Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness / 07.08.2014

Kristian KarstoftMD The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity ResearchDepartment of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristian Karstoft MD The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity ResearchDepartment of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Karstoft: Four months of Interval-walking training (IWT; five sessions/week, one hour/session) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus maintained insulin secretion, improved insulin sensitivity index and disposition index in opposition to energy-expenditure and time-duration matched continuous walking training (CWT). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, PLoS, Sugar / 01.08.2014

Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Effie Viguiliouk: This systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from 12 randomized clinical trials in 450 participants with type 2 diabetes found that eating about 1/2 a cup of tree nuts per day (equivalent to about 60 g or 2 servings) significantly lowered the two key markers of blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting glucose, in comparison to calorically matched control diets without tree nuts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Kidney Disease / 30.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Petter Bjornstad, M.D. Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bjornstad: Type 2 diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a better understanding of the determinants of diabetic nephropathy risk and progression, to improve outcome in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. We report high rates of microalbuminuria and renal hyperfiltration in adolescents with type 2 diabetes, which forecast early renal morbidity and mortality. In our observational study, insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, rather than adiposity, blood pressure, lipid and glycemic control was associated with markers of renal health (albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Weight Research / 30.07.2014

Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brinkworth: Both a very low carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fat diet and a high carbohydrate, low fat diet achieved similar weight loss, improvements in body composition and health risk markers. However, compared to the high carbohydrate, low fat diet, a very low carbohydrate high protein, high unsaturated fat diet had more favourable effects on blood lipid profile, glycemic control (indicated by greater reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin – primary clinical measure of blood glucose control and the requirements for blood glucose controlling drugs) and for reducing daily blood glucose fluctuations. The findings from this study suggests that a novel eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat may have more favourable therapeutic potential for optimising the management of type 2 diabetes and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Circadian Rhythm, Diabetes, Occupational Health / 28.07.2014

Professor  Zuxun Lu School of Public Health Tongii Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhun, Hubei, China.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor  Zuxun Lu School of Public Health Tongii Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhun, Hubei, China. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Lu: The main finding of this systematic review and meta-analysis was that shift work is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The association between shift work and DM appeared to be independent of physical activity, family of history of DM and body mass index. We found that the increased risk of diabetes mellitus was more pronounced in rotating shift group and male shift workers than in other shift group and female shift workers, respectively. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Genetic Research, Nature, Vanderbilt / 23.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Qiuyin Cai, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cai: We conducted a genome-wide association study in East Asians to search for additional genetic changes that are linked to breast cancer development. The study was conducted as part of the Asia Breast Cancer Consortium, which includes 22,780 women with breast cancer and 24,181 control subjects. We found DNA sequence changes in two genes, PRC1 and ZC3H11A, and a change near the ARRDC3 gene were associated with breast cancer risk. These results were also replicated in a large consortium, including 16,003 breast cancer cases and 41,335 control subjects of European ancestry. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 14.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Alex Dregan Lecturer in Translational Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Primary Care and Public Health Research King's College London, London Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dregan: Our study showed that chronic inflammation was associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, specifically type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease increased with the severity of inflammatory disorders. In addition, inflammation also increased the risk of multiple morbidity (two or more cardiovascular diseases). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 13.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: dr_Eric RavussinEric Ravussin, Ph.D., Boyd Professor Director Nutrition Obesity Research Center Douglas L. Gordon Chair in Diabetes and Metabolism Associate Executive Director for Clinical Science Baton Rouge LA Medical Research: What is the background of this study? Dr. Ravussin: It has long been postulated that hypoxia is bad for metabolic health. Hypoxia of adipose tissue has been thought to cause oxidative stress, resulting in the recruitment of macrophages with resultant secretion of cytokines and inflammation.  However, repeated bouts of hypoxia induced during vigorous exercise results in increased glucose uptake and vascularization of muscle tissue. In addition, living at high altitude is associated with a lower prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes compared with living at low altitude. Therefore, we asked the question, “What is the balance between the beneficial effects of hypoxia in muscle tissue and ‘bad’ effects in adipose tissue”? We devised a study in eight healthy men of different ethnicities, put into a hypoxic environment for 10 consecutive nights for 10 hours. The subjects slept in a hypoxic tent, using nitrogen dilution. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ravussin: The main findings of this study included:
  • Adipose tissue hypoxia was confirmed;
  • Subjects lost an average of 1.2 kg;
  • This study reports for the first time a reduced fasting glucose level and improved whole-body (skeletal muscle) and hepatic insulin sensitivity after nightly exposure to moderate hypoxia.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center, IsraelMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center, Israel Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Jakubowicz: In type 2 diabetes there is a deficit of post-meal insulin secretion (from pancreatic beta-cells) that  contributes to an exaggerated elevation in blood glucose. In this study we  found that consumption of whey protein shortly before breakfast augmented  GLP-1 (a gut hormone that stimulates insulin secretion) enhancing insulin response and lowering glucose excursions after breakfast. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Sleep Disorders / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Vincenza Spallone MD PhD Endocrinology and Neurology Department of Systems Medicine Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy Vincenza Spallone MD PhD Endocrinology and Neurology Department of Systems Medicine Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Spallone:To investigate a possible relationship between painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN) and the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), we performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 113 diabetic patients with PDPN, with painless diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and without DPN. In addition, we evaluated neuropathic pain, sleep, risk for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), autonomic function, and in a subgroup of patients, depressive symptoms. The main finding was that patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy displayed impaired nocturnal fall in BP compared to those without neuropathy, and higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure than the other two groups. Although the day-night change (∆) in blood pressure failed to reach a significant difference between painful diabetic polyneuropathy and DPN groups, nondipping (the loss of nocturnal fall in systolic BP) was more strictly associated with painful diabetic polyneuropathy than DPN and in multivariate analysis, including comorbidities and most potential confounders, neuropathic pain was an independent determinant of ∆ BP and nocturnal systolic blood pressure. In summary, we showed a novel association of peripheral diabetic neuropathic pain with nondipping and higher systolic nocturnal blood pressure, which was not entirely explained through pain dependent sleep problems or other pain- or diabetes-related comorbidities, like CAN, OSA and depression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Interview with Professor Donald W Bowden and Dr. Amanda J Cox Center for Diabetes Research, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study examined modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and risk for mortality in a subset of individuals from the Diabetes Heart Study who were at high risk based for cardiovascular disease based on burden of subclinical CVD assessed by coronary artery calcified plaque scores greater than 1000. Even among this high risk group, known CVD risk factors were still useful in assessing ongoing risk for mortality.  Use of cholesterol-lowering medication was one factor identified to be protective against mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness / 07.07.2014

Lukas Schwingshackl, MSc Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Vienna Vienna, AUSTRIAMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Lukas Schwingshackl, MSc Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Vienna Vienna, AUSTRIA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Lukas Schwingshackl: The results of the present meta-analyses showed that, in patients with established diabetes, aerobic training might be more effective in reducing glycosylated haemoglobin and fasting glucose when compared with resistance training. Combined aerobic and resistance training was more powerful in reducing glycosylated haemoglobin compared with aerobic training, and more effective in reducing glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting glucose and tricylglycerols when compared with resistance training. However, these results could not be confirmed when only low risk of bias studies were included. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet / 03.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Yves Reznik Department of Endocrinology, University of Caen Côte de Nacre Regional Hospital Center Caen, France MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Reznik: OPT2MISE definitively demonstrate that pump therapy is a valuable option for treating those type 2 diabetes patients with uncontrolled hyperglycemia despite a high dose insulin regimen including at least 3 injections per day of rapid-acting and slow-acting insulin analogues, the gold standard for intensified insulin therapy. Such benefit on glucose control is obtained with lower daily insulin doses and without weight gain in comparison with multiple injection therapy. Pump therapy is effective in a population of patients un-preselected for their ability to deal with a medical device. (more…)
Diabetes, Transplantation, Weight Research / 03.07.2014

Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yalcin Basaran, MD Gulhane Military Medical Academy School of Medicine Ankara, Turkey. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Basaran: We designed a cross-sectional study to identify the relation between the gut microbiota composition and obesity and diabetes. 27 severely obese individuals (20 men and 7 women with mean BMI: 39.98±5.56 kg/m2), 26 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (18 men and 8 women with mean BMI: 28.63±5.08 kg/m2) and 28 healthy control subjects (22 men and 6 women with mean BMI: 23.02±1.70 kg/m2), between 18-65 years of age, were included in the present study. None of the participants was undergoing chronic treatment and no antibiotics, probiotics or prebiotics were taken within 3 months before collecting fecal material. Fecal samples were self-collected in sterile boxes, stored at -80o until analysis, and analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR for the presence of the most common types of intestinal bacteria. Although tended to increase, we observed no significant difference between the three groups in regards to fecal concentrations of Bacteroidetes. There was also no considerable difference in the fecal Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum levels among the obesity and diabetes groups. However, Bifidobacteria, Firmicutes and Clostridium Leptum counts were all significantly lower in obese and diabetic patients compared with healthy control individuals. Additionally, logistic regression analysis showed that parameters of adiposity (weight, BMI and waist circumference) and those of glucose control (FBG and HbA1c) were related to the altered gut microbiota composition. This suggests that alterations in the gut microbiota composition may influence metabolic profile in humans. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA / 01.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Sandeep Vijan, MD, MS Center for Clinical Management Research Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan Sandeep Vijan, MD, MS Center for Clinical Management Research Ann Arbor Veterans Affairs Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Michigan MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vijan: The main finding was that the burdens and side effects of intensive glycemic treatment significantly detract from the overall benefit of lower risks of diabetes complications, often to the point where the treatments cause more loss than gain in quality of life. It takes many (often 15-20) years to gain benefit from treatment, but the burdens begin right away and continue throughout treatment. By the time you might experience treatment benefit in terms of reduced complication risk, you've had a lot of years to have the downsides of treatment - which commonly include significant weight gain, low blood sugars, gastrointestinal symptoms, not to mention having to take multiple pills or injections on a daily basis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Genetic Research, Nature / 30.06.2014

Dr. Domenico Accili MD Professor of Medicine Department of Medicine Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Dr. Domenico Accili MD Professor of Medicine Department of Medicine Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons New York, New York 10032 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Accili: By switching off a single gene (foxo1), scientists at Columbia University’s Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center have converted human gastrointestinal cells into insulin-producing cells, demonstrating in principle that a drug could retrain cells inside a person’s GI tract to produce insulin. (more…)
Diabetes, Weight Research / 27.06.2014

Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Su Ann Ding, MBBS Research Fellow Joslin Diabetes Center Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of Roux-en- Y gastric bypass with an intensive diabetes and weight management program. We recruited 38 obese individuals (BMI 30-42 kg/m2) with type 2 diabetes. Participants had suboptimal glucose control and mean diabetes duration of 10 years. Both surgical and non-surgical interventions led to patients losing a clinically significant amount of weight and keeping it off for 2 years, with average loss of approximately 57 pounds (25% of initial body weight) for the surgery group and 13 pounds (6% of initial weight) for the lifestyle and medication modification group. Other important health goals also improved more in the surgical group, including improvements in blood sugar control, blood pressure and lipid levels which together may contribute to reducing risk of developing coronary heart disease. (more…)
Diabetes, Endocrinology, OBGYNE / 26.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Anju Joham PhD student, SPHPM Endocrinologist, Monash Health MedicalResearch: What is the background for your study? Dr. Joham: This research led by Professor Helena Teede and Dr Anju Joham, from the School of Public Health and Preventive Medicine at Monash University analysed a large-scale epidemiological study, called the Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH). Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a condition affecting nearly 20% of Australian women. Women with PCOS may experience irregular menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, increased risk of diabetes, high cholesterol and psychological features such as depression and reduced quality of life. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Joham:   Approximately 6000 women aged between 25-30 years were monitored for nine years, including nearly 500 women with diagnosed PCOS. Our research found that there is a clear link between PCOS and type 2 diabetes. The incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes was three to five times higher in women with PCOS. In analysing the key contributing factors to the increased diabetes risk, we found that having PCOS was in itself a key contributing factor. (more…)
Diabetes, Scripps / 20.06.2014

Athena Philis-Tsimikas, M.D. Corporate Vice President Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute, a subsidiary of Scripps HealthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Athena Philis-Tsimikas, M.D. Corporate Vice President Scripps Whittier Diabetes Institute, a subsidiary of Scripps Health MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Philis-Tsimikas: Findings from the Dulce Digital study suggest that a text message-based self-management intervention improves glycemic control in high risk Latinos with type 2 diabetes. Researchers recruited 126 Latinos with type 2 diabetes and HbA1c greater than 7.5% from federally-qualified health centers (FQHCs) that serve disadvantaged populations to investigate the impact of a diabetes self-management intervention delivered via mobile text messaging. Cell phones were provided to patients who did not have them, along with text messaging instructions. Patients were randomized after completing clinical and self-reported measurements at baseline and these assessments were then repeated at 3 and 6 months. Both Dulce Digital and control groups received usual care.   The Dulce Digital group received three types of text messages — educational and motivational; medication reminders; and blood glucose monitoring prompts — two to three messages each day initially, with frequency tapering over 6 months. Project Dulce staff then monitored blood glucose responses, assessed reasons for hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia and encouraged follow up with providers as needed. Still ongoing, the current analyses included 106 completed participants (mean age= 49.25±9.49 years, 74% female), 52 of which were Dulce Digital participants. Findings showed significantly greater decreases in HbA1c with text messages compared with usual care only (9.4% to 8.4%, vs. 9.5% to 9.3%, P<.05) at 6 month follow-up. No significant group differences, however, have been observed for lipids, weight or blood pressure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 19.06.2014

Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of UtahMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPH, FAHA, FACC Director, Cardiovascular and Genetic Epidemiology, Intermountain Heart Institute Adjunct Assistant Professor, Genetic Epidemiology Division, Department of Medicine, University of Utah MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Horne: The Fasting II trial was a single-arm interventional trial of 24-hour water-only fasting among pre-diabetics with metabolic syndrome. The participants were adults with fasting blood glucose >100 mg/dL and at least two other components of the metabolic syndrome, including high triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol (the “good” cholesterol), high blood pressure, or high waist circumference. The participants were asked to fast once per week for 6 weeks, with multiple goals in this pilot study. This is the first interventional trial of fasting in people with pre-diabetes or diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition / 17.06.2014

 David J.A. Jenkins Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Metabolism, Dept. of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: David J.A. Jenkins Professor and Canada Research Chair in Nutrition and Metabolism, Dept. of Medicine and Nutritional Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Jenkins: The main findings were that inclusion of just over an once (31g) of canola oil in low glycemic index diets of type 2 diabetes study participants, to further reduce the glycemic load (GL), reduced HbAIC more than a high cereal fiber diet, as predicted. However the Canola oil low GL diet also reduced serum TG and LDL-C and thus Framingham risk score for cardiovascular disease. The effect was seen most clearly in those at highest CHD risk and those with features of the metabolic syndrome. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JCEM / 16.06.2014

L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research Department of Internal Medicine Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan 48104MedicalResearch.com Interview with L. Keoki Williams, MD, MPH Center for Health Policy and Health Services Research Department of Internal Medicine Henry Ford Health System Detroit, Michigan 48104 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Williams: Metformin is recommended as first line treatment for type 2 diabetes, and these recommendations are based on the results of clinical trials performed almost exclusively in white individuals.  This is the first study to specifically assess whether metformin is effective at reducing blood glucose levels in African American individuals.  In our large study of over 19,000 individuals, we showed that metformin was consistently more effective at reducing glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (a measure of long-term blood glucose control) in African Americans when compared with white individuals. (more…)
Diabetes, Pharmacology / 16.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Stein, M.D. Vice president, Clinical Research for Diabetes and Dndocrinology Merck Research Laboratories. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Stein: This late-breaking observational study assessed the differences in time to initiation of insulin use and the proportion of the population initiating insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes taking the combination of JANUVIA® (sitagliptin) and metformin, and patients taking the combination of a sulfonylurea and metformin.  In this study, patients treated with a combination of JANUVIA and metformin initiated insulin therapy at a slower rate during the period of observation than patients treated with a combination of sulfonylurea and metformin. In this study, the percentages of patients initiating insulin by years one through six were 3.6, 8.4, 12.9, 17.7, 22.4, 26.6 for patients taking JANUVIA; and 4.1, 9.4, 14.6, 21.0, 27.1, 34.1 for patients taking a sulfonylurea. An analysis of the data overall (Kaplan-Meier method) showed that patients taking JANUVIA progressed more slowly to insulin use than patients taking a sulfonylurea (p=0.0034). The Cox proportional hazard regression analysis indicated that by year six, patients in the JANUVIA group were 24 percent less likely to initiate insulin during the period of observation compared to patients taking a sulfonylurea (HR = 0.76; p = 0.0011). Similar results were observed in the sub-group of patients with a baseline A1C of less than 9 percent (HR = 0.77; p = 0.0128]; however there was no statistically significant difference in time to insulin initiation in the sub-group with a baseline A1C of greater than or equal to 9 percent (HR = 0.75; p = 0.1818). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Pediatrics / 13.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marcus de Goffau and Dr. Hermie Harmsen Department of Medical Microbiology University Medical Center Groningen MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Marcus de Goffau: In this study we aimed at analysing the gut microbiota composition of children aged 1–5 years with new-onset type 1 diabetes with the microbiota of age-matched healthy controls with a 16S rRNA based method (HITChip). The reason for this selection is that the increase in the incidence of type 1 diabetes worldwide is particularly sharp under the age of 5 years; recent studies indicate that adverse changes in gut microbiota are associated with the development of type 1 diabetes, but little is known about the microbiota in children who have diabetes at an early age. In this study we found that the differences between healthy controls and diabetics change over time, highlighting the importance of a normal gut microbial development. Diabetic children younger than 3 years old often had lower numbers of the Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV, which contain many of the beneficial butyrate producers, than their healthy age-matched controls. The diabetic children older than 3 years have normal numbers of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV yet not the right species composition; the ones which produce butyrate were underrepresented. The development of the microbiota of diabetic children appears to be one step behind that of healthy controls and/or appears to be going into an aberrant direction. The abundances of other bacteria such as Bacteroides and streptococci were also found to be aberrant in diabetic children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 11.06.2014

Tetyana   Kendzerska MD, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow        Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ONMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tetyana Kendzerska MD, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ON MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr.  Kendzerska: Based on a large sample of more than 8,500 participants with suspected sleep apnea, our study shows that among people with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and controlling for risk factors for diabetes development, initial OSA severity predicted risk for incident diabetes. Measures of the physiologic consequences of OSA (e.g., low level of oxygen, sleep deprivation) were also risk factors for diabetes in this population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, JAMA, Vanderbilt / 10.06.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christianne L. Roumie, MD MPH Associate Professor Internal Medicine and Pediatrics Institute for Medicine and Public Health Vanderbilt University Staff Physician VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Nashville TN 37212MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christianne L. Roumie, MD MPH Associate Professor Internal Medicine and Pediatrics Institute for Medicine and Public Health Vanderbilt University Staff Physician VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Nashville TN 37212 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roumie: This retrospective cohort study compared time to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, or death among Veterans with diabetes that were initially treated with metformin, and subsequently added either insulin or sulfonylurea. Among 178,341 Veterans on metformin monotherapy, 2,948 and 39,990 added insulin or sulfonylurea, respectively. Patients were about 60 years old, about 35% had history of heart disease or stroke, had been on metformin for an average of 14 months and their hemoglobin A1c was 8.1% at the time of addition of the second medication. Compared to those who added a sulfonylurea, those who added insulin to metformin had a 30% higher risk of the combined outcome of heart attack, stroke, and all-cause mortality. Although new heart attacks and strokes occurred at similar rates in both groups, mortality was higher in patients who added insulin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 10.06.2014

Lars Sjöström, MD, PhD Professor Department of Body Composition and Metabolism Sahlgrenska University Hospital Göteborg, SwedenMedicalResearch Interview with: Lars Sjöström, MD, PhD Professor Department of Body Composition and Metabolism Sahlgrenska University Hospital Göteborg, Sweden   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Sjöström: In obese diabetic subjects, the 2-year diabetes remission was 72% in bariatric surgery patients but only 16% in obese controls obtaining conventional obesity and diabetes treatment. After 15 years, 30% were in remission in the surgery group and 6.5% in the control group. In addition, the 20-year incidence of diabetes complication was 30 -55% lower in surgery than control patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Diabetes / 10.06.2014

Arch G. Mainous III, PhD Chair and Florida Blue Endowed Professor Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy Professor of Community Health and Family Medicine University of Florida Health Science Center Gainesville, FL 32610MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Arch G. Mainous III, PhD Chair and Florida Blue Endowed Professor Department of Health Services Research, Management and Policy Professor of Community Health and Family Medicine University of Florida Health Science Center Gainesville, FL 32610 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Arch Mainous: This study focused on prediabetes, which is a high risk state for developing diabetes and associated complications. We investigated the national prevalence of prediabetes in England between 2003 and 2011. We found that the prevalence of prediabetes rose substantially in that time period from 11.6% to 35.3%. Further, by 2011 more than half of the population who were 40 years of age and older and were overweight had prediabetes. Minority ethnic groups are particularly affected. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, PNAS / 07.06.2014

Wouter De Haes Functional Genomics and Proteomics (Schoofs lab) Zoological Institute Leuven BelgiumMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wouter De Haes Functional Genomics and Proteomics (Schoofs lab) Zoological Institute Leuven Belgium MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We discovered that the lifespan-extending effect of metformin is dependent on the increased production of reactive oxygen species in the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. Antioxidants, compounds that remove these reactive oxygen species, abolished the lifespan-extending effect of metformin, adding to the growing body of evidence that anti-oxidants are not as beneficial for health as generally assumed. We also identified the protein, belonging to the group of peroxiredoxins, that seems responsible for translating this increase in reactive oxygen species production into longevity. (more…)