Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine, Lancet, Lifestyle & Health / 04.04.2014

Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, ChinaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Guangwei Li MD Department of Endocrinology China-Japan Friendship Hospital Center of Endocrinology and Cardiovascular Disease, National Center of Cardiology & Fuwai Hospital, Beijing, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study first shows that a six-year period of lifestyle intervention in Chinese people with IGT reduced the incidence of diabetes over a protracted time period and was ultimately associated with a significant reduction in total and cardio-vascular disease mortality. This reduction in mortality appears to be mediated in part by the delay in onset of diabetes resulting from the lifestyle interventions. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mental Health Research, NIH, University of Pittsburgh / 01.04.2014

Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roberts: We found that among persons 70 years and older, people with type 2 diabetes had a reduced glucose uptake (hypometabolism) in  brain cells.  We also found a similar association for people without type 2 diabetes but who had elevated hemoglobin A1c levels levels at the time of enrollment (HBA1c is a measure of glucose control, and represents the average blood glucose levels over a 3 month period). However, we did not find an association of diabetes with increased brain amyloid accumulation.  Our findings were based on an investigation of the association of type 2 diabetes with markers of brain pathology: brain hypometabolism was assessed by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography [PET] and amyloid accumulation was assessed by 11-C Pittsburgh Compound B PET imaging. (more…)
Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Mental Health Research / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gao-Jun Teng, MD Chair and Professor, Dept of Radiology Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University Nanjing 210009, China MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: This current study demonstrates that the aberrant resting-state functional connectivity among default mode network (DMN) regions, especially the posterior cingulated cortex (PCC) to right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), is associated with insulin resistance and cognitive performance, which might be the key to understanding the cognitive impairment in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Kidney Disease / 30.03.2014

Dr. Paolo Fiorina, MD PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Nephrology, Harvard Medical SchoolMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Paolo Fiorina, MD PhD Assistant Professor, Division of Nephrology, Harvard Medical School and Dr. Roberto Bassi Post-doctoral research fellow Nephrology Department at Children's Hospital Boston. Dr. Roberto Bassi Post-doctoral research fellow Nephrology Department at Children's Hospital Boston.   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fiorina: It is common knowledge that type 2 diabetes is a worldwide epidemic and that diabetic nephropathy has become the leading cause of renal failure in the western world. One of the main drivers and worsening factors for the diabetic kidney disease is proteinuria associated with various degrees of tubular damage, and unfortunately, therapies to halt or prevent this complication are not available so far. Our findings show that B7-1 when expressed on podocytes (a specific subset of renal cells) determines alterations in podocytes function and morphology, predisposing individuals with T2D to the loss of proteins into the urine. We also demonstrate that Abatacept, an immunomodulatory drug currently employed for the treatment of a variety of autoimmune diseases, is able to specifically target this malignant pathway, preventing podocytes cellular alterations in vitro and proteinuria development in two murine models of diabetic nephropathy in vivo. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, NIH / 28.03.2014

Michael Laxy Helmholtz Zentrum München German Research Center for Environmental Health Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management Neuherberg, GermanyMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Laxy Helmholtz Zentrum München German Research Center for Environmental Health Institute of Health Economics and Health Care Management Neuherberg, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In patients with type 2 diabetes a high level of self-management behavior was associated with a better glycemic control, i.e. a lower HbA1c level, in the cross-sectional perspective and a reduced mortality over a 12-year period. This effect remained robust after controlling for socio-demographic and disease related factors, including medication. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mayo Clinic, Neurology / 20.03.2014

Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rosebud O Roberts, M.B., Ch.B. Professor of Epidemiology Professor of Neurology Mayo Clinic   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Roberts: The onset of type two diabetes in midlife (before age 65 years)  is associated with brain pathology (subcortical brain infarctions, reduced hippocampal volume, reduced whole brain volume) in late-life. Early onset of diabetes also increases the risk of developing mild cognitive impairment  which is an intermediate stage between normal cognitive aging and dementia. Our findings suggest that loss of brain volumes may be an intermediate stage or a link between diabetes and cognitive impairment. We also found that diabetes onset in late-life (after age 65 years), is also associated with brain pathology (cortical infarctions, reduced whole brain volume). Finally, onset of hypertension in midlife, but not late-life, is associated with brain pathology in late- life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, FDA, Pharmacology / 20.03.2014

Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Division of Epidemiology-I, Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MDMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christian Hampp PhD Senior Staff Fellow/Epidemiologist at FDA Office of Pharmacovigilance and Epidemiology, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hampp: Our study described U.S. market trends for antidiabetic drugs, focusing on newly approved drugs, concomitant use of antidiabetic drugs, and effects of safety concerns and restrictions on thiazolidinedione use. We found that since 2003, the number of adult antidiabetic drug users increased by approximately 43% to 18.8 million in 2012.  During 2012, 154.5 million prescriptions for antidiabetic drugs were filled in outpatient retail pharmacies.  Since 2003, metformin use increased by 97% to 60.4 million prescriptions dispensed in 2012.  Among antidiabetic drugs newly approved for marketing between 2003 and 2012, the dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor sitagliptin had the largest share with 10.5 million prescriptions in 2012. Possibly triggered by safety concerns, the use of pioglitazone declined in 2012 to approximately 52% of its peak in 2008, when 14.2 million prescriptions were dispensed in outpatient retail pharmacies and the use of rosiglitazone use decreased to fewer than 13,000 prescriptions dispensed in retail or mail-order pharmacies in 2012. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, OBGYNE / 18.03.2014

Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Erica P. Gunderson, PhD, MS, MPH Senior Research Scientist, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Section Division of Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California Oakland, CA 94612-2304 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gunderson: The study found that: -   Gestational diabetes is a pregnancy complication that reveals a woman’s greater risk of future heart disease. -   Women who experience gestational diabetes face an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis (early heart disease) even if they do not develop type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome years after pregnancy. -   Study participants with a history of gestational diabetes who did not develop diabetes or metabolic syndrome showed a greater carotid artery wall thickness (marker of early atherosclerosis) compared to those who never experienced gestational diabetes.  The vessel narrowing also could not be attributed to obesity or other risk factors for heart disease that were measured before pregnancy. -   Weight gain and blood pressure elevations in women with gestational diabetes were responsible for these differences in the artery wall thickness. (more…)
Compliance, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Vanderbilt / 15.03.2014

Chandra Y. Osborn, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine & Biomedical Informatics Division of General Internal Medicine & Public Health Center for Health Services Research Vanderbilt University Medical Center  Nashville, TN 37232-8300MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chandra Y. Osborn, PhD, MPH Assistant Professor of Medicine & Biomedical Informatics Division of General Internal Medicine & Public Health Center for Health Services Research Vanderbilt University Medical Center Nashville, TN 37232-8300 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of your study? Dr. Osborn:  We found that knowing how to take your diabetes medications (e.g., what to do if a dose is missed), believing medications are good for you, and having the appropriate skills to take them regardless of the situation (e.g., when life is busy, when in public) accounts for 41% of why people successfully take their diabetes medications, which, in turn, explains 9% of their glycemic control. (more…)
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Kidney Disease / 14.03.2014

Prof Samy Hadjadj: Université de Poitiers, UFR Médecine Pharmacie, Centre d’Investigation clinique, CHU de Poitiers, Centre d’Investigation clinique, Poitiers, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Samy Hadjadj: Université de Poitiers, UFR Médecine Pharmacie, Centre d’Investigation clinique, CHU de Poitiers, Centre d’Investigation clinique, Poitiers, France MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof: Hadjadj: The study helps to establish sTNFR1 as a valid biomarker not only for renal outcomes in type 2 diabetes but also for all cause death. Interestingly the addition of sTNFR1 concentration to the UKPDS model outcome equation showed to add some clinical prognostic value to this model for all-cause death. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Emergency Care, JAMA / 11.03.2014

Andrew I. Geller, MD Medical Officer in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at CDC.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andrew I. Geller, MD Medical Officer in the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion at CDC. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Geller: Using CDC’s national medication safety monitoring system, we estimated that, each year, there were about 100,000 visits made to U.S. emergency departments (EDs) for insulin-related hypoglycemia and errors during 2007-2011, or about half a million ED visits over the 5-year study period.  This is important because many of these ED visits for insulin-related hypoglycemia may be preventable. We also found these ED visits were more common with increasing age:  every year, 1 in 49 insulin-treated seniors (aged 65 years or older) visited the ED because of hypoglycemia while on insulin or because of a medication error related to insulin. Among the very elderly (aged 80 years or older), this number was 1 in 8 annually. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Genetic Research, University of Pennsylvania / 05.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brendan Keating D.Phil Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics and Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Lead Clinical Data Analyst, Center for Applied Genomics Children's Hospital of Philadelphia,Brendan Keating D.Phil Assistant Professor, Dept of Pediatrics and Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Lead Clinical Data Analyst, Center for Applied Genomics Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Michael V. Holmes, MD, PhD, MSc, BSc, MRCP Transplant Surgery Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USAMichael V. Holmes, MD, PhD, MSc, BSc, MRCP Transplant Surgery Department of Surgery, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We found that individuals with a genetically-elevated BMI had higher blood pressure, inflammatory markers, metabolic markers and a higher risk of type 2 diabetes, although there was little correlation with coronary heart disease in this study population of over 34,500 European-descent individuals of whom over 6,000 had coronary heart disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Gender Differences, Stroke / 27.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA Assistant professor & Director, Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health, LSU Health Sciences Center Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LouisianaGang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA Assistant professor & Director Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health LSU Health Sciences Center Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gang Hu:  Our study suggests a graded association between HbA1c and the risk of stroke among female patients with type 2 diabetes and poor control of blood sugar has a stronger effect in women older than 55 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 26.02.2014

Dr. Ulf Risérus Associate Professor in Clinical Nutrition Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Uppsala Science Park, 75185 Uppsala Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala university SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ulf Risérus Associate Professor in Clinical Nutrition Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Faculty of Medicine, Uppsala university Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Risérus: It has previously been shown in animal studies that overfeeding polyunsaturated fat causes less fat accumulation than saturated fats, but this study is the first to suggest that this could be true also in humans. Overeating saturated fats caused significantly more accumulation of fat in the liver and intra-abdominally, as compared with overeating polyunsaturated fats from. This study suggests it does matter where the excess calories come from when we gain weight. If a high-caloric diet contains large amounts of saturated fats it seems to switch on some genes that may promote abdominal fat storage and insulin resistance, and thereby result in a more unfavorable fat storage. In contrast, such effects were not seen if the diet was lower in saturated fats but higher in polyunsaturated fats from non-tropical vegetable oils. This study also suggests a novel contributing factor regarding the tendency of some individuals to accumulate fat in the liver and abdomen, i.e. in some people excessive amounts of saturated fat in combination with sugars might induce more fat in their livers and a propensity towards abdominal visceral fat accumulation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 26.02.2014

Steven A. Safren, Ph.D., ABPP Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical School Director, Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven A. Safren, Ph.D., ABPP Professor of Psychology, Harvard Medical School Director, Behavioral Medicine, Department of Psychiatry Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Safren:  The main findings of the study are that, in patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes and depression, a type of psychological treatment, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) that addressed both self-care and depression, resulted in improvements in both depressed mood, self-care, and glucose control.  This was a randomized controlled trial, and this cognitive-behavioral treatment worked better than lifestyle adherence and nutrition counseling alone; and the effects were sustained over 8 months. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Disability Research / 26.02.2014

Barbara H. Bardenheier PHD, MPH, MA Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Barbara H. Bardenheier PHD, MPH, MA Division of Diabetes Translation, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, GA MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bardenheier: Our main findings were that older adults who become disabled, even mildly, are at increased risk of developing diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, General Medicine, Kidney Disease / 25.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eiji Ishimura, MD, PhD, FASN, FACP Osaka City University Hospital Professor,Department of Nephrology Osaka, JAPAN MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ishimura: Poor glycemic control is a major factor in the overestimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic patients. We found this simple conclusion by directly measuring GFR by use of inulin clearance. We have created new formulae to accurately assess the GFR in diabetic patients, with the correction of hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) or glycated albumin (GA) as followings; 1)      eGFRcr corrected by HbA1c=eGFRcr / (0.428 + 0.085 × HbA1c) 2)      eGFRcr corrected by GA=eGFRcr / (0.525 + 0.028 × GA) (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, PLoS, Weight Research / 14.02.2014

Dorte Vistisen Senior researcher, MSc PhD 469 - Epidemiology DK-2820 Gentofte DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dorte Vistisen Senior researcher, MSc PhD 469 - Epidemiology DK-2820 Gentofte Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vistisen: Our study highlights the complexity of type 2 diabetes. We show that in most people the development of type 2 diabetes is preceded by many years of overweight and not by massive weight gain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 14.02.2014

ayse_basak_cinarMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ayse Basak Cinar, Assistant Professor The Department of Odontology The Faculty of Medical and Health Resources 2200 Copenhagen N Denmark MedicalResearch.com:  What are some of the unique or enlightening findings of this study that haven’t been published before? Answer:  To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled intervention study comparing the impact of individualized Health Coaching (HC) to formal Health Education (HE); applying HC as a holistic intervention for management of more than one specific type of chronic disease, namely oral health and diabetes management. The present study has two phases [the Turkish Phase, Turkey (2010-2012) and the Danish Phase, Denmark (2012- ...)]. The unique/enlightening figures from the Turkish phase as follows: The HC group compared to the HE group had significantly higher improvement at; HbA1c* (reduction: 0, 8% vs. 0%), and Periodontal Attachment Loss (PAL) (56% vs. 26%), (p≤0.01) Tooth Brushing Self-Efficacy (TBSE) (increase: 61% vs.25%) and stress (reduction: 16% vs. 1%), (p≤0.01). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet, Nutrition / 12.02.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirstie Bell Diabetes Dietitian, CDE & PhD Candidate Human Nutrition Unit The University of Sydney MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Overall, the evidence to support carbohydrate counting is limited, with current data showing a non-significant improvement in HbA1c.  Pooled results from 7 quality randomised control trials studies showed carbohydrate counting had no significant effect on glycemic control (-0.35%, p = 0.096).  There was a significant improvement in HbA1c of 0.64% points in studies in adults that were conducted in a parallel design. This is the first meta-analysis of carbohydrate counting in type 1 diabetes. Up until now, it has not been known what improvement in glycemic control can be expected. Current international guidelines for diabetes management have been based merely on gradings of the available evidence. However, assessing the overall effectiveness of carbohydrate counting is critical in clinical practice to guide medical and dietary management decisions. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Weight Research / 07.02.2014

Dr Peter de Jonge Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Peter de Jonge Interdisciplinary Center for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Jonge: The main findings were that depression and impulse control disorders, in particular binge eating and bulimia were associated with diabetes. (more…)
Antioxidants, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 21.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Aedin Cassidy University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We know fruits and vegetables seem to be particularly important for prevention of  heart disease and diabetes but what constituent may responsible for these benefits is unclear. These foods contain powerful bioactive compounds called flavonoids and in lab and animal experiments we know that flavonoids can reduce inflammation, improve BP, keep our arteries healthy and flexible, improve blood flow and reduce cholesterol levels. Our previous work had shown that a higher level of one class of flavonoids, the anthocyanins, responsible for the brilliant red/blue colours in fruits and other plant foods/products, could reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and of having a heart attack. This study builds on this and now we have evidence in humans that following intake of one portion of berries per day we can see these heart health benefits, and benefits on how we control our insulin and glucose levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Ophthalmology / 15.01.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eelco van Duinkerken Vrije Universiteit Medical Center, Amsterdama MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: In our study we assessed the relationship between cerebral small vessel disease and peripheral microvascular function in type 1 diabetes patients. By MRI cerebral small vessel disease was assessed as white matter hyperintensities and lacunar infarcts (markers of ischemia) and cerebral microbleeds (expression of vascular leakage). We hypothesized that subgroups, i.e. those with (proliferative) retinopathy, are more at risk to develop cerebral small vessels disease. To this end, we selected type 1 diabetes patients with proliferative retinopathy, type 1 diabetes patients without microvascular complications and healthy controls. The main finding of our study was that only cerebral microbleeds, but not ischemic markers of cerebral small vessel disease were more prevalent in type 1 diabetes patients with proliferative retinopathy relative to the other groups. Cerebral microbleeds were also related to microvascular function in skin. This suggest that cerebral microbleeds are part of generalized microangiopathy in patients with type 1 diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Fish / 15.01.2014

Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition Kuopio, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jyrki Virtanen, PhD Adjunct Professor of Nutritional Epidemiology University of Eastern Finland Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition Kuopio, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Virtanen: The main finding was that serum long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) concentration, an objective biomarker of fish and long-chain omega-3 PUFA intake, was associated with a lower risk of incident type 2 diabetes during the average follow-up of 19.3 years in middle-aged and older men from Eastern Finland. The risk was 33% lower in the highest vs. the lowest quartile after adjustment for potential confounders. In contrast, hair mercury, a marker for long-term exposure to mercury, was not associated with the risk. Previously in this study population, high hair mercury content has been associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and attenuation of the beneficial impact of long-chain omega-3 PUFA on the risk. Also, we did not find associations with the intermediate-chain length omega-3 PUFA alpha-linolenic acid, either, which is a plant-based omega-3 PUFA. This suggests that the findings were specific to the long-chain omega-3 PUFAs from fish. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Pediatrics, Stanford / 11.01.2014

Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naama Barnea-Goraly M.D. Center for Interdisciplinary Brain Sciences Research Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings showed that compared with age and sex matched controls, children with type 1 diabetes have significant differences in white matter structure in widespread brain regions. Within the type 1 diabetes group, earlier onset of diabetes and longer duration were associated with greater alterations in white matter structure. In addition, measures of hyperglycemia and glucose variability, but not hypoglycemia were associated with white matter structure; however, hypoglycemia exposure and the number of severe hypoglycemia events in our sample were too small to identify statistically meaningful differences. Finally, we observed a significant association between white matter structure and cognitive ability in children with type 1 diabetes, but not in controls. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mediterranean Diet / 10.01.2014

Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordi Salas-Salvadó, MD, PhD Human Nutrition Unit, Faculty of Medicine and Healthy Sciences Universitat Rovira i Virgili, C/ Sant Llorenç, 21, 43201 Reus, Spain MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Randomized trials have shown that lifestyle interventions promoting weight loss can reduce the incidence of type-2diabetes, however, whether dietary changes without calorie restriction or increased physical activity also protect from diabetes development has not been evaluated in the past. In our study, we found that a long-term adherence to a high-quality dietary pattern akin to the traditional MedDiet and rich in extra-virgin olive oil was able to reduce the incidence of new cases of diabetes in older individuals at high cardiovascular risk. We have demonstrated for the first time that a beneficial effect on diabetes prevention could be obtained witha healthy dietary pattern (without calorie restriction, increased physical activity or weight loss). These benefits have been observed in participants between 55 to 80 years-old at high cardiovascular risk; therefore,the message is that it is never too late to switch to a healthy diet like the Mediterranean. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Education, Lancet, Nutrition / 23.12.2013

Prof. Raj S Bhopal Bruce and John Usher Professor of Public Health Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH89AGMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Raj S Bhopal Bruce and John Usher Professor of Public Health Edinburgh Ethnicity and Health Research Group, Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Teviot Place, Edinburgh EH89AG MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Bhopal: In a randomised controlled trial, a tailored, family orientated intervention whereby dietitians worked in the family home to provide diet and exercise advice in people at high risk of developing diabetes, had a modest but potentially important effect in reducing weight at the end of the three-year intervention, by 1.6 kg more than in the control group. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA / 18.12.2013

Elbert S. Huang, MD MPH FACP Associate Professor of Medicine University of Chicago 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2007 Chicago, IL 60637MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Elbert S. Huang, MD MPH FACP Associate Professor of Medicine University of Chicago 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 2007 Chicago, IL 60637 MedicalResearch.com: What did you find most surprising in these results? Dr. Huang: We did not expect hypoglycemia to rank as highly as it did among the diabetes complications. We were also surprised to find that the rates of cardiovascular and microvascular complications are all dramatically lower than they were in the 1990s. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness / 15.12.2013

Dr. Merja K. Laine Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Helsinki MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Merja K. Laine Department of General Practice and Primary Health Care University of Helsinki MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of your study? Answer: We were interesting to know does a top-level sport during young adulthood protect against disturbances in glucose regulation in later life. In Finland, a unique study program including former male elite athletes and their age- and area-matched controls already initiated in 1985. In 2008, we invited those subjects who participated in the study earlier and were still alive. (more…)