Author Interviews, General Medicine, Lung Cancer / 19.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jie He, PhD, MD Director, Laboratory of Thoracic Surgery President, Cancer Institute & Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100021 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jie He: The main findings of the study is that we have identified IDH1 as an effective plasma biomarker for the diagnosis of NSCLCs, particularly with high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, CMAJ / 19.09.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bruno Heleno, PhD fellow Research Unit for General Practice and Section of General Practice, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, PO Box 2099, 1014 Copenhagen K, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In a literature review of cancer screening trials of a wide range of screening interventions, we found that trials seldom report the information necessary to weigh benefits against harms. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Colon Cancer, NEJM / 19.09.2013

Aasma Shaukat, M.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Medicine GI Division, MMC 36 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aasma Shaukat, M.D., M.P.H. Dept. of Medicine GI Division, MMC 36 University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN 55455 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shaukat: The study showed that screening for colon cancer using stool cards consistently reduces risk of death from colon cancer by one-third through thirty years. The benefit of screening in larger in men compared to women, and for women the benefit seems to start at age 60. However, screening did not make people live longer. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Melanoma / 17.09.2013

Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D., Professor and scientific director of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute La Jolla San Diego, Calif. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ze'ev Ronai, Ph.D. Professor and scientific director of Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute La Jolla San Diego, Calif. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This study provides the first direct evidence of the importance of the PDK1 enzyme in the development of melanoma and in the metastasis of this aggressive tumor type. We demonstrate, with a genetic mouse melanoma model (harboring the Braf/Pten mutations commonly seen in human melanomas) and/or pharmacological inhibitors against PDK1, that melanoma requires this enzyme for its development, and more so – for its ability to metastasize. Since PDK1 is key kinase that regulates a number of protein kinases, which are currently being assessed in clinical trials (including AKT), our finding points to a new set of targets that could be more amenable for effective combination therapy in melanoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, MRI / 13.09.2013

Nariya Cho, MD Departments of Radiology Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nariya Cho, MD Departments of Radiology Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cho: Smaller reduction in tumor volume and a smaller reduction in washout component on dynamic contrast agent–enhanced MR imaging assessed by computer-aided evaluation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy were independent parameters of worse recurrence-free survival and overall survival in breast cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer / 11.09.2013

David F Jarrard, MD Vice Chair for Clinical Affairs Professor of Urology John Livesey Chair in Urologic Oncology MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David F Jarrard, MD Vice Chair for Clinical Affairs Professor of Urology John Livesey Chair in Urologic Oncology   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jarrard: We have developed and externally validated an accurate nomogram for predicting Gleason score 6 upgrading for use in low-risk prostate cancer patients. This nomogram incorporates only variables available at the time of diagnosis and is unique in its assessment of clinical as well as pathological factors. Furthermore, we externally validated this study in patients with Gleason 6 prostate cancer of which 90% met the D’Amico criteria for low-risk cancer at 2 other centers (total 2000 patients). This nomogram will aid in the decision-making process of patients diagnosed with low-risk prostate cancer. (more…)
Case Western, Esophageal, Gastrointestinal Disease, University of Michigan / 11.09.2013

Joel H. Rubenstein, MD, MSc, FACG, FASGE Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research Assistant Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School VA Medical Center 111-D 2215 Fuller Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48105 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Joel H. Rubenstein, MD, MSc, FACG, FASGE Research Scientist, Veterans Affairs Center for Clinical Management Research Assistant Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Michigan Medical School VA Medical Center Ann Arbor, MI 48105 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rubenstein: In a set of case-control studies within the same population, we found that H. pylori was inversely associated with erosive esophagitis, and with Barrett’s esophagus, but we did not find such a relation with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer / 10.09.2013

Dr. Bettina Scholtka Universität Potsdam Institut für Ernährungswissenschaft Abt. Ernährungstoxikologie Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116 14558 Nuthetal, Germany. Dr. Bettina Scholtka Universität Potsdam Institut für Ernährungswissenschaft Abt. Ernährungstoxikologie Arthur-Scheunert-Allee 114-116 14558 Nuthetal, Germany. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The extremely high sensitivity of the WTB-HRM technique allows to find very low amounts of different types of colon cancer initiating gene mutations even in stool samples of patients. The method is able to find the expected mutations as well as unknown mutations. So, by applying WTB-HRM to a panel of especially selected marker genes, it is possible to detect cancer precursors in feces before they progress into a malignant stage. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JNCI, OBGYNE / 30.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ying Liu, MD, PhD Instructor, Division of Public Health Sciences Department of Surgery Washington University School of Medicine 660 South Euclid Ave Campus Box 8100 St. Louis, MO 63110 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Alcohol intake between menarche (first menstrual period) and first pregnancy was consistently associated with increased risks of breast cancer and proliferative benign breast disease. For every 10 gram/day alcohol intake (approximately a drink a day) during this specific time period, the risk for breast cancer increased by 11% and the risk for proliferative benign breast disease increased by 16%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Coffee, Prostate Cancer, Stanford / 28.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Janet L. Stanford, MPH, PhD Full Member, Research Professor Co-Head, Program in Prostate Cancer Research Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100 Fairview Ave. N. M4-B874 Seattle, WA 98109-1024 Janet L. Stanford, MPH, PhD Full Member, Research Professor Co-Head, Program in Prostate Cancer Research Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center 1100 Fairview Ave. N. M4-B874 Seattle, WA 98109-1024   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stanford: The main finding from our research is that one or more cups of coffee per day is associated with a 56% to 59% reduction in the risk of prostate cancer recurrence or progression in men diagnosed with this common disease. In our cohort of prostate cancer patients, 61% reported drinking at least one cup of coffee per day, with 14% reporting drinking 4 or more cups per day. The lower risk for prostate cancer recurrence/progression observed in coffee drinkers, however, was seen even for those who consumed only one cup per day, suggesting that even modest intake of coffee may offer health benefits for prostate cancer patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research / 23.08.2013

Solveig Hofvind, PhD Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Majorstua 0403, Oslo, Norway MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Solveig Hofvind, PhD Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Majorstua 0403, Oslo, Norway MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hofvind: We find that if 100 women aged 50 years attend the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program as recommended, every two years until they are 69 years, four women will undergo a needle biopsy with benign outcome (a false positive needle biopsy). In the same group of women, twenty women will be recalled for further examination and have additional imaging, ultrasound, and/or a biopsy with negative outcome (a false positive screening result). (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, Breast Cancer, Mineral Metabolism / 23.08.2013

Richard R. Love, MD MS International Breast Cancer Research Foundation Professor of Medicine and Public Health The Ohio State University Columbus, OH MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Richard R. Love, MD MS International Breast Cancer Research Foundation Professor of Medicine and Public Health The Ohio State University Columbus, OH MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Surgical oophorectomy and tamoxifen treatment was associated with no loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck, and loss of BMD in the first year, followed by stabilization in the lumbar spine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Lung Cancer, University of Pennsylvania / 20.08.2013

Sandra Ryeom, PhD, Assistant professor of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sandra Ryeom, PhD, Assistant professor of Cancer Biology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We identified an important pathway (calcineurin-NFAT-Angiopoeitin2) in the vasculature of early metastatic lung lesions that is critical for promoting lung metastases. MedicalResearch.com: Were any of the findings unexpected? Answer: Since there is limited understanding of regulation of tumor angiogenesis at metastatic sites, identification of the calcineurin pathway and a newly identified target of calcineurin-NFAT signaling was all unexpected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Genetic Research / 20.08.2013

Steven A. Narod, MD Women’s College Research Institute 790 Bay St, 7th Floor Toronto, ON, M5G 1N8 Canada MedicalResearch.com Author Interview: Steven A. Narod, MD Women’s College Research Institute 790 Bay St, 7th Floor Toronto, ON, M5G 1N8 Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that the survival of women with breast cancer and a brca1 mutation was similar to that of women with breast cancer and no mutation. (more…)
Biomarkers, Cancer Research / 16.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Köbel M.D. Assistant Professor, Pathology and Lab Medicine
Calgary Laboratory Services 9 3535 Research Road Nw Calgary, Alberta T2L 2K8 Canada MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Ovarian carcinomas are now divided into five histological types, which differ with respect to biology and clinical behaviour. However, the histological type assessment varies from center to center. Our study emphasizes the need for a standardized method to identify them. Until such consistent approach is established, histological types from various centers may not comprise the same entities and studies will give inconsistent results. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Johns Hopkins, Stem Cells / 13.08.2013

Harvard Stem Cell Institute's Kornelia Polyak, MD, PhD, MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kornelia Polyak, MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Dana-Farber Cancer Institute Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Polyak: We found that when comparing normal breast tissue of women who have not had children (nulliparous) and those who had children in their early 20s, the largest changes are in breast epithelial progenitors. The frequency of these cells is lower in parous women (women who had children) and the properties are also altered in a way that they are less likely to proliferate. Women with high risk of breast cancer, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, have very high frequency of these cells, and also parous women who did get cancer have more than those who did not. These results indicate that the frequency of these cells may predict breast cancer risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, JNCI, Lung Cancer, Sloan Kettering / 09.08.2013

Prasad Adusumilli MD, FACS Associate Member, Thoracic Surgery Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prasad Adusumilli MD, FACS Associate Member, Thoracic Surgery Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center New York MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The current standard of care of for early-stage lung adenocarcinoma, the common form of lung cancer is curative-intent surgery either by limited resection, LR (removal of tumor with clear margins) or lobectomy, LO (removal of one-third to one-half of the lung harboring the tumor). Although lung-sparing LR is preferable, there is a reported incidence of 30-40% of recurrences within the same lung. The causative factor/s for these local recurrences is not known. In our study, we analyzed recurrence patterns and pathological features in patients who underwent 476 LO and 258 LR performed at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York. We investigated the morphological patterns in pathology specimens utilizing the recently proposed International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer / European Respiratory Society / American Thoracic Society (IASLC/ERS/ATS) classification. We noticed that presence of micropapillary morphology was associated with three times higher recurrences in patients undergoing LR compared to LO, these recurrences were lower when there is an adequate margin (2 cm) resected beyond the tumor. In patients undergoing LO, the recurrences were 75% less. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, JNCI, Lymphoma / 08.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Satish Gopal, MD, MPH Program in Global Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center UNC Project-Malawi, Tidziwe Center, Private Bag A-104, Lilongwe, Malawi MedicalResearch.com: What is the primary message our physician readers should take away from the piece?” Answer: Lymphoma is one of the leading causes of HIV-associated death in the modern ART era. In our analyses of a large multicenter US cohort, survival for HIV-associated lymphoma patients receiving routine care has not clearly improved since the modern ART era began, and remains significantly worse than SEER outcomes for the same lymphoma subtypes in the general population. This was somewhat surprising in an era of normalizing life expectancy for HIV-infected patients on ART, and quite different from the outstanding results achieved for this population in recent clinical trials conducted by AMC and NCI. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lindsey Enewold PhD, MPH Division of Military Epidemiology and Population Sciences John P. Murtha Cancer Center Walter Reed National Military Medical Center Rockville, Maryland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: With increasing time since breast cancer diagnosis women were less likely to receive surveillance mammography. Minority women were equally or more likely than non-Hispanic white women to receive surveillance mammography within an equal access healthcare system. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, JAMA / 07.08.2013

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Samir Gupta, MD, MSCS San Diego Veterans Affairs Healthcare System Associate Professor of Clinical Medicine Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine Moores Cancer Center University of California San Diego MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Gupta: In a randomized, comparative effectiveness study among uninsured individuals not up to date with screening, we found that mailed outreach invitations to complete colonoscopy outreach, and mailed outreach to complete a non-invasive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) tripled screening rates compared to usual care. Additionally, we found that outreach was almost twice as effective with offers for FIT versus colonoscopy screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Pediatrics / 07.08.2013

Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirsten Ness, PT, PhD Epidemiology and Cancer Control MS 735, Room S-6013 St. Jude Children's Research Hospital 262 Danny Thomas Place Memphis, TN 38105-3678 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Even though they report similar levels of physical activity, children who were treated for cancer and who survive at least five years, on average, do not perform as well as their siblings on tests of physical performance. They have muscle weakness and decreased cardiopulmonary fitness. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, OBGYNE / 01.08.2013

Hemodialysis.com Interview with:: Marcela G. del Carmen, M.D., M.P.H Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Vincent Obstetrics and Gynecology Massachusetts General Hospital, 55 Fruit Street, Yawkey 9 E Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study sample included 7,973 women, including 7,363 (92.3%) whites and 610 (7.7%) AA, diagnosed with vulvar cancer from 1973 to 2009. African American women were younger and had a higher rate of distant metastasis compared to white women. African American women were more likely to be treated by radiaton therapy and less likely to receive survival therapy. Although the study found that compared to white women, African Americans were more likely to be younger and have more advanced disease upon diagnosis, they had lower rates of vulvar cancer related mortality compared to white women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Lung Cancer, Radiology, Smoking / 31.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Linda L. Humphrey, M.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine Informatics and Clinical Epidemiology and Public Health for Oregon Health & Science University;Associate Chief of Medicine at the Portland VA Medical Center Dr. Humphrey comments on this important study on Screening for Lung Cancer With Low-Dose Computed Tomography: Lung cancer is the 3rd leading cause of cancer in the United States and the leading cause of cancer related death. It is estimated that in 2012 there were 226,160 cases of lung cancer and 160, 340 lung cancer related death in the US. In addition, lung cancer is the leading cause of years of life lost to cancer. Cigarette smoking is by far the leading cause of lung cancer in the US and while many people have quit smoking, data in the US indicate that 37% of adults are either current or former smokers and at risk of lung cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Radiology, Yale / 30.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Brian Haas MD Department of Diagnostic Radiology,Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT Dr. Brian Haas MD Department of Diagnostic Radiology,Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Haas: We found that tomosynthesis helped to reduce the number of women who undergo a screening mammogram and are called back for additional imaging and testing. Specifically, the greatest reductions in patients being called back were seen in younger patients and those with dense breasts. Tomosynthesis is analogous to a 3D mammogram, and improves contrast of cancers against the background breast parenchyma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks, Lancet, Lung Cancer / 30.07.2013

Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, MSc, PhD Head of Research Group for Work, Environment & Cancer Danish Cancer Society Research Center Strandboulevarden 49 2100 Copenhagen Ø MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, MSc, PhD Head of Research Group for Work, Environment & Cancer Danish Cancer Society Research Center Strandboulevarden 49 2100 Copenhagen Ø MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study shows that people who live at locations with higher levels of particles in the air are at higher risk for development of lung cancer. It seems that there is no threshold for air pollution with particles below which there is no risk; the results show that it is more like “the more air pollution the worse and the less pollution the better”. The strongest association was seen for adenocarcinoma of the lung. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Nature, University of Pennsylvania / 25.07.2013

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xiaolu Yang, Ph.D. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Xiaolu Yang, Ph.D. Professor of Cancer Biology at the Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania and the Abramson Family Cancer Research Institute, MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yang: TAp73 is a structural homologue of the preeminent tumor suppressor p53, but its role in tumorigenesis has been unclear. In this study, we show that TAp73 supports the proliferation of tumor cells. Mechanistically, TAp73 activates the expression of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), a rate-limiting enzyme in the pentose phosphate pathway. This function of TAp73 is required for maintaining a robust biosynthesis and anti-oxidant defense in tumor cells. These finding connects TAp73 to oncogenic growth and suggest that G6PD may be a valuable target for tumor therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Nutrition, Prostate Cancer / 10.07.2013

Maarten C. Bosland, DVSc, PhD Professor of Pathology Department of Pathology University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine Chicago, IL 60612 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maarten C. Bosland, DVSc, PhD Professor of Pathology Department of Pathology University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine Chicago, IL 60612 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bosland: Daily consumption of a supplement containing soy protein isolate for two years following radical prostatectomy did not reduce recurrence of prostate cancer in men at high risk for this (radical prostatectomy is surgical removal of the prostate to treat prostate cancer). The study showed that this soy supplementation was safe. It is not clear whether this result indicates that soy does not prevent the development of prostate cancer, but men that have the disease probably do not benefit from soy supplementation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, CT Scanning, Heart Disease, JACC, Lung Cancer, Medical Imaging / 08.07.2013

Dr. Pim A. de Jong, Department of Radiology University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, E.01.132, 3508GA Utrecht, the Netherlands. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Jong: The main findings of the study is that lung cancer screening CT scans can predict future cardiovascular events. MedicalResearch.com: Where any of the findings unexpected? Dr. de Jong: The unexpected aspect is that the CT scans were not-ECG gated, but even these non-gated scans were good enough to quantify arterial calcifications and predict risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Melanoma, Stanford / 03.07.2013

Susan Swetter, MD Professor of Dermatology Director, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma Program Stanford University Medical Center & Cancer Institute MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan Swetter, MD Professor of Dermatology Director, Pigmented Lesion & Melanoma Program Stanford University Medical Center & Cancer Institute  

Melanoma Survival Disadvantage in Young, Non-Hispanic White Males Compared With Females

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Swetter: Women diagnosed with melanoma tend to fare better than men in terms of improved survival, and this has mostly been attributed to better screening practices and behaviors in women that result in thinner, more curable tumors, and/or more frequent physician visits in older individuals that result in earlier detection. Our study focused on survival differences between young men and women (ages 15-39 years) diagnosed with cutaneous (skin) melanoma, who constitute a generally healthy population compared to the older adults that have usually been studied. We found that young men were 55% more likely to die of melanoma than age-matched women, despite adjustment for factors that may affect prognosis, such as tumor thickness, histology and location of the melanoma, as well as presence and extent of metastasis. Our results present further evidence that a biologic mechanism may contribute to the sex disparity in melanoma survival, since adolescent and young adults see physicians less frequently and are less likely to have sex-related behavior differences in skin cancer screening practices than older individuals. (more…)