Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic / 08.06.2014

Dr. Barbara Pockaj, MD Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic, Arizona MedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Dr. Barbara Pockaj, MD Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic, Arizona   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pockaj: The study analyzed 515 triple negative breast cancer samples using a multi-platform approach including whole genome mRNA expression, protein expression, gene copy number changes and gene sequencing for immune markers. The study found that a cohort of the triple negative breast cancer patients had high expression of PD-L1 (program death ligand) and other immune regulators such as CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte Antigen) and IDO-1 (indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase). High PD-L1 expression was found in patients whose tumors were triple negative and androgen receptor negative. High PD-L1 expression was related to DNA repair gene abnormalities including BRCA1. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Vitamin D / 08.06.2014

Adetunji Toriola, MD, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Division of Public Health Sciences Department of Surgery Washington University School of Medicine Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis, MO MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adetunji Toriola, MD, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor Division of Public Health Sciences Department of Surgery Washington University School of Medicine Siteman Cancer Center St. Louis, MO MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Toriola: Very little is known about the impact of vitamin D in prognosis among cancer patients. This knowledge is of importance because of the increasing number of people living cancer and the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among cancer patients. We conducted a systematic review of studies published to date on the association of circulating vitamin D (25-OHD) levels with prognosis among cancer patients. This review suggests that higher circulating vitamin D levels may improve overall survival among breast and colorectal cancer patients but there is paucity of information on the role of circulating vitamin D levels in prognosis among patients with other cancer types. (more…)
Ovarian Cancer / 06.06.2014

Sean C. Dowdy, MD, FACS Professor and Chair, Division of Gynecologic Surgery Vice-Chair for Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Co-Leader, Women’s Cancer Program Mayo Clinic College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sean C. Dowdy, MD, FACS Professor and Chair, Division of Gynecologic Surgery Vice-Chair for Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Co-Leader, Women’s Cancer Program Mayo Clinic College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dowdy: This study was a collaboration between four groups in 3 countries to determine if a genetic “signature” could predict which patients with ovarian cancer benefit from Bevacizumab (a very expensive drug with marginal benefit in patients with ovarian cancer). We hypothesized that while benefit may be marginal in a large group, patients with specific genetic changes could derive significant benefit from it. Using gene expression arrays (analyzing over 18,000 genes) we separated patients into four subgroups as described by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). We show that patients in the proliferative and mesenchymal groups had a 8-10 month improvement in outcome compared to a 3 month improvement for the other two groups (immunoreactive and differentiated). (more…)
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pancreatic / 05.06.2014

Wai-Nang Paul Lee, M.D. Division Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Professor of Pediatrics Director of Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wai-Nang Paul Lee, M.D. Division Chief, Division of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Professor of Pediatrics Director of Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Laboratory Harbor-UCLA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wai-Nang Lee: The study reports that EGCG, the active biologic constituent in green tea, changed the metabolism of pancreatic cancer cells by suppressing the expression of an enzyme associated with cancer, LDHA. The researchers also compared the effects of EGCG with those of an enzyme inhibitor, oxamate, which is known to reduce LDHA activity, and found that they both operated in a similar manner by disrupting the pancreatic cancer cells metabolic system. Scientists had believed they needed a molecular mechanism to treat cancer, but this study shows that they can change the metabolic system and have an impact on cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, NEJM / 05.06.2014

Dr. Olivia Pagani Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland Ospedale San Giovanni, Switzerland MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Olivia Pagani Institute of Oncology of Southern Switzerland Ospedale San Giovanni, Switzerland   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pagani: The studies show that also in premenopausal women (as already proven in postmenopausal women), aromatase inhibitors (AIs) (in this case Exemestane) given as adjuvant treatment are more effective than Tamoxifen in women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer who are given concomitantly ovarian suppression to lower estrogen production. The 28% improvement in disease free survival is comparable to that seen in postmenopausal women. In particular, outcomes in women who did not receive chemotherapy (43% of the entire population, 29% of whom with node positive disease) were strikingly good (<97% were breast cancer free at 5 years). (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Colon Cancer, Erasmus, Sloan Kettering / 03.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank van Hees MSc Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam, the Netherlands and Ann G. Zauber PhD Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main finding of our study is that colorectal cancer screening of individuals without previous screening is worthwhile well beyond age 75, which is the recommended age to stop screening in individuals with an adequate screening history. The exact age up to which screening should be considered in unscreened elderly depends on an individual's health status: in healthy individuals screening remains worthwhile up to age 86, whereas in individuals with a severe illness, such as heart failure, screening remains worthwhile up to age 80. (more…)
Biomarkers, Journal Clinical Oncology, Lung Cancer / 02.06.2014

Prof. Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP Pulmonologist & Medical Oncologist Thoracic Cancer Unit, Davidoff Cancer Center, RMC, Kaplan St, Petach Tiqwa, Israel International Lung Cancer Association; Committee Chair; Prevention, Screening & Early Detection of Lung Cancer, IASLC. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Nir Peled MD PhD FCCP Pulmonologist & Medical Oncologist Thoracic Cancer Unit, Davidoff Cancer Center, RMC, Kaplan St, Petach Tiqwa, Israel International Lung Cancer Association; Committee Chair; Prevention, Screening & Early Detection of Lung Cancer, IASLC. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Peled: The study focuses on early detection of lung cancer through the exhale breath NaNose which was developed by Prof Hossam Haick (Israel). The study included 358 patients who were diagnosed or at risk for lung cancer. The multisite enrollments included UC Denver (Dr Fred Hirsch), Tel Aviv University (Dr Nir Peled), Jacksonville (Dr Stuart Millstone, Dr Douglas Johnson) and Liverpool (Dr John Field). The NaNose was able to detect lung cancer with a very high accuracy (~90%) even when the lung nodule was tiny and hard to sample. It was even able to discriminate between sub histologies of cancer, which was unexpected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer, Cancer Research / 01.06.2014

Recinda L Sherman, MPH, PhD, CTR Program Manager, Data Use & Research North America Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR) MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Recinda L Sherman, MPH, PhD, CTR Program Manager, Data Use & Research North America Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR)   MedicalResearch: What is the context of the study? Dr. Sherman:
  • It has long been known that poverty is associated with adverse health conditions. In general, increasing poverty results in higher disease rates and higher mortality.
  • This study assessed the relationship between poverty and cancer incidence using national cancer data on nearly 3 million tumors from the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACCR).
  • Cancer registries do not collect economic information on cancer patients, so we used an area-based social measure: % of persons living below poverty within a census tract. This measure is a proxy for an individual’s economic status and also gives insight into the type of neighborhood in which an individual lives.
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Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, University of Pittsburgh / 30.05.2014

Yael Schenker, MD, MAS Assistant Professor Division of General Internal Medicine Section of Palliative Care and Medical Ethics University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15213 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yael Schenker, MD, MAS Assistant Professor Division of General Internal Medicine Section of Palliative Care and Medical Ethics University of Pittsburgh Pittsburgh, PA 15213 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Schenker: We analyzed the content of cancer center advertisements placed in top TV and magazine media markets in 2012. Out of 1427 advertisements that met our initial search criteria, we found 409 unique advertisements that promoted clinical services at 102 cancer centers across the country. These advertisements promoted cancer treatments (88%) more often than cancer screening (18%) or supportive services (13%). Provision of information about clinical services was scant. For example, 27% of advertisements mentioned a benefit of advertised services and 2% quantified these benefits. 2% mentioned a risk of advertised services and no advertisements quantified these risks. 5% mentioned costs or insurance coverage and no advertisements mentioned availability under specific insurance plans. In contrast, use of emotional appeals was frequent (85%). Emotional appeals commonly evoked hope for survival, focused on treatment advances, used fighting language, and/or evoked fear. Nearly half of all advertisements included patient testimonials, overwhelmingly focused on stories about survival or cure. Only 15% of testimonials included a disclaimer (for example, “most patients do not experience these results”) and none described the outcome that a typical patient may expect. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, General Medicine / 29.05.2014

Alai Tan, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Institute for Translational Science Dept. of Preventive Medicine & Community Health University of Texas Medical Branch MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alai Tan, MD, PhD Assistant Professor Institute for Translational Science Dept. of Preventive Medicine & Community Health University of Texas Medical Branch MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tan: We found that substantial proportions of women with limited life expectancy receive screening mammography. The screening rates were higher among women who saw more than one generalist physician and who had more visits to generalist physicians. The screening rates were higher among U.S. hospital referral regions with more primary care physicians, mammography facilities and radiologists. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Pancreatic / 27.05.2014

Dr. Derek Radisky PhD Associate Professor and Consultant Mayo Clinic Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Derek Radisky PhD Associate Professor and Consultant Mayo Clinic Cancer Center MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Radisky: The study used human tissue biopsies to find that production of matrix metalloproteinse-3 (MMP3) in pancreatic cancer biopsies was associated with poorer patient prognosis, and showed through transgenic animal and cell culture experiments that this was due to activation of the oncogenic protein Rac1b. The study thus identifies an MMP3-Rac1b signaling axis that drives pancreatic cancer progression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Vaccine Studies / 27.05.2014

Scott A. Gruber, M.D., Ph.D., MBA, FACS, FCP, FACHE, CPE Chief of Staff, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center Associate Dean for Veterans Affairs & Professor of Surgery Wayne State University School of Medicine John D. Dingell VA Medical Center Chief of Staff Detroit, MI 48201 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott A. Gruber, M.D., Ph.D., MBA, FACS, FCP, FACHE, CPE Chief of Staff, John D. Dingell VA Medical Center Associate Dean for Veterans Affairs & Professor of Surgery Wayne State University School of Medicine John D. Dingell VA Medical Center Chief of Staff Detroit, MI 48201 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gruber: We successfully addressed the problem of inadequate intracellular delivery of tumor- specific antigens (TSAs) to dendritic cells (DCs) by using synthetic cell-penetrating domains or peptides (CPPs) to create fusion tumor antigens (Ags) that readily penetrate through the plasma membrane. We demonstrated cloning and purification of the TSA melanoma-associated antigen 3 (MAGE-A3) in frame with CPP, producing enhanced cytosolic bioavailability in dendritic cells without altering cell functionality. Further, we showed that recombinant bacterial proteins can be easily engineered to purify large amounts of CPP-MAGE-A3. Use of full-length proteins circumvents the need to define HLA class I allele binding before vaccination and increases the number of epitopes recognized by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) when compared with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells. Finally, the use of proteins rather than plasmids or viral vectors for in vitro dendritic cell vaccine preparation avoids the practical and theoretical safety concerns regarding genomic modification. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA / 25.05.2014

Dr. Sarah Hawley PhD MPH Associate Professor in the Division of General Medicine University of Michigan Research Investigator, Ann Arbor VA Center of Excellence in Health Services Research & Development MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sarah Hawley PhD MPH Associate Professor in the Division of General Medicine University of Michigan Research Investigator, Ann Arbor VA Center of Excellence in Health Services Research & Development   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hawley: There are a couple of main findings.
  • First, we found that nearly 20% of women in our population based sample of breast cancer patients reported strongly considering having contralateral prophylactic mastectomy (CPM, which means they had their unaffected breast removed at the same time as the breast with cancer), and about 8% received it. Of those who did receive contralateral prophylactic mastectomy, most (about 70%) did not have a clinical indication for it, which included a positive genetic mutation of BRCA1 or BRCA2 or a strong family history of breast or ovarian cancer.
  • However, most women (90%) who received it reported having a strong amount of worry about the cancer coming back (also called worry about recurrence).
  • We also found that when women had an MRI as part of their diagnostic work-up for breast cancer, they more often received contralateral prophylactic mastectomy than when they did not have an MRI.
(more…)
Author Interviews, JNCI, Nutrition, Prostate Cancer / 24.05.2014

Edward Giovannucci, MD, ScD Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edward Giovannucci, MD, ScD Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Giovannucci: In 50,000 men followed over 24 years, we found that those regularly consuming tomato products, which are high in lycopene, had a 30% lower risk of developing lethal prostate cancer. Among men being screened regularly with PSA, the risk reduction from high tomato consumption was 50%. We also examined the prostate cancer tissue and found that higher dietary lycopene intake was associated with less new blood vessel formation, which may help explain why the cancers were less likely to progress. (more…)
Nutrition, Prostate Cancer / 23.05.2014

Assistant Professor Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Division of Clinical & Epidemiologic Research and Cancer Prevention, Detection and Control Research Program and Department of Surgery Division of Urology Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC 27710 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adriana C. Vidal, Ph. D. Assistant Professor Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Division of Clinical & Epidemiologic Research and Cancer Prevention, Detection and Control Research Program and Department of Surgery Division of Urology Duke University School of Medicine Durham, NC 27710 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vidal: Among 430 veterans at the VA Hospital in Durham, N.C., including 156 men with confirmed prostate cancer, we found that men who self-reported a higher intake of carbohydrates were at a reduced risk of both low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, we found that intake of foods with high glycemic index increased total prostate cancer risk in black men. However, a higher fiber intake was associated with reduced risk of high grade prostate cancer. (more…)
Cancer Research, Diabetes / 20.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah P. Psutka, MD Fellow in Urologic Oncology Department of Urology, Mayo Clinic MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of each study? Dr. Psutka: In this study we identified all diabetic patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinomas who were surgically treated between 1990 and 2008 in our institution and matched them with nondiabetic patients. Our main findings were that, after controlling for major confounders such as age, sex, type of surgery, renal function, smoking status, performance status, and tumor grade and stage, diabetic patients had inferior overall survival than nondiabetic patients. Furthermore, among patients with clear cell carcinoma, diabetic patients also had shorter cancer-specific survival, suggesting that diabetes is a poor prognostic factor for patients with surgically treated renal cell carcinoma. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 14.05.2014

dr_Helmneh Sineshaw MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Helmneh Sineshaw, MD, MPH Senior Epidemiologist, Health Services Researcher American Cancer Society MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sineshaw: We found that non-Hispanic black women had nearly twofold higher odds of being diagnosed with triple-negative (TN) breast cancer subtype than did their white counterparts, regardless of their socioeconomic group. We also found higher odds of presenting with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-overexpressing breast cancer in Asian/Pacific Islander women compared with white women at every level of socioeconomic status. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dartmouth / 14.05.2014

Gregory J. Tsongalis, PhD, HCLD, CC, FNACB Professor of Pathology Director, Molecular Pathology Co-Director, Translational Research Program Department of Pathology Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and The Audrey and Theodor Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Lebanon, NH 03756 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gregory J. Tsongalis, PhD, HCLD, CC, FNACB Professor of Pathology Director, Molecular Pathology Co-Director, Translational Research Program Department of Pathology Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center and The Audrey and Theodor Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Lebanon, NH 03756 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tsongalis: This was the first study of its kind looking at multiple genes and multiple mutations in tumors of the appendix. Many of the identified mutations may be clinically actionable with respect to response to therapy or selection of therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JAMA, Surgical Research / 10.05.2014

Dr. Carlo Riccardo Rossi, MD Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology Surgery Branch, Department of Surgery Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Carlo Riccardo Rossi, MD Melanoma and Sarcoma Unit, Veneto Institute of Oncology Surgery Branch, Department of Surgery Oncology, and Gastroenterology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rossi: A total of 90% patients undergone lymph node dissection for melanoma had 12, 7, 14, 6 and 13 excised lymph nodes (10th percentile of the distribution) after 3 level axillary, 3 level or less neck, 4 level or more neck, inguinal, or ilio-inguinal dissections, respectively. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Weight Research / 08.05.2014

Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boughey: Rates of bilateral mastectomy are higher in hospitals with immediate breast reconstruction available. Bilateral mastectomy rates were highest in hospitals with high volumes of immediate breast reconstruction. Large, teaching, urban, and Northeastern hospitals were more likely to have higher immediate breast reconstruction volumes. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Prostate Cancer, Testosterone / 07.05.2014

dr_san_francisco MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ignacio F. San Francisco Departamento de Urología, Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Increasingly, men with low-risk prostate cancer are undergoing a close monitoring regimen called active surveillance, instead of moving forward immediately with treatment. However it is still unclear which men will develop evidence for worsening or more aggressive disease during active surveillance. In this study of 154 men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer followed for 38 months, we found that low levels of free testosterone were significantly associated with increased risk of developing more aggressive disease. We found no significant association with total testosterone concentrations, although there was a general trend towards increased risk with lower levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, UT Southwestern / 07.05.2014

Amit Singal MD MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Medical Director, Liver Tumor Program Dedman Scholar of Clinical Care Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases University of Texas Southwestern Dallas TX 75201 - 8887 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amit Singal MD MS Assistant Professor of Medicine Medical Director, Liver Tumor Program Dedman Scholar of Clinical Care Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases University of Texas Southwestern Dallas TX 75201 - 8887 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Singal: We conducted a meta-analysis of current studies to characterize the association between hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance and early detection, curative treatment rates, and overall survival in patients with cirrhosis. We identified 47 studies with 15,158 patients, of whom 6,284 (41.4%) had hepatocellular carcinoma detected by surveillance. Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance was associated with improved early stage detection (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.80–2.37) and curative treatment rates (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.99–2.52). These associations were robust to several sensitivity analyses, including study design, study location, and study period. Hepatocellular carcinoma surveillance was associated with significantly prolonged survival (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.67–2.17), which remained significant in the subset of studies adjusting for lead-time bias. Three-year survival rates were 50.8% among patients who underwent surveillance, compared to only 28.2% among hepatocellular carcinoma patients with tumors detected outside of a surveillance program. (more…)
Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Pain Research, Pharmacology / 06.05.2014

Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Judy C. Boughey, MD Chair, Division of Surgery Research Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Boughey: Use of paravertebral block (a form of regional anesthesia) in women undergoing mastectomy results in less need for opioid medications and less frequent use of anti-nausea medication after surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brain Cancer - Brain Tumors / 05.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Andrea Schuessler QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Herston, Queensland 4006 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr . Schuessler: Recurrent glioblastoma is a very aggressive brain cancer and most patients do not survive much longer than 6 months. Our study has assessed a novel immunotherapy and treated 10 patients with late stage cancer. The treatment did not have any serious side effects and most of the patients have survived much longer than the expected 6 months. Importantly, four of the 10 patients have not shown signs of disease progression during the study period with one of them still being cancer free four years after the treatment. (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer / 03.05.2014

dr_arturo_araujo MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arturo Araujo, PhD IMO Moffitt Cancer Center Tampa, FL 33612   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Araujo: Using in vivo approaches it is often challenging to study the multiple simultaneous interactions occurring at various time points in the setting of bone metastasis. However, integrating biological data with a powerful computational model allowed us to build a tool that could not only mimic the in vivo growth of cancer in bone but also to determine how the disease was behaving at any given time point. The key finding for us was that the computational model demonstrated the phasic or cyclical nature of how the prostate cancers grow in bone. For example, a wave of osteoclast mediated bone resorption would be followed by sustained bone formation by osteoblasts, followed again by bone reposition. We think these findings could provide novel insights into when the best time to apply therapies might be in order to obtain maximum efficiency. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, Surgical Research, Transplantation / 02.05.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rajeev Desai SpR Gastroenterology, City Hospital Birmingham Honorary Clinical Research Fellow University Hospital Birmingham / NHS Blood and Transplant, Bristol MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Desai: This study of a large national cohort of organ donors shows that, following careful assessment and selection, organs from some donors with a previous history of cancer can be used safely for transplantation. The risks of accepting such organs for transplantation should be balanced with risks of non-acceptance and its consequences including delayed transplantation or non-transplantation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 02.05.2014

Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Minn MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tina Hieken, M.D. Associate Professor of Surgery Mayo Clinic,Rochester, Minn   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hieken: Among more than 1,300 newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer patients, 36 percent of whom were obese (BMI ≥ 30), preoperative axillary ultrasound with fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspicious lymph nodes identified metastasis to the lymph nodes in 36 percent of patients found to be node-positive at operation. For all BMI categories (normal, overweight, obese) axillary ultrasound was predictive of pathologic nodal status (p<0.0001). The sensitivity of axillary ultrasound did not differ across BMI categories while specificity and accuracy were better for overweight and obese patients, respectively, than for normal weight patients. Furthermore, patients across all BMI categories who had suspicious axillary lymph nodes on ultrasound and had a positive fine needle aspiration biopsy had significantly more positive lymph nodes at operation, an average of five metastatic nodes, and an overall higher nodal disease burden at operation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, JCEM, Vitamin D / 01.05.2014

Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CAS MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hui Wang, M.D., Ph.D., Professor Principal Investigator Director, Food Safety Research Center Institute for Nutritional Sciences, SIBS, CAS MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: This meta-analysis has systematically reviewed 25 relevant studies composed of 17,332 cancer cases to give a comprehensive perspective on the relationship between vitamin D and cancer patient outcomes. Our result demonstrated that vitamin D levels are linked to better outcomes in several types of cancer patients. The strongest link was found in breast cancer, lymphoma and colorectal cancer. There was less evidence of a connection in people with lung cancer, gastric cancer, prostate cancer, leukemia, melanoma or Merkel cell carcinoma, but the available data were positive. We also found that a 10 nmol/L increase in vitamin D levels was tied to a 4 percent increase in survival among people with cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Genetic Research / 29.04.2014

Dr. Yvonne Bombard, PhD Scientist in the Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital Assistant Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Yvonne Bombard, PhD Scientist in the Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital Assistant Professor, Institute of Health Policy, Management and Evaluation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bombard: The main finding of the study is that gene expression profiling tests play a critical role when women with early-stage breast cancer decide whether to have chemotherapy, but many of them do not fully understand what some of the test results mean. For many the gene expression profiling test was the main factor in their treatment decision. The women we interviewed understood the test would indicate whether chemotherapy would be beneficial to them. But many thought the test reflected their unique circumstances and did not understand that their test result was based on larger population statistics. Patients often viewed their gene expression profiling results as providing information that was more scientifically valid, uniquely personalized and emotionally significant than any other information they had received. For many, the test was a transformational element that empowered them, allowed them to feel confident in their decisions and may even have rescued them from unnecessary chemotherapy. Patients described emotionally and socially complex reasons why they valued gene expression profiling testing in making their treatment decisions. Patients valued the test because it provided them with certainty amidst confusion, with options and a sense of empowerment, and with personalized, authoritative information. (more…)