard of care for glioblastoma, an aggressive brain tumor, would prolong survival. Patients were allocated randomly to one of two different treatment regimens – the standard of care, which includes radiotherapy and a drug known as temozolomide, or another regimen of radiation, temozolomide and bevacizumab. The trial design was double-blinded, and therefore, on one arm patients received the bevacizumab, whereas on the other arm they received a placebo. The survival on both arms was equivalent, and therefore it was fairly concluded that bevacizumab failed to prolong survival when given initially as part of treatment for glioblastoma. Freedom from progression, referred to as progression-free survival was also measured on this trial, and although bevacizumab appeared to lengthen progression-free survival, this level of benefit did not meet the pre-defined goals, and is therefore regarded as statistically not demonstrating an improvement. Additional endpoints included outcomes reported by the patient, including the burden of symptoms, and the impact of these on the quality of life, as well as effects on the brain, known as neurocognitive changes. Bevacizumab did not improve these endpoints either. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, PLoS / 22.02.2014

Bodour Salhia, PhD Assistant Professor Integrated Cancer Genomics Division Translational Genomics Research Institute Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bodour Salhia, PhD Assistant Professor Integrated Cancer Genomics Division Translational Genomics Research Institute Phoenix, Arizona, 85004 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salhia: Our study identified novel rare genomic and epigenomic events underlying breast cancer metastasis to brain. We demonstrated that we could molecularly subtype breast cancer brain metastasis the same way we can subtype primary breast cancer. From this analysis we found that the Luminal B subtype was the most common subtype in our cohort, followed by Her2+/ER- enriched tumors and Basal-like tumors. Each of these subtypes displayed genetic and epigenetic features reminiscent of primary breast cancer. We demonstrated that these tumors have a strong predilection to grow by activating pathways involved in G2/M cell cycle progression, whereas, many genes involved in cell migration were epigenetically silenced. Broad amplification of chromosome 8q was common, which resulted in the upregulation of important genes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease, JNCI / 22.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jiyoung Ahn, PhD Assistant Professor of Epidemiology Department of Population Health NYU School of Medicine New York, NY 10016 Jiyoung Ahn, PhD Assistant Professor of Epidemiology Department of Population Health NYU School of Medicine New York, NY 10016 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ahn: Before we did our research, it was suspected that gut bacteria were related to colorectal cancer. We, for the first time, found colorectal cancer patients have a different gut bacteria composition than healthy subjects. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Chemotherapy, NEJM / 20.02.2014

Krishnansu S. Tewari, MD, FACOG, FACS| Professor & Director of Research Principal Investigator - The Gynecologic Oncology Group at UC Irvine The Division of Gynecologic Oncology University of California, Irvine Medical Center Orange, CA 92868 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Krishnansu S. Tewari, MD, FACOG, FACS| Professor & Director of Research Principal Investigator - The Gynecologic Oncology Group at UC Irvine, Division of Gynecologic Oncology University of California, Irvine Medical Center Orange, CA 92868 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tewari: The main findings of this study were that the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy resulted in a significantly improved survival of 3.7 months in a population of patients that have very limited options. This improvement in overall survival was not accompanied by any significant deterioration in quality of life and serious side effects were limited to 3% to 8% of the study population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nutrition / 19.02.2014

Dr. Jane Muncke PhD Managing Director Food Packaging Forum Foundation Zurich, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Jane Muncke PhD Managing Director Food Packaging Forum Foundation Zurich, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main conclusions from your work? Answer: Food packaging is a relevant, but still under-recognized source of chemical contamination in foods. Everybody is exposed to these chemicals on a daily basis, but we have very little understanding of the actual health effects caused by this chronic exposure source. We propose that epidemiological research tackles chemical exposures from food packaging as a new and highly relevant exposure source. Epidemiologist have played crucial roles in advancing understanding of health issues, for example cardiovascular disease caused by fine particulate air pollution. Through their work they have encouraged toxicologists to ask different questions, thereby supporting the generation of critical knowledge and, essentially, enabling prevention. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Breast Cancer, Mammograms / 13.02.2014

Anthony Miller, MD Director, Canadian National Breast Screening Study Professor Emeritus, Dalla Lana School of Public Health University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anthony Miller, MD Director, Canadian National Breast Screening Study Professor Emeritus, Dalla Lana School of Public Health University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Miller: The study involved 89,835 women aged 40 to 59. All underwent an annual physical breast examination, while half were randomly assigned to undergo annual mammograms for five years, beginning in 1980. During the five-year screening period, 666 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed in the mammography arm and 524 in the controls. Over the 25 year follow-up 180 women in the mammography arm and 171 women in the control arm died of breast cancer. The overall hazard ratio for death from breast cancer diagnosed during the screening period associated with mammography was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.85 – 1.30). The findings for women aged 40-49 and aged 50-59 were almost identical. After 15 years of follow-up an excess of 106 cancers was observed in the mammography arm, attributable to over-diagnosis, i.e. 22% of screen-detected invasive breast cancers, half of those detected by mammography alone. This represents one over-diagnosed breast cancer for every 424 women screened by mammography. By 2005, 3,250 of the 44,925 women in the mammography arm of the study were diagnosed with breast cancer, and 500 had died of it. The control group of 44,910 women had 3,133 breast cancer diagnoses and 505 breast cancer deaths. We conclude that annual mammography in women aged 40-59 does not reduce mortality from breast cancer beyond that of physical examination or usual care when adjuvant therapy for breast cancer is freely available. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Journal Clinical Oncology, Radiation Therapy, Sloan Kettering, Surgical Research / 12.02.2014

dr_monica_morrow MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Monica Morrow MD Anne Burnett Windfohr Chair of Clinical Oncology Chief Breast Service memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Morrow: The study is the report of a Consensus panel examining the question of whether more widely clear lumpectomy margins than no ink on tumor decrease local recurrence. A metaanalysis of published literature was used as the primary evidence base for the conclusion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer, Smoking / 12.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Masaaki Kawai MD, PhD Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Seattle, Washington MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Ever-smokers had a 1.3-fold increased risk of breast cancer. They also had a 1.4-fold increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. Current/recent smokers with a 10 pack-year history of smoking had a 1.6-fold increased risk of ER-positive breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, General Medicine, PLoS, University of Michigan, Weight Research / 09.02.2014

Jenifer I Fenton Assistant Professor Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jenifer I Fenton Assistant Professor Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fenton: This was a cross-sectional study, and thus, a snapshot in time. Although it cannot infer cause or temporality of obesity and colon polyp risk in men, it does show that obese men were more likely to have a polyp than their lean counterpart. In addition, there were serum biomarkers also associated with this risk. This could eventually lead to future blood tests to identify individuals at greater risk for polyps and inform screening recommendations. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Lung Cancer / 09.02.2014

Mariam El-Zein, PhD. Associée de recherche/ Research associate Unité d'épidémiologie et biostatistique / Epidemiology & Biostatistics Unit INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier Université du Québec MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mariam El-Zein, PhD. Associée de recherche/ Research associate Unité d'épidémiologie et biostatistique / Epidemiology & Biostatistics Unit INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier Université du Québec MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The overall indication is that a prior history of allergic diseases (asthma, eczema or hay fever) might decrease lung cancer risk. There was a 36% (odds ratio= 0.64, 95% confidence intervals: 0.44-0.93) reduction in lung cancer risk among subjects who reported a history of asthma. Hay fever was associated with a 67% (odds ratio= 0.33, 95% confidence intervals: 0.19-0.59) reduction in lung cancer risk. Smoking was accounted for using a comprehensive smoking index that takes into account multiple dimensions of smoking behaviour (i.e., smoking status, intensity, duration, and time since cessation). A lower risk of lung cancer (reduction by 37%; odds ratio= 0.63, 95% confidence intervals: 0.38-1.07) was found among those having had eczema, but was not statistically significant. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Journal Clinical Oncology, Pain Research / 01.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Fengmin Zhao, MS,PhD Biostatistician Department of Biostatistics & Computational Biology Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Zhao: We analyzed 2,761 patients in this study. We found that at initial assessment, 53.0% of patients had no pain, 23.5% had mild pain, 10.3% had moderate pain, and 13.2% had severe pain. Overall, one third of patients with initial pain had pain reduction within 1 month of follow-up, and one fifth had an increase. Inadequate pain management was significantly associated with pain deterioration in these patients, as were lower baseline pain level, younger age, and poor health status. Of the patients without pain at initial assessment, 28.4% reported pain at the follow-up assessment (8.9% of them were moderate to severe pain), and more than half of them received inadequate pain management. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Dartmouth, Radiology / 27.01.2014

Michael Mastanduno Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College 14 Engineering Dr. Hanover, NH 03755 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Mastanduno Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College 14 Engineering Dr. Hanover, NH 03755 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study was able to illustrate the design and clinical testing of an MRI breast coil for combined MRI and Near Infrared Spectroscopy. The coil was tested on 8 healthy volunteers spanning all bra cup sizes and mammographic density categories. In the past, MRI/NIRS imaging was only possible in C and D cup sized breasts. The system also will give researchers the ability to target lesions in hard-to-reach areas close to the chest wall. With the successful completion of this study, simultaneous MRI/NIRS is possible in all breast sizes, tissue compositions, and lesion locations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Melanoma / 26.01.2014

Robert O. Dillman, M.D., F.A.C.P. Executive Medical Director Hoag Institute for Research and Education Hoag Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert O. Dillman, M.D., F.A.C.P. Executive Medical Director Hoag Institute for Research and Education Hoag Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dillman: The main finding of this study is that among 149 metastatic melanoma patients treated with high-dose interleukin-2 (IL2), survival was much better in the subset of 32 patients who also were treated with patient-specific vaccines (that is active specific immunotherapy or ASI) that contained antigens from tumor cell lines derived from there own metastases that had been surgically resected. The 5-year survival rate from the date of starting IL2 was 39% in those receiving vaccine compared to 13% in those who did not (p<0.001). A number of studies have reported that a 5-year survival rate of 15% is typical for patients treated with IL2. The data also suggested that 5-year survival was better in the 25 patients who received the vaccine after, rather than before IL2 (46% vs 14%), p<0.001). Among the 32 ASI-treated patients, there was a trend for survival benefit for the 16 patients treated with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with antigens from the autologous melanoma cells and injected with granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) compared to injections of irradiated tumor cells with or without GM-CSF (p=0.17) (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer / 26.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Deirdre McLaughlin PhD MAPS Associate Professor, Principal Research Fellow Centre for Longitudinal and Lifecourse Research and Janni Leung, BHS School of Population Health University of Queensland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Breast cancer patients living in rural areas were diagnosed later than breast cancer patients living in urban areas. Evidence from Australia, Egypt, Italy, Canada, Poland, South Africa, Denmark, and parts of the United States indicated that patients residing in rural areas were more likely to be diagnosed with more advanced breast cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that rural breast cancer patients had 1.19 higher odds (95% confidence interval= 1.12-1.27) of diagnosis of a late stage breast cancer compared to urban breast cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Psychological Science, Radiation Therapy / 22.01.2014

Guy H. Montgomery, Ph.D. Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program Cancer Prevention and Control Department of Oncological Sciences, Box 1130 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029-6574 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Guy H. Montgomery, Ph.D. Director, Integrative Behavioral Medicine Program Cancer Prevention and Control Department of Oncological Sciences Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029-6574 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Montgomery: A brief psychological intervention comprised of cognitive behavioral techniques and hypnosis (CBTH) reduced fatigue during, and for up to six months after, radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Surgical Research / 17.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. R.A. Badwe, MS Director, Tata Memorial Centre E. Borges Marg, Parel Mumbai 400 012 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The trial was a randomized control study involving 350 women with per primum metastatic breast cancer. These women were divided into two groups from February 2005 to May 2013. One group underwent surgery and radiotherapy (LRT) (n=173) while another group of 177 women were spared these (no LRT). Both groups had undergone six successful rounds of chemotherapy before their recruitment into the trial. Women who underwent surgery had the primary breast tumour and lymph nodes removed, followed by locoregional radiation therapy. The primary endpoint of the study was overall survival (OS). At a median follow-up of 17 months, no difference was observed in OS between the groups; the OS rates were 19.2% and 20.5%, respectively, (HR = 1.04; 95%CI, 0.80-1.34; P = 0.79). The lack of a survival benefit is due to a trade-off between local control and distant disease progression. The results indicated that women who underwent surgery and had improved locoregional control and significantly worse distant progression-free survival compared with women who did not undergo surgery (HR = 1.41; 95% CI, 1.08-1.85; P = .01). Progression of distant disease was 42% more likely (P = .01) in the LRT arm whereas the risk of local progression was 84% lower with LRT. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.01.2014

David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David M. Albala, MD Associated Medical Professionals of NY, PLLC Syracuse, NY 13210 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Albala: Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and American man. Prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality differences between African American and Caucasian populations have been highlighted in the literature. Research has shown that African American males are at a biological predisposition for prostate cancer and that additional socioeconomic and physician-patient educational factors may contribute to a higher mortality rate among this group - over two times greater than that of Caucasian American males. At present the most commonly used to detection tools for prostate cancer are the serum prostatic specific antigen test (PSA) and a digital rectal examination (DRE). These complementary tests provide physicians with an indication of whether to proceed with biopsy for a definitive pathological diagnosis. Despite ongoing disputes regarding the effectiveness of PSA screening as an indicator for prostate cancer, a superior alternative test as yet to become available for men at risk. The American Urological Association (AUA) emphasizes the value of early detection and that sheared decision-making should not be overlooked and that shared decision making should be integral to screening decisions. The AUA urges individuals to personally assess, with their physicians, whether a PSA screen is necessary. Emphasis should be placed on the proper education of African American men who are at increased risk for the disease, as well as on their participation in repeated screening practices for the earliest possible detection of prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lancet / 14.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Jonathan Banks Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme Centre for Academic Primary Care NIHR School for Primary Care Research School of Social and Community Medicine University of Bristol Bristol BS8 2PS Dr Jonathan Banks Programme Manager: The Discovery Research Programme Centre for Academic Primary Care NIHR School for Primary Care Research School of Social and Community Medicine University of Bristol Bristol BS8 2PS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Banks: We asked members of the public attending their local general practice or primary care centre to consider a series of hypothetical scenarios or vignettes which depicted cancer symptoms, their risk of cancer and the investigative processes involved in testing for cancer. We wanted to measure the point at which the risk of cancer outweighed the burden and inconvenience of testing in relation to lung, colorectal and pancreas cancers. Most people, around 88%, opted for testing even at the lowest risk of cancer which in our vignettes was 1%. Further analyses showed variation between cancers with fewer people opting for testing for colorectal cancer at a low (1%) risk and more people choosing to be tested for all cancers in the 60-69 age group. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, CT Scanning, Lung Cancer / 31.12.2013

dr_harry_j_dekonig MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Harry J de Koning, MD PhD Professor of Public Health & Screening Evaluation Rotterdam, The Netherlands. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Koning: Annual CT screening for lung cancer has a favorable benefit-to-harm ratio for individuals ages 55 through 80 years with 30 or more pack-years’ exposure to smoking. It would lead to 50% (model ranges, 45% to 54) of cases of cancer being detected at an early stage (stage I/II), 575 screenings examinations per lung cancer death averted, a 14% (range, 8.2% to 23.5%) reduction in lung cancer mortality, 497 lung cancer deaths averted, and 5250 life-years gained per the 100 000-member (1950-) cohort. Harms would include 67 550 false-positive test results, 910 biopsies or surgeries for benign lesions, and 190 overdiagnosed cases of cancer (3.7% of all cases of lung cancer [model ranges, 1.4% to 8.3%]), again for a 100 000-member (1950-) cohort. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Gastrointestinal Disease / 31.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chia-Hung Kao, MD Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine Science and School of Medicine, College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taiwan. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Colonic diverticular disease and colorectal cancer shared certain characteristics. Some previous studies aimed to identify their epidemiological correlation. However, their results were discrepant and insufficiently strong to draw firm conclusion. In our nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study, we found that the previously diagnosed colonic diverticular disease is not associated with an elevated risk of colorectal cancer after the first year of a diagnosis of colonic diverticular disease (adjusted HR, 0.96). The increased risk in the first year may be due to misclassification and screening effect. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Nutrition / 21.12.2013

Adana A.M. Llanos, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology RBHS-School of Public Health Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, NJ 08854 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adana A.M. Llanos, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology RBHS-School of Public Health Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, NJ 08854 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Llanos: Our longitudinal study examined the effects of both tomato-rich and soy-rich diets in a group of 70 postmenopausal women who participated in the study at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center. For 10 weeks, women ate tomato products containing at least 25 milligrams of lycopene daily. For a separate 10-week period, the participants consumed at least 40 grams of soy protein daily. Before each test period began, the women were instructed to abstain from eating both tomato and soy products for two weeks. We examined the dietary intervention effects on hormone biomarkers known to be associated with obesity, namely adiponectin and leptin. After the tomato-rich diet participants' levels of adiponectin climbed nine percent. The effect was slightly stronger in women who had a lower body mass index. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Chemotherapy / 20.12.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. med. Sibylle Loibl MD Unit Head of Medicine & Research Member of Management Board Associate Professor University Frankfurt GBG Forschungs GmbH Neu-Isenburg MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Loibl: We could demonstrate that patients with a HER2+ primary breast cancer harbouring a PIK3CA mutation are less likely to achieve a pathological complete response after treatment with an anthracycline/taxane containing therapy in combination with trastuzumab and lapatinib, than patients whose tumours does not harbour the mutation (so called wild type). This difference was largest in the group with HER2+, HR + tumours. The pCR rate in this cohort was as low as 6.3%. Looking at the differences in another study with either trastuzumab or lapatinib anti-HER2 treatment is seems as patients with a PIK3CA mutated tumour have a low pCR rate irrespective of the antiHER2 treatment, whereas the patients with a wild type tumour benefit from trastuzumab and the double blockade. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chemotherapy, Compliance / 16.12.2013

Dawn L. Hershman, MD MS Associate Professor of Medicine and MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dawn L. Hershman, MD MS Associate Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology Leader, Breast Cancer Program Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center Columbia University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hershman: We have found in the past that compliance to 5 years of hormone therapy for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer is low. While toxicity is a main reason, other factors are also important. Recent studies suggest out of pocket costs are high among cancer patients. We evaluated the change in adherence to hormone therapy after the introduction of generic Aromatase inhibitors. We found that discontinuation decreased and adherence increased with generic aromatase inhibitors compared to brand name. we found that higher co-payments were associated with decreased adherence and increased discontinuation. We also found that patients in the highest income group were more likely to be adherent to hormone therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 11.12.2013

Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr David P. Turner PhD Assistant Professor, Director of shRNA Technology Medical University of South Carolina Dept of Pathology & Lab Medicine Charleston SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Turner: Our research has identified a potential mechanistic link between sugar derived metabolites and cancer associated pathways which may be a biological consequence of the socioeconomic and biological factors that are known to drive cancer health disparity. African Americans develop and die more frequently of cancer than any other population in the US. We examined the levels of reactive metabolites known as advanced glycation end-products, or AGEs for short, in serum and tumor samples from African American and Non-Hispanic White prostate cancer patients. In both the serum and tumor tissue, the levels of AGE metabolites were consistently higher in the African American prostate cancer patients than their White counterparts. AGE functions as a ligand for the receptor for AGEs, or RAGE for short. We also identified that RAGE protein levels were higher in African Americans with prostate cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Chemotherapy, Gastrointestinal Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, MD Anderson / 10.12.2013

Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP Assistant Professor, Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Torres: The main findings of the study were that patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection who were successfully treated with antivirals and attained sustained virologic response (SVR) did not have a relapse of HCV infection after receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy for cancer. Patients in the study received different chemotherapeutic agents, including rituximab and systemic corticosteroids. Durability of SVR was maintained up to 14 years after chemotherapy in cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Radiology / 06.12.2013

Nicholas M Perry MD London Breast Institute MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nicholas M Perry MD London Breast Institute MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Dr. Perry: The main findings from the study were that automated density readings outperformed radiologists, and that women under the age of 50 had a more significant risk of breast cancer from higher breast density. Also, and quite surprising was the appearance of a completely different age- density pattern in women with breast cancer. Whereas the women in the study without cancer showed a normal and steady decline in breast density with age, those with cancer showed a completely different curvi-linear pattern, which was evident in women as young as 30. The message is that breast density remains an important factor for both the current breast screening methodologies, and for future research into investigation and management. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Nutrition, Pediatrics, University of Michigan / 01.12.2013

Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Richard Schwartz, Ph.D. Professor, Associate Dean for Graduate Academic and Student Affairs College of Natural Science Michigan State University Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 48824-4320 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schwartz: The main finding is that exposure to a high fat diet from the age of puberty onwards hastened the development of chemical carcinogen-induced breast cancer in absence of weight gain. We also found that prior to the appearance of any tumors, we could detect changes in the mammary gland that included increased cellular proliferation, increased vascularity, and changes in immune function. (more…)