Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine, Heart Disease / 03.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Arnold Ng, MBBS, PhD Department of Cardiology Princess Alexandra Hospital University of Queensland, Australia Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Arnold: The WHO and American Diabetes Association currently recommends the use of HbA1c >=6.5% as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. HbA1c is advantageous over fasting plasma glucose and glucose tolerance testing by avoiding the need for patient fasting and inconvenient patient preparation. In addition, patients who are acutely unwell (e.g. STEMI) may develop stress hyperglycemia, complicating the diagnosis of diabetes. It is currently unclear if HbA1c (indicative of overall glycemic control) or fasting plasma glucose predicts worse left ventricular function after acute STEMI. The present study demonstrated that HbA1c identified approximately another 20% of previously undiagnosed patients as diabetic. Furthermore, the present study was first to demonstrate that HbA1c, not fasting plasma glucose, was independently associated with more impaired LV diastolic function and elevated filling pressures after STEMI. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Diabetes, OBGYNE / 30.10.2014

Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease ControlMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Cora Peterson PhD Health Economist at Centers for Disease Control Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Peterson: Women with pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM) have increased risk for adverse birth outcomes. Preconception care for women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus reduces the frequency of such outcomes, most likely by improving glycemic control before and during the critical first weeks of pregnancy. Preconception care for women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus includes the following activities:
  • medical or dietary blood sugar control, blood sugar monitoring, screening and treatment of complications due to diabetes,
  • counseling and education about the risks of diabetes in pregnancy, and
  • using effective birth control or contraceptives until appropriate levels of blood sugar are achieved.
In this study, CDC researchers estimated the number of preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths (death between the time a baby is at least 20 weeks old in the mother’s womb to one week after the baby is born) that could be prevented and the money that could potentially be saved if preconception care was available to and used by all women with  pregestational diabetes mellitus before pregnancy. Researchers estimated about 2.2% of births (88,081 births each year) in the United States are to women with pregestational diabetes mellitus, including women who know they have diabetes before they become pregnant and those who are unaware they have diabetes. Preconception care before pregnancy among women with known pregestational diabetes mellitus could potentially generate benefits of up to $4.3 billion by preventing preterm births, birth defects, and perinatal deaths. Up to an additional $1.2 billion in benefits could be produced if women who do not know they have diabetes were diagnosed and received preconception care. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Infections, OBGYNE / 27.10.2014

Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head of the WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in YouthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Zvi Laron Professor Emeritus of Pediatric Endocrinology TAU's Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Director of the Endocrinology and Diabetes Research Unit Schneider Children's Medical Center of Israel Head WHO Collaborating Center for the Study of Diabetes in Youth Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? What was most surprising about results? Prof. Laron: The main findings were the finding of specific antibodies to the pancreatic insulin secreting beta cells together with antibodies against rota-virus in both the mother at delivery and in the newborn's cord blood. We were not surprised, but pleased to find proof to our hypothesis that part, if not the majority of childhood onset Type 1 (autoimmune diabetes) starts "in utero". (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Infections / 20.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Tsai Chung-Li Graduate Institute of Biostatistics, College of Management, China Medical University,Taichung, Taiwan and Dr. Hsiao-Chuan Lin Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, and Department of Pediatrics, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study that included two groups. Children with enterovirus infection (aged < 18 years) during 2000-2007 were identified and followed up until December 31, 2008 or until first occurrence of type 1 diabetes. The group without enterovirus infection comprised half of all insured children of the same age and without a diagnosis of enterovirus infection. By use of frequency-matching with sex and birth year, children in the group with enterovirus were selected from those eligible. This nationwide retrospective cohort study found:
  • type 1 diabetes is positively correlated with enterovirus infection in patients younger than 18 years.
  • the incidence rate of type 1 diabetes was lower in the non-enterovirus than the enterovirus group (4 vs 6 per 100,000 person-years; incidence rate ratio 1.48 [95% CI 1.19, 1.83]).
  • children that have been infected with enterovirus are 48% more likely to have developed type 1 diabetes.
  • the risk of developing type 1 diabetes is 2.18 times greater among children aged 10 years and older than among those aged younger than 1 year.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Imperial College, Nature / 15.10.2014

Dr. David Hodson PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Imperial College LondonMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. David Hodson PhD Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medicine Imperial College London Medical Research: What is the background for this research? Dr. Hodson: Type 2 diabetes represents a huge socioeconomic challenge. As well as causing significant morbidity due to chronically elevated glucose levels, this disease is also a drain on healthcare budgets (~$20billion in the UK per year). While current treatments are effective, they are sometimes associated with side effects, usually due to off-target actions on organs such as the heart and brain. In addition, the ability to regulate blood glucose levels more tightly may decrease complications stemming from type diabetes (e.g. nerve, kidney and retina damage). As a proof-of-principle that the spatiotemporal precision of light can be harnessed to finely guide and control drug activity, we therefore decided to produce a light-activated anti-diabetic. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Diabetes, Thyroid Disease / 07.10.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jean-Pascal Fournier, MD, PhD Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada and Laurent Azoulay, PhD Centre for Clinical Epidemiology, Lady Davis Institute, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: Patients with type II diabetes and treated hypothyroidism showed a 55% increased risk for low levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (below 0.4 mIU/L) when initiating metformin, compared with those initiating sulfonylurea (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09–2.20). In contrast, this effect of metformin was not observed in euthyroid patients, with an adjusted HR for low TSH of 0.97(95% CI 0.69–1.36). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet / 03.10.2014

Dr Nita Forouhi Lead Scientist and Programme Leader MRC Epidemiology Unit University of Cambridge School of Clinical MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Nita Forouhi, MRCP, PhD, FFPHM Lead Scientist and Programme Leader MRC Programme Leader and Consultant Public Health Physician MRC Epidemiology Unit University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine Cambridge Biomedical Campus Cambridge, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Forouhi: This large study found that low blood concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a clinical indicator of vitamin D status, were associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but this did not appear to be a cause-effect relationship. To investigate these associations, we did two things. We first did a systematic review and meta-analysis across 22 published studies and confirmed that there was a strong inverse relation between vitamin D levels and the risk of future new-onset type 2 diabetes among people who did not initially have diabetes. We then used a genetic approach, called Mendelian randomisation, which allows us to test a cause-effect relationship, and found that genetically lower vitamin D levels were not related to risk of type 2 diabetes. This means that we were able to distinguish between association and causation, and concluded that the vitamin D levels did not have a causal link with type 2 diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness, Genetic Research / 01.10.2014

Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical CenterMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation with: Dr. Yann C Klimentidis, PhD Assistant professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health University of Arizona Medical Center   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Klimentidis: The main finding is that the association of physical activity with type-2 diabetes risk is weakest among those who are at high genetic risk for type-2 diabetes. Furthermore, we find that this trend is stronger among women as compared to men, and that it appears to be driven mainly by genetic risk to insulin resistance, as opposed to genetic risk for reduced beta-cell function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 29.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jorge F. Saucedo MD Allstate Foundation, Judson B. Branch Chair of Cardiology Head, Division of Cardiology Co-Director Cardiovascular Institute NorthShore University HealthSystem Clinical Professor of Medicine University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine Talla A. Rousan, MD Oklahoma City, OK. First author of study. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: It was found that patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have a higher in-hospital mortality rate compared to patients without DM. Patients with insulin-requiring diabetes mellitus presenting with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction had higher in-hospital mortality rate than patients with non-insulin requiring diabetes mellitus. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lipids, Statins / 22.09.2014

Prof. Moses Elisaf Professor of Internal Medicine University of Ioannina, GreeceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Moses Elisaf Professor of Internal Medicine University of Ioannina, Greece Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Elisaf: We evaluated the effects of rosuvastatin in two groups of hyperlipidemic patients: one group had impaired fasting glucose (IFG) while the second group had normal fasting glucose. After study end, both groups had similar changes in their lipidemic profile. However, patients with IFG had a significant greater decrease in the cholesterol concentration of the more atherogenic small dense low-density lipoprotein (sdLDL) particles (-65.7%) compared with controls (-38.5%). Moreover, a greater increase in the mean LDL particle size was observed in the impaired fasting glucose group (+1.5% vs +0.4%). In addition, redistribution from the more atherogenic sdLDL to large buoyant LDL (lbLDL) subfractions was observed in the IFG group. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 22.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yuli Huang and Yunzhao Hu Department of Cardiology, the First People's Hospital of Shunde, Shunde District, Foshan, PR China. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Response: “Prediabetes” is a general term that refers to an intermediate stage between normoglycaemia and overt type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). It includes 2 groups of individuals, those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and those with impaired fasting glucose (IFG). In 2003, the American Diabetes Association (ADA) redefined the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration range for diagnosing IFG from 110 to 125 mg/dl to 100 to 125 mg/dl in order to better identify individuals at future type 2 diabetes mellitus risk. However, this change has been contentious and was not adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Group or other international guidelines. In this meta-analysis, we included data from 26 prospective cohort studies with for 280,185 participants and found that, after controlling for multiple cardiovascular risk factors, the presence of prediabetes at baseline, defined as defined as IFG of 110 to 125 mg/dL(IFG 110), IGT or combined IFG 110 and/or IGT, was associated with increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Specifically, IFG 110 was associated with 12% and 19% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, IGT was associated with 33% and 23% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, combination of IFG110 and/or IGT was associated with 21% and 21% increase of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, respectively. Although IFG 100 was not associated with all-cause or cardiovascular mortality in the overall analysis, the risk was greater in young and middle age males according to subgroup analyses. (more…)
Diabetes / 17.09.2014

Steven Brown School of Healthcare Science Faculty of Engineering Manchester Metropolitan University UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Brown School of Healthcare Science Faculty of Engineering Manchester Metropolitan University UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings were increased extremes of sideways sway in patients with diabetes and severe peripheral neuropathy during stair negotiation. Measured by an increase in the amount of lateral separation between the centre-of-mass and centre-of-pressure. Our results showed a 3cm increase in maximum sway in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy during both stair descent and stair ascent. (more…)
Diabetes, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 17.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Adam Tabak MD Clinical Research Associate Epidemiology & Public Health Institute of Epidemiology & Health Faculty of Population Health Sciences University College London, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?   Dr. Tabak: Some of the major findings are confirmatory, such as the almost 3 times increased risk and an earlier onset of type 2 diabetes among south Asians, and a decreased insulin sensitivity in this ethnic group. The major novel finding is related to the fact that we could model events before diabetes diagnosis. We found a faster increase in fasting glucose before the diagnosis is south Asians compared to whites and that although insulin secretion increased in both ethnicities until 7 years before diagnosis, this increase was faster among whites. (more…)
Diabetes, Heart Disease / 13.09.2014

Carlos F. Sánchez-Ferrer, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Pharmacology Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Carlos F. Sánchez-Ferrer, M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Pharmacology Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sánchez-Ferrer: We were studying the possible ways of interaction between high glucose levels, which are found in diabetes mellitus, with vascular damage, which is the most common and devastating consequence of this disease. An intriguing fact is that a very strict control of blood sugar in diabetic patients is not sufficient to avoid the development of such diabetes-induced cardiovascular diseases. We think our results can explain why this is happening. Using cultured smooth muscle cells from the main human artery (aorta) in the presence of high concentrations of extracellular glucose, we observed: 1. In the absence of inflammation, excess glucose in the culture fluid didn’t enter the cells. 2. When extra glucose was forced into the cells, no harm was done in the absence of inflammation. 3. When the inflammation-stimulating protein interleukin-1 (IL-1) was introduced, more glucose entered the cells. 4. With IL-1, the glucose entering the cells was metabolized via chemical pathways that spur escalating inflammation, overwhelming the cells’ ability to counteract it. 5. In the presence of the anti-inflammatory drug anakinra, which blocks the activity of IL-1, the deleterious changes didn’t occur. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Heart Disease / 12.09.2014

Kristian Filion, PhD FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Epidemiology Jewish General Hospital/McGill University Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kristian Filion, PhD FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Clinical Epidemiology Jewish General Hospital/McGill University Montreal, Quebec H3T 1E2 Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Filion: Previous studies have raised concerns that the use of incretin-based drugs, a type of medication used to treat diabetes, may increase the risk of congestive heart failure.  We therefore examined this potential drug safety issue using a large, population-based database, which allowed us to study the safety of these medications in a real world setting.  In doing so, we found that the use of incretin-based drugs was not associated with an increased risk of congestive heart failure among patients with type 2 diabetes.  Similar results were obtained among both classes of incretin-based drugs (glucagon like peptide-1 [GLP-1] analogs and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 [DPP-4] inhibitors), and no duration-response relationship was observed. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 12.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Association Between Arterial Catheter Use and Hospital Mortality in Intensive Care UnitsDr. Sophia Zoungas: Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences Monash University, Clayton   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Zoungas: Our study shows that age (or age at diagnosis) and duration of diabetes disease are linked to the risk of death and marcovascular complications (those in larger blood vessels) whereas only diabetes duration is linked to the risk of microvascular complications (in smaller blood vessels such as those in the kidney and eyes) (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 12.09.2014

Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research InstituteMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Paul M. Macey, Ph.D. Assistant Professor in Residence Associate Dean for Information Technology and Innovations, Chief Innovation Officer UCLA School of Nursing and Brain Research Institute Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Macey: People with sleep apnea are less able to control the blood flowing to their brain, in particular when they grip tightly, or have their foot put in cold water. We measured changes in blood flowing through the brain using an MRI scanner while people gripped hard, had their foot placed in cold water, and breathed out hard into a tube with a very small hole in it. These activities all lead to more blood flowing to the brain in healthy people, which probably helps protect the cells from being starved of blood and oxygen. However, people with sleep apnea send less blood that the healthy participants during the gripped and cold foot activities. A further important finding is that women with sleep apnea are worse off than men. The female patients showed much weaker blood flow than the males, even accounting for normal differences between men and women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 11.09.2014

Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PAMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Stuckey: The main findings were that people with diabetes had both negative psychosocial and positive (adaptive) ways of coping with diabetes. Negative themes included:  1) Anxiety/fear, worry about hypoglycemia and complications of diabetes, depression and negative moods/hopelessness and 2) Discrimination at work and public misunderstanding about diabetes. Two psychosocial themes demonstrated adaptive ways of coping with diabetes: 1) Having a positive outlook and sense of resilience in the midst of having diabetes and 2) Receiving psychosocial support through caring and compassionate family, friends, healthcare professionals and other people with diabetes. Most diabetes social sciences research focuses on only the negative aspects of having diabetes.  Although this paper discussed negative aspects, it also focused on the adaptive, or positive, ways in which people with diabetes viewed their disease.  "We found that although these negative experiences with diabetes exist, people also held on to the positive aspects.  Some said diabetes made their lives a little richer because they ate healthier foods, or they were able to connect with their family more to overcome challenges. It gave them a better appreciation of what they have.  The discrimination at work and from society was a finding that was unexpected, but was evident throughout both the quantitative and qualitative data. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview With: Ruth C. E. Hughes Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Otago, Christchurch Women’s Hospital Christchurch, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: The increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age was the main driver behind our study.  In clinical practice, we were finding that women with probable undiagnosed diabetes (and pre-diabetes) had already started developing pregnancy complications at the time they were diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosis in the late second trimester. It seemed logical to try to identify them in early pregnancy, with the idea that they might benefit from earlier intervention.  We thus explored the usefulness of first trimester HbA1c measurements to identify women with unrecognised pre-existing diabetes. In our study, an HbA1c of 5.9% (41mmol/mol) was the optimal screening threshold for diabetes in early pregnancy.  We found that a threshold of 6.5% (48mmol/mol), which is endorsed by the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association for diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy, would miss almost 50% of women with probable pre-existing diabetes.  Of great relevance, women with an early HbA1c of 5.9%-6.4% (41-46mmol/mol) had poorer pregnancy outcomes than those with an HbA1c <5.9% (<41mmol/mol), with a 2.5-3 fold higher relative risk of major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal death.  These women were also more likely to deliver before 37 weeks gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 09.09.2014

Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleaguesMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Yuli Huang The First People's Hospital of Shunde, Daliang Town, China, and colleagues Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Professor Huang: In this meta-analysis of 16 prospective cohort studies comprising more than 890,000 individuals, we found that the presence of prediabetes at baseline associated with a 15% increased risk of cancer overall. The results were consistent across cancer endpoint, age, duration of follow-up and ethnicity. There was no significant difference for the risk of cancer with different definitions of prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose [IFG] and/or impaired glucose tolerance [IGT]). (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Diabetes / 04.09.2014

Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, LouisianaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, Louisiana Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Menke: The prevalence of diabetes increased more in men than women between 1976 and 2010 in the US, from 4.7% to 11.2% in men and from 5.7% to 8.7% in women. Changes over time in the distribution of age, race/ethnicity, and obesity in the population explained all of the increase in women and only half of the increase in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 03.09.2014

Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salas-Salvadó: The main finding of our study is that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. This association remained significant even after taking classic risk factors into account. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study assessing the association between changes in serum calcium levels and the risk of type 2 diabetes development. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, University of Pittsburgh / 31.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sabita Soedamah-Muthu Division of Human Nutrition,Wageningen University Wageningen, the Netherlands and Prof Trevor Orchard Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We present a new prognostic model combining information on age, glycated haemoglobin, waist-hip ratio, albumin/creatinine ratio and HDL (good) cholesterol to assess the 3, 5 and 7 year risk of developing major outcomes in patients with type 1 diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Heart Disease, Pharmacology / 27.08.2014

Dr. Frank B. Hu Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Frank B. Hu Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, MA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hu: in this study among approximately 5000 patients with type 2 diabetes followed for up to 10 years, longer duration of sulfonylurea therapy was associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease. The continuous sulfonylurea therapy for 10 years was associated with almost two times greater risk of coronary heart disease compared with nonusers. However, given the observational nature of the study, we cannot make causal inference from these findings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 24.08.2014

Satyesh K Sinha, PhD Assistant Professor Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science Los Angeles, CA-90059MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Satyesh K Sinha, PhD Assistant Professor Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science Los Angeles, CA-90059 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Sinha: Our main finding is that compared to Whites, African Americans (AAs) and Hispanics, with diabetes, have a higher prevalence of early chronic kidney disease (CKD) which is significantly associated with urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 22.08.2014

Mark A. EspelandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mark A. Espeland PhD Professor Department of Biostatistics Sticht Center on Aging Center for Diabetes Research WFU Primate Center Center for Integrative Medicine Translational Science Institute Wake Forest School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Espeland : Over 10 years, overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who were provided a lifestyle intervention targeting sustained weight loss and increased physical activity, lowered their rates of hospitalizations and medication use and reduced the costs of their health care by over $5,000. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease, Neurology, Stroke / 21.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Chia-Huang Kao From the Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science Department of Radiation Oncology and Nuclear Medicine and PET Center Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Kao: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk for hypoglycemia; several factors are reported to contribute to hypoglycemia in these patients. However, most previous studies were limited by the relatively small number of patients with CKD included in the study by the exclusion of cases with CKD. In the present study, the incidence rate of hypoglycemia in patients with CKD was 4.5%, which is approximately twice the value noted in previous reports and multivariate analysis revealed a 2.53-fold increase in the risk of death for CKD patients with hypoglycemia after adjusting for related confounding factors including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and antidiabetic drugs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Disability Research / 20.08.2014

Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524MedicalResearch.com Interview with Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Margolis: The study compared falls and fractures in patients aged 40-79 with diabetes who were treated for high blood pressure.  One group received treatment that aimed at getting systolic blood pressure under 120, while the other group received treatment to achieve systolic blood pressure under 140. The results show that patients who received intensive blood pressure treatment did not fall more than less intensively treated patients, nor did they incur more fractures over an average follow-up of about five years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Macular Degeneration, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 19.08.2014

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Grace and Emery Beardsley Professor and Chair USC Department of Ophthalmology Director, USC Eye Institute Associate Dean for Strategic Planning and Network Development Keck School of Medicine of USCMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Grace and Emery Beardsley Professor and Chair USC Department of Ophthalmology Director, USC Eye Institute Associate Dean for Strategic Planning and Network Development Keck School of Medicine of USC Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Varma: Our research demonstrates African-Americans bear a heavier burden of diabetic macular edema (DME), one of the leading causes of blindness in diabetic patients in the United States, compared to Non-Hispanic whites. The study points to a need for improved screening and greater attention to vision loss by clinicians and patients particularly those who are at high risk of developing diabetic macular edema. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Heart Disease, Lipids / 19.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Michael d’Emden Endocrine Research Unit Royal Brisbane Hospital, Brisbane, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. d’Emden: Our study is the largest trial of women having type 2 diabetes assessing the role of a fibric acid derivative, in this case fenofibrate, ever conducted.  There were 3657 female subjects randomized to placebo or fenofibrate.  The study demonstrated greater reductions in women of total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL-cholesterol and greater increases in HDL-cholesterol.  In women, fenofibrate decreased total cardiovascular end-points by 30% compared with only 13% in men, although there was no-treatment-by-sex interaction.  The majority of end points assessed revealed a consistent trend to increased benefit being seen in women. (more…)