Diabetes, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Adam Tabak MD Clinical Research Associate Epidemiology & Public Health Institute of Epidemiology & Health Faculty of Population Health Sciences University College London, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?   Dr. Tabak: Some of the major findings are confirmatory, such as the almost 3 times increased risk and an earlier onset of type 2 diabetes among south Asians, and a decreased insulin sensitivity in this ethnic group. The major novel finding is related to the fact that we could model events before diabetes diagnosis. We found a faster increase in fasting glucose before the diagnosis is south Asians compared to whites and that although insulin secretion increased in both ethnicities until 7 years before diagnosis, this increase was faster among whites. (more…)
Diabetes, Heart Disease / 13.09.2014

Carlos F. Sánchez-Ferrer, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Pharmacology Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos F. Sánchez-Ferrer, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Pharmacology Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sánchez-Ferrer: We were studying the possible ways of interaction between high glucose levels, which are found in diabetes mellitus, with vascular damage, which is the most common and devastating consequence of this disease. An intriguing fact is that a very strict control of blood sugar in diabetic patients is not sufficient to avoid the development of such diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases. We think our results can explain why this is happening. Using cultured smooth muscle cells from the main human artery (aorta) in the presence of high concentrations of extracellular glucose, we observed: 1. In the absence of inflammation, excess glucose in the culture fluid didn’t enter the cells. 2. When extra glucose was forced into the cells, no harm was done in the absence of inflammation. 3. When the inflammation-stimulating protein interleukin-1 (IL-1) was introduced, more glucose entered the cells. 4. With IL-1, the glucose entering the cells was metabolized via chemical pathways that spur escalating inflammation, overwhelming the cells’ ability to counteract it. 5. In the presence of the anti-inflammatory drug anakinra, which blocks the activity of IL-1, the deleterious changes didn’t occur. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Heart Disease / 12.09.2014

Kristian Filion, PhD FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Epidemiology Jewish General Hospital/McGill University Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristian Filion, PhD FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Epidemiology Jewish General Hospital/McGill University Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Filion: Previous studies have raised concerns that the use of incretin-based drugs, a type of medication used to treat diabetes, may increase the risk of congestive heart failure.  We therefore examined this potential drug safety issue using a large, population-based database, which allowed us to study the safety of these medications in a real world setting.  In doing so, we found that the use of incretin-based drugs was not associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes.  Similar results were obtained among both classes of incretin-based drugs (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors), and no duration-response relationship was observed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 12.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Association Between Arterial Catheter Use and Hospital Mortality in Intensive Care UnitsDr. Sophia Zoungas: Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences Monash University, Clayton   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Zoungas: Our study shows that age (or age at diagnosis) and duration of diabetes disease are linked to the risk of death and marcovascular complications (those in larger blood vessels) whereas only diabetes duration is linked to the risk of microvascular complications (in smaller blood vessels such as those in the kidney and eyes) (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 12.09.2014

Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research Institute Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macey: People with sleep apnea are less able to control the blood flowing to their brain, in particular when they grip tightly, or have their foot put in cold water. We measured changes in blood flowing through the brain using an MRI scanner while people gripped hard, had their foot placed in cold water, and breathed out hard into a tube with a very small hole in it. These activities all lead to more blood flowing to the brain in healthy people, which probably helps protect the cells from being starved of blood and oxygen. However, people with sleep apnea send less blood that the healthy participants during the gripped and cold foot activities. A further important finding is that women with sleep apnea are worse off than men. The female patients showed much weaker blood flow than the males, even accounting for normal differences between men and women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 11.09.2014

Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PAMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Stuckey: The main findings were that people with diabetes had both negative psychosocial and positive (adaptive) ways of coping with diabetes. Negative themes included:  1) Anxiety/fear, worry about hypoglycemia and complications of diabetes, depression and negative moods/hopelessness and 2) Discrimination at work and public misunderstanding about diabetes. Two psychosocial themes demonstrated adaptive ways of coping with diabetes: 1) Having a positive outlook and sense of resilience in the midst of having diabetes and 2) Receiving psychosocial support through caring and compassionate family, friends, healthcare professionals and other people with diabetes. Most diabetes social sciences research focuses on only the negative aspects of having diabetes.  Although this paper discussed negative aspects, it also focused on the adaptive, or positive, ways in which people with diabetes viewed their disease.  "We found that although these negative experiences with diabetes exist, people also held on to the positive aspects.  Some said diabetes made their lives a little richer because they ate healthier foods, or they were able to connect with their family more to overcome challenges. It gave them a better appreciation of what they have.  The discrimination at work and from society was a finding that was unexpected, but was evident throughout both the quantitative and qualitative data. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview With: Ruth C. E. Hughes Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Otago, Christchurch Women’s Hospital Christchurch, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: The increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age was the main driver behind our study.  In clinical practice, we were finding that women with probable undiagnosed diabetes (and pre-diabetes) had already started developing pregnancy complications at the time they were diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosis in the late second trimester. It seemed logical to try to identify them in early pregnancy, with the idea that they might benefit from earlier intervention.  We thus explored the usefulness of first trimester HbA1c measurements to identify women with unrecognised pre-existing diabetes. In our study, an HbA1c of 5.9% (41mmol/mol) was the optimal screening threshold for diabetes in early pregnancy.  We found that a threshold of 6.5% (48mmol/mol), which is endorsed by the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association for diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy, would miss almost 50% of women with probable pre-existing diabetes.  Of great relevance, women with an early HbA1c of 5.9%-6.4% (41-46mmol/mol) had poorer pregnancy outcomes than those with an HbA1c <5.9% (<41mmol/mol), with a 2.5-3 fold higher relative risk of major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal death.  These women were also more likely to deliver before 37 weeks gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 09.09.2014

Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleaguesMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleagues Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Huang: In this meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies comprising more than 890,000 individuals, we found that the presence of prediabetes at baseline associated with a 15% increased risk of cancer overall. The results were consistent across cancer endpoint, age, duration of follow-up and ethnicity. There was no significant difference for the risk of cancer with different definitions of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and/or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]). (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Diabetes / 04.09.2014

Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, LouisianaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, Louisiana Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Menke: The prevalence of diabetes increased more in men than women between 1976 and 2010 in the US, from 4.7% to 11.2% in men and from 5.7% to 8.7% in women. Changes over time in the distribution of age, race/ethnicity, and obesity in the population explained all of the increase in women and only half of the increase in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 03.09.2014

Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salas-Salvadó: The main finding of our study is that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. This association remained significant even after taking classic risk factors into account. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study assessing the association between changes in serum calcium levels and the risk of type 2 diabetes development. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, University of Pittsburgh / 31.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sabita Soedamah-Muthu Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University Wageningen, the Netherlands and Prof Trevor Orchard Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We present a new prognostic model combining information on age, glycated haemoglobin, waist-hip ratio, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL (good) cholesterol to assess the 3, 5 and 7 year risk of developing major outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Heart Disease, Pharmacology / 27.08.2014

Dr. Frank B. Hu Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Frank B. Hu Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hu: in this study among approximately 5000 patients with type 2 diabetes followed for up to 10 years, longer duration of sulfonylurea therapy was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease. The continuous sulfonylurea therapy for 10 years was associated with almost two times greater risk of coronary heart disease compared with nonusers. However, given the observational nature of the study, we cannot make causal inference from these findings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 24.08.2014

Satyesh K Sinha, PhD Assistant Professor Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science Los Angeles, CA-90059MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Satyesh K Sinha, PhD Assistant Professor Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science Los Angeles, CA-90059 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sinha: Our main finding is that compared to Whites, African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, with diabetes, have a higher prevalence of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is significantly associated with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 22.08.2014

Mark A. EspelandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A. Espeland PhD Professor Department of Biostatistics Sticht Center on Aging Center for Diabetes Research WFU Primate Center Center for Integrative Medicine Translational Science Institute Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Espeland : Over 10 years, overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who were provided a lifestyle intervention targeting sustained weight loss and increased physical activity, lowered their rates of hospitalizations and medication use and reduced the costs of their health care by over $5,000. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, Neurology, Stroke / 21.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Chia-Huang Kao From the Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine and PET Center Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Kao: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for hypoglycemia; several factors are reported to contribute to hypoglycemia in these patients. However, most previous studies were limited by the relatively small number of patients with CKD included in the study by the exclusion of cases with CKD. In the present study, the incidence rate of hypoglycemia in patients with CKD was 4.5%, which is approximately twice the value noted in previous reports and multivariate analysis revealed a 2.53-fold increase in the risk of death for CKD patients with hypoglycemia after adjusting for related confounding factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and antidiabetic drugs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Disability Research / 20.08.2014

Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524MedicalResearch.com Interview with Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Margolis: The study compared falls and fractures in patients aged 40-79 with diabetes who were treated for high blood pressure.  One group received treatment that aimed at getting systolic blood pressure under 120, while the other group received treatment to achieve systolic blood pressure under 140. The results show that patients who received intensive blood pressure treatment did not fall more than less intensively treated patients, nor did they incur more fractures over an average follow-up of about five years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Macular Degeneration, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 19.08.2014

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Grace and Emery Beardsley Professor and Chair USC Department of Ophthalmology Director, USC Eye Institute Associate Dean for Strategic Planning and Network Development Keck School of Medicine of USCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Grace and Emery Beardsley Professor and Chair USC Department of Ophthalmology Director, USC Eye Institute Associate Dean for Strategic Planning and Network Development Keck School of Medicine of USC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Varma: Our research demonstrates African-Americans bear a heavier burden of diabetic macular edema (DME), one of the leading causes of blindness in diabetic patients in the United States, compared to Non-Hispanic whites. The study points to a need for improved screening and greater attention to vision loss by clinicians and patients particularly those who are at high risk of developing diabetic macular edema. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Heart Disease, Lipids / 19.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Michael d’Emden Endocrine Research Unit Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. d’Emden: Our study is the largest trial of women having type 2 diabetes assessing the role of a fibric acid derivative, in this case fenofibrate, ever conducted.  There were 3657 female subjects randomized to placebo or fenofibrate.  The study demonstrated greater reductions in women of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol and greater increases in HDL-cholesterol.  In women, fenofibrate decreased total cardiovascular end-points by 30% compared with only 13% in men, although there was no-treatment-by-sex interaction.  The majority of end points assessed revealed a consistent trend to increased benefit being seen in women. (more…)
Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness / 07.08.2014

Kristian KarstoftMD The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity ResearchDepartment of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristian Karstoft MD The Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism and The Centre for Physical Activity ResearchDepartment of Infectious Diseases and CMRC, Rigshospitalet Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Karstoft: Four months of Interval-walking training (IWT; five sessions/week, one hour/session) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus maintained insulin secretion, improved insulin sensitivity index and disposition index in opposition to energy-expenditure and time-duration matched continuous walking training (CWT). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, PLoS, Sugar / 01.08.2014

Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Effie Viguiliouk: This systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from 12 randomized clinical trials in 450 participants with type 2 diabetes found that eating about 1/2 a cup of tree nuts per day (equivalent to about 60 g or 2 servings) significantly lowered the two key markers of blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting glucose, in comparison to calorically matched control diets without tree nuts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Kidney Disease / 30.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Petter Bjornstad, M.D. Children's Hospital Colorado University of Colorado Denver Aurora, CO 80045 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bjornstad: Type 2 diabetes is the most common cause of end-stage renal disease in the Western world. It is therefore of paramount importance to develop a better understanding of the determinants of diabetic nephropathy risk and progression, to improve outcome in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. We report high rates of microalbuminuria and renal hyperfiltration in adolescents with type 2 diabetes, which forecast early renal morbidity and mortality. In our observational study, insulin sensitivity measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp studies, rather than adiposity, blood pressure, lipid and glycemic control was associated with markers of renal health (albumin-to-creatinine ratio and estimated glomerular filtration rate). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Weight Research / 30.07.2014

Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Grant Brinkworth PhD Associate Professor Senior Research Scientist CSIRO Animal, Food and Health Sciences Adelaide BC, South Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brinkworth: Both a very low carbohydrate, high protein, high unsaturated fat diet and a high carbohydrate, low fat diet achieved similar weight loss, improvements in body composition and health risk markers. However, compared to the high carbohydrate, low fat diet, a very low carbohydrate high protein, high unsaturated fat diet had more favourable effects on blood lipid profile, glycemic control (indicated by greater reductions in glycosylated haemoglobin – primary clinical measure of blood glucose control and the requirements for blood glucose controlling drugs) and for reducing daily blood glucose fluctuations. The findings from this study suggests that a novel eating pattern that markedly limits carbohydrates, increases protein and unsaturated fat may have more favourable therapeutic potential for optimising the management of type 2 diabetes and reducing cardiovascular disease risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Circadian Rhythm, Diabetes, Occupational Health / 28.07.2014

Professor  Zuxun Lu School of Public Health Tongii Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhun, Hubei, China.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor  Zuxun Lu School of Public Health Tongii Medical College Huazhong University of Science and Technology Wuhun, Hubei, China. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Lu: The main finding of this systematic review and meta-analysis was that shift work is associated with an increased risk of diabetes mellitus (DM). The association between shift work and DM appeared to be independent of physical activity, family of history of DM and body mass index. We found that the increased risk of diabetes mellitus was more pronounced in rotating shift group and male shift workers than in other shift group and female shift workers, respectively. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Diabetes, Genetic Research, Nature, Vanderbilt / 23.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Qiuyin Cai, M.D., Ph.D. Associate Professor of Medicine Vanderbilt University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cai: We conducted a genome-wide association study in East Asians to search for additional genetic changes that are linked to breast cancer development. The study was conducted as part of the Asia Breast Cancer Consortium, which includes 22,780 women with breast cancer and 24,181 control subjects. We found DNA sequence changes in two genes, PRC1 and ZC3H11A, and a change near the ARRDC3 gene were associated with breast cancer risk. These results were also replicated in a large consortium, including 16,003 breast cancer cases and 41,335 control subjects of European ancestry. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 14.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Alex Dregan Lecturer in Translational Epidemiology and Public Health, Division of Primary Care and Public Health Research King's College London, London Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dregan: Our study showed that chronic inflammation was associated with increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, specifically type II diabetes and coronary heart disease. The risk of cardiovascular disease increased with the severity of inflammatory disorders. In addition, inflammation also increased the risk of multiple morbidity (two or more cardiovascular diseases). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 13.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: dr_Eric RavussinEric Ravussin, Ph.D., Boyd Professor Director Nutrition Obesity Research Center Douglas L. Gordon Chair in Diabetes and Metabolism Associate Executive Director for Clinical Science Baton Rouge LA Medical Research: What is the background of this study? Dr. Ravussin: It has long been postulated that hypoxia is bad for metabolic health. Hypoxia of adipose tissue has been thought to cause oxidative stress, resulting in the recruitment of macrophages with resultant secretion of cytokines and inflammation.  However, repeated bouts of hypoxia induced during vigorous exercise results in increased glucose uptake and vascularization of muscle tissue. In addition, living at high altitude is associated with a lower prevalence of impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes compared with living at low altitude. Therefore, we asked the question, “What is the balance between the beneficial effects of hypoxia in muscle tissue and ‘bad’ effects in adipose tissue”? We devised a study in eight healthy men of different ethnicities, put into a hypoxic environment for 10 consecutive nights for 10 hours. The subjects slept in a hypoxic tent, using nitrogen dilution. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ravussin: The main findings of this study included:
  • Adipose tissue hypoxia was confirmed;
  • Subjects lost an average of 1.2 kg;
  • This study reports for the first time a reduced fasting glucose level and improved whole-body (skeletal muscle) and hepatic insulin sensitivity after nightly exposure to moderate hypoxia.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center, IsraelMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center, Israel Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Jakubowicz: In type 2 diabetes there is a deficit of post-meal insulin secretion (from pancreatic beta-cells) that  contributes to an exaggerated elevation in blood glucose. In this study we  found that consumption of whey protein shortly before breakfast augmented  GLP-1 (a gut hormone that stimulates insulin secretion) enhancing insulin response and lowering glucose excursions after breakfast. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Sleep Disorders / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:Vincenza Spallone MD PhD Endocrinology and Neurology Department of Systems Medicine Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy Vincenza Spallone MD PhD Endocrinology and Neurology Department of Systems Medicine Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Spallone:To investigate a possible relationship between painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN) and the circadian pattern of blood pressure (BP), we performed ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in 113 diabetic patients with PDPN, with painless diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and without DPN. In addition, we evaluated neuropathic pain, sleep, risk for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), autonomic function, and in a subgroup of patients, depressive symptoms. The main finding was that patients with painful diabetic polyneuropathy displayed impaired nocturnal fall in BP compared to those without neuropathy, and higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure than the other two groups. Although the day-night change (∆) in blood pressure failed to reach a significant difference between painful diabetic polyneuropathy and DPN groups, nondipping (the loss of nocturnal fall in systolic BP) was more strictly associated with painful diabetic polyneuropathy than DPN and in multivariate analysis, including comorbidities and most potential confounders, neuropathic pain was an independent determinant of ∆ BP and nocturnal systolic blood pressure. In summary, we showed a novel association of peripheral diabetic neuropathic pain with nondipping and higher systolic nocturnal blood pressure, which was not entirely explained through pain dependent sleep problems or other pain- or diabetes-related comorbidities, like CAN, OSA and depression. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 08.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Interview with Professor Donald W Bowden and Dr. Amanda J Cox Center for Diabetes Research, Center for Genomics and Personalized Medicine Research Department of Biochemistry, Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study examined modifiable cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and risk for mortality in a subset of individuals from the Diabetes Heart Study who were at high risk based for cardiovascular disease based on burden of subclinical CVD assessed by coronary artery calcified plaque scores greater than 1000. Even among this high risk group, known CVD risk factors were still useful in assessing ongoing risk for mortality.  Use of cholesterol-lowering medication was one factor identified to be protective against mortality. (more…)