Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Nutrition / 28.02.2015

Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center IsraelMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Daniela Jakubowicz MD Diabetes Unit. E. Wolfson Medical Center Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University and Tel Aviv Medical  Center Israel MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Professor Jakubowicz: Obesity epidemic have lead to alarming rise of type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that more than 382 million worldwide have diabetes, predominately type 2 diabetes. In these persons the cardiovascular disease is the leading complication, carrying 10 to 20-fold increase in the risk compared with persons without diabetes. It has been shown that large glucose peaks after meals along the day, are strongly associated with increased a risk for cardiovascular complications. Therefore the mitigation of glucose excursions after meals becomes a major target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes in order to improve glucose balance and prevent complications. Accordingly, dietary modification focused on reduction post meal glucose peaks is needed. Even though still there is no consensus on which of the dietary strategies (i.e. low-fat diet, Mediterranean and low-carbohydrate, higher fiber, low GI glycemic index meals, etc.) is more suitable in improving post-meal glycemic responses along the day. However in none of these interventions has been considered that modifying the meal timing pattern or daily caloric distribution, may lead to improved post-meal glycemic responses in type 2 diabetic patients. The circadian clock genes existing in the pancreatic β-cells, gut, liver and in skeletal muscle, regulate the diurnal (circadian) oscillation of post-meal glucose responses. In fact, post-meal glycemia displays a clear diurnal variation: it is higher and more prolonged in the evening than in the morning. Meal timing schedule, on the other hand, exerts strong controlling influence on circadian clock regulation, thereby influencing the variation and degree of the post meal glycemic elevations. Indeed meal timing non-aligned with the clock gene circadian rhythms, such as breakfast skipping or high-energy intake at dinner, is associated with obesity, higher HbA1C and poor glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes. To clarify the impact of meal timing and composition on overall post-meal glucose responses, we tested the effect of 2 isocaloric diets with different meal timing one with high energy breakfast (704 kcal), mid-sized lunch (600 kcal) and reduced dinner (200 kcal) and other with similar lunch but reduced breakfast (704 kcal) and high energy dinner(704 kcal). The study clearly demonstrated that in type 2 diabetic patients, a diet consisting on high energy breakfast, and reduced dinner, resulted in significantly reduced glucose response after meals and lower overall plasma glucose levels along the entire day, when compared to a diet with the same caloric content but inverse distribution: breakfast (200 kcal) , lunch (600 kcal) and high energy dinner(704 kcal). Moreover, when we compared the glucose response after high energy meal consumed at breakfast (700 kcal) versus in the dinner (700 kcal), it comes out that the glucose response was significantly higher after dinner than after breakfast. It shows that just by changing the time of the high energy meal we may achieve significant reduction in the glucose response. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Karolinski Institute, NEJM, OBGYNE, Weight Research / 27.02.2015

Kari Johansson, Phd Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet Clinical Epidemiology Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kari Johansson, PhD Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet Clinical Epidemiology Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm, Sweden   MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Johannson: The number of women who are obese in early pregnancy has increased dramatically over the last decades. Consequently, there has been a dramatic rise in the number of women becoming pregnant after bariatric surgery. In Sweden the number of births of women with a history of bariatric surgery has increased from 150 (≈0.15%) to more than 500 (0.5%) per year between 2006 and 2011. The positive effects of bariatric surgery on health outcomes, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are reasonably well-studied, but less is known about the effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes. We therefore conducted a population-based study, using data from nationwide Swedish registers. The main findings are that women who had a history of bariatric surgery were much less likely to develop gestational diabetes (2% compared to 7%; P<0.001) and give birth to large-for-gestational age babies (9% vs 22%; P<0.001). On the other hand, the operated women were twice as likely to give birth to babies who were small for gestational age (16% vs 8%), and have pregnancies of shorter duration (273 vs 277.5; P<0.001).  (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness, Pain Research, Weight Research / 20.02.2015

Dan White PT , ScD, Msc University of DelawareMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dan White PT , ScD, Msc University of Delaware Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. White: We know that diet and exercise are beneficial to reduce knee pain, however it is not known whether diet and exercise can actually prevent the development of knee pain in people at high risk.  We found that an intensive program of diet and exercise had a small but statistically significant protective effect with preventing the development of knee pain in overweight and obese people with diabetes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Ophthalmology, UCLA / 20.02.2015

Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Professor and Chair, Department of Ophthalmology USC Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rohit Varma, MD, MPH Professor and Chair, Department of Ophthalmology USC Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Varma: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 4.4% of adults with diabetes aged 40 and older have advanced diabetic retinopathy that may result in severe vision loss. Clinical trials have shown that intravitreal injections of anti-VEGFs, such as ranibizumab, can reduce visual impairment and even in some cases improve visual acuity outcomes in patients with diabetic macular edema. We developed a model, based on data from the RIDE and RISE clinical trials, to estimate the impact of ranibizumab treatment on the number of cases of vision loss and blindness avoided in non-Hispanic white and Hispanic persons with diabetic macular edema in the United States.Results from the model suggest that, compared with no treatment, every-4-week ranibizumab 0.3 mg reduces legal blindness between 58%-88% and reduces vision impairment between 36%-53% over 2 years in this population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Toxin Research / 20.02.2015

Katherine A James, PhD, MSPH, MSCE Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, ColoradoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Katherine A James, PhD, MSPH, MSCE Colorado School of Public Health University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. James: Exposure to inorganic arsenic in drinking water has been associated with several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in areas with high levels of exposure.  Our study is one of the first to show association with cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in a low-moderately exposed population. Our results show that for every 15 micrograms per liter of inorganic arsenic in drinking water the risk for CHD disease increased 38% and for diabetes it increases 27%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Hospital Readmissions / 16.02.2015

dr-syed-gillaniMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Syed M R Gillani Diabetes Centre, New Cross Hospital, Wolverhampton, UK MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Gillani: NHS is facing the greatest challenge of its history in the form of A&E pressures and bed availabilities. Unplanned admissions are considered one of the key reasons. With an aging population, multiple co-morbidities and increasing pressures on social and primary care, we need to develop a proactive strategy to deal with this situation. It is a high priority agenda for the DOH. Initiatives such as “named GP for over 75” and “directly enhanced services to avoid unplanned admissions” have been rolled out by DOH in the last 2 years. In order to find an innovative way to assist in reduction of unplanned admissions, we decided to conduct an audit on all recurrent unplanned admissions with diabetes in the hospital over 12 months period. Its objective was to determine any unmet patient needs during an index admission to explore potential of changes in the service and to utilize available resources more effectively in an attempt to prevent next hospital admission for that patient. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 12.02.2015

Dr. Therese Tillin Research Fellow, Cardiometabolic Phenotyping Group Institute of Cardiovascular Science Faculty of Pop Health SciencesMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Therese Tillin Research Fellow, Cardiometabolic Phenotyping Group Institute of Cardiovascular Science Faculty of Pop Health Sciences Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Tillin: The global burden of type 2 diabetes is rising rapidly and people of South Asian origins (from the Indian subcontinent)  remain at much higher risk of developing diabetes than people of European origin.  Why is this?  Although it is  thought that increased levels of obesity around the waist level, diet, physical activity levels and genetic factors contribute, no study to date has been able to tease out fully the underlying causes for the added risk in South Asian people.  However, it is likely that complex metabolic disturbances may play an important role. We have been studying a British cohort of people of European and South Asian origin for nearly 20 years and have used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to build a profile of amino acids in blood samples that were collected at the start of the study between 1988 and 1991.  We found that higher levels of some amino acids, in particular tyrosine, were already present in non-diabetic South Asian individuals back then.  Some of these amino acids, again especially tyrosine, more strongly predicted later development of type 2 diabetes in the South Asian people than in the Europeans in our study, even after adjustment for other risk factors such as obesity and insulin resistance. A given increase (one standard deviation) in tyrosine increased risk of developing diabetes by just 10% in Europeans, while in South Asians the increase in risk was 47%. (more…)
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, JAMA / 10.02.2015

Prof. KAZEM RAHIMI | DM MSc FESC Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford Deputy Director, The George Institute for Global Health James Martin Fellow in Healthcare Innovation, Oxford Martin School Honorary Consultant Cardiologist, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The George Institute for Global Health Oxford Martin School | University of Oxford Oxford United KingdomMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Kazem Rahimi  DM MSc FESC Associate Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford ;Deputy Director, The George Institute for Global Health; James Martin Fellow in Healthcare Innovation, Oxford Martin School; Honorary Consultant Cardiologist, Oxford University Hospitals NHS Trust The George Institute for Global Health Oxford Martin School United Kingdom Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rahimi: Lowering blood pressure (BP) in individuals with diabetes is an area of current controversy. Although it is widely accepted that lowering blood pressure in people with diabetes and elevated blood pressure will reduce the risk of heart and circulatory problems, it is less certain whether diabetics whose blood pressure is not very high should be treated with blood pressure lowering drugs, and how far their blood pressure should be reduced. It is also less well known how blood pressure lowering affects a range of other potential health complications for diabetes patients, such as diabetic eye disease. We found that each 10-mm Hg lower systolic blood pressure led to a lower risk of mortality, cardiovascular disease events, coronary heart disease events, stroke, albuminuria (the presence of excessive protein in the urine), and retinopathy (loss of vision related to diabetes). Although proportional effects of blood pressure lowering treatment for most outcomes studied were diminished below a systolic BP level of 140 mm Hg, data indicated that further reduction below 140 mm Hg led to a lower risk of stroke, retinopathy, and albuminuria, potentially leading to net benefits for many individuals at high risk for those outcomes. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Diabetes / 04.02.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mette Gyldenløve MD Gentofte Hospital, University of Copenhagen Denmark MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? Dr. Gyldenløve: Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with psoriasis have increased risk of type 2 diabetes. The pathophysiology is largely unknown, but it is hypothesised that systemic inflammation causes insulin resistance, which is an early feature of type 2 diabetes. Insulin sensitivity has only been sparsely investigated in patients with psoriasis, and previous studies have used suboptimal methodology. The objective of the present study was to investigate, if patients with psoriasis exhibit impaired insulin sensitivity when assessed by the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp technique (gold standard). MedicalResearch: What are the main findings? Dr. Gyldenløve: In this study we found that normal glucose-tolerant patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis (n=16) had significantly reduced insulin sensitivity compared to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)-matched, healthy control subjects (n=16). The two groups were similar with regard to age, gender, BMI, body composition, physical activity, fasting plasma glucose, and glycosylated haemoglobin. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Sugar / 30.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: James J. DiNicolantonio, PharmD Associate Editor BMJ Open Heart Cardiovascular Research Scientist Saint Luke's Mid America Heart InstituteJames J. DiNicolantonio, PharmD Associate Editor BMJ Open Heart Cardiovascular Research Scientist Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. DiNicolantonio: We performed a comprehensive literature review comparing the isocaloric exchange of added sugars (sucrose, also known as table sugar, or high fructose corn syrup) versus other types of carbohydrates (such as lactose found in milk, glucose, starch, or dextrose).  Our main findings were that "a calorie isn't a calorie," i.e., that added sugars are more harmful than other carbohydrates even when matched for calories for promoting pre-diabetes and diabetes and the related morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nature, University of Michigan / 23.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin G. Myers, Jr., M.D., M.P.H. Director, Michigan Diabetes Research & Training Center Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - MEND Division Professor of Molecular & Integrative Physiology Marilyn H. Vincent Professor of Diabetes Research and Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin G. Myers, Jr., M.D., M.P.H. Director, Michigan Diabetes Research & Training Center Associate Professor of Internal Medicine - MEND Division Professor of Molecular & Integrative Physiology Marilyn H. Vincent Professor of Diabetes Research and Department of Pharmacology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Myers: Diabetic people who take insulin to treat their diabetes are at risk of low blood sugar, which can cause serious consequences (including death).  This risk increases as blood sugar control improves, and so this risk limits the ability to control blood sugar.  The body has a system (the counter-regulatory response) that acts to prevent blood sugar from going too low, but this is often impaired in diabetic patients. We identified a brain circuit that senses and responds to falling blood sugar, and which acts to increase blood sugar.  Furthermore, we showed that the hormone leptin modulates the sensitivity of this circuit, and identified the neurotransmitter (CCK) that acts in this circuit to increase blood sugar.  Thus, we have identified several potential drug targets that could be used to prevent or treat low blood sugar in insulin-treated diabetics.  If we are able to pharmacologically modulate the activity of this brain circuit, it could improve the treatment of these patients. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, PLoS / 23.01.2015

Dr. Holger Rehmann Department of Molecular Cancer Research UMC Utrecht The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Holger Rehmann Department of Molecular Cancer Research UMC Utrecht The Netherlands Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Rehmann: We have developed a chemical modified version of the second messenger cAMP, Sp-8-BnT-cAMPS that allows selective activation of Epac2, a protein that augments glucose induced insulin secretion. The second messenger cAMP activates a couple of receptor proteins, which controls such divergent physiological effects as gene transcription, pacemaker activity, olfaction, and cell adhesion. Almost any cell responses in one or the other way to cAMP and thus selective action on only one cAMP receptor would be a requirement for a drug to induce specific effects. The study confirms that it is possible to pharmacologically discriminate between structurally highly related cAMP receptors. And indeed, Sp-8-BnT-cAMPS augments glucose induced insulin secretion in primary human islets. Epac2 is thus a putative target for the development of an antidiabetic drug. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Nutrition / 19.01.2015

Jinnie J. Rhee Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jinnie J. Rhee MSc, ScD Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine Palo Alto, CA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The goal of this study was to see if the dietary determinants of type 2 diabetes observed in predominantly white populations were similar to those in other racial and ethnic groups.  We created a dietary diabetes risk reduction score using eight different dietary factors found to be associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, where a higher score indicates a healthier overall diet (A higher score included low intakes trans fat, sugar-sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats; lower glycemic index; and higher intakes of cereal fiber, nuts, and coffee; and higher polyunsaturated to saturated fat ratio).  We found a protective association of similar magnitude between a healthy overall diet and type 2 diabetes risk in all racial and ethnic groups.  However, in terms of the actual number of preventable cases, a healthier diet conferred even greater benefit for minority women because they were initially at higher risk than white women. This study is significant because diabetes is a rapidly growing epidemic in most parts of the world, but most previous studies of diet and diabetes have been conducted in populations of European origin.  This analysis was very powerful because it combined two large populations with a total of 156,030 women who were followed for up to 28 years with many repeated assessments of diet.  This allowed us to conduct detailed analyses within specific racial and ethnic groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Geriatrics, JAMA / 12.01.2015

Kasia Joanna Lipska MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) Yale School of Medicine New Haven, CT 06520-8020MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kasia Joanna Lipska MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine (Endocrinology) Yale School of Medicine New Haven, CT 06520-8020 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Lipska: Diabetes is common and affects about 1 in 4 older adults (65 years or more). For younger adults with diabetes, most guidelines suggest lowering blood sugar levels to a hemoglobin A1c below 7%. However, in older patients, especially those with complex medical problems, the benefits of this strategy are unclear. What’s more, this strategy can cause harm. Aiming for a hemoglobin A1c below seven increases the risk for hypoglycemia. And older adults are especially susceptible to this risk. As a result, many guidelines suggest that treatment should be more cautious for these vulnerable elders and that aiming for “tight” blood sugar control may not be worth the risk. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Lipska: We looked at diabetes treatment of older adults using nationally representative data from 2001 to 2010. We found that 62% of older adults with diabetes had a hemoglobin A1c below 7%. But what’s really striking is that this proportion was similar for patients who were relatively healthy, for those with intermediate health, and for those with poor health. What’s more, the use of insulin or sulfonylureas (drugs that increase the risk for hypoglycemia) was common and similar across these groups. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Ophthalmology, Telemedicine / 08.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shi Lili Department of Medical informatics and Nantong University Library Nantong University, Nantong, China Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most frequently occurring complication of diabetes and one of the major causes of acquired blindness in the working-age population around the world. DR can be detected using various methods. Telemedicine based on digital photographs of the fundus is being used with increasing frequency to detect DR, and especially for Diabetic retinopathy screening. The purpose of our study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of telemedicine in the full range of DR and DME severity compared with the current gold standard. We found that the diagnostic accuracy of telemedicine using digital imaging in DR was overall high. It can be used widely for Diabetic retinopathy screening. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Lancet / 07.01.2015

Ahmad Haidar PhD Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal Montreal, QC, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ahmad Haidar PhD Institut de Recherches Cliniques de Montreal Montreal, QC, Canada Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We published a study in 2013 (Canadian Medical Association Journal 185.4 (2013): 297-305) where we did the first randomized trial comparing dual-hormone artificial pancreas against conventional pump therapy. We showed spectacular reduction in hypoglycemia (8-fold) with the artificial pancreas, but the first question people asked: Out of the improvement you showed, how much is due to simply closing the loop between the glucose sensor and the insulin pump, and how much is due to adding glucagon? In other words: if you just close the loop with insulin alone and use an advanced dosing algorithm, you may get a very high reduction of hypoglycemia that glucagon may not be needed (glucagon is associated with increased cost and device complexity). We were not able to answer this question with our study design. Since then, there have been other studies by other groups either comparing single-hormone artificial pancreas vs conventional pump therapy, or comparing dual-hormone artificial pancreas vs conventional pump therapy, and most of these studies showed improvement of both artificial pancreas systems compared to conventional pump therapy. However, there has been no study comparing the three interventions to allow us to quantify the relative benefits of simply closing the loop between glucose sensor and insulin pump versus adding glucagon to the system. Quantifying the relative benefits of glucagon is important given the increased cost and device complexity of the dual-hormone artificial pancreas. So our study compared the three interventions, and is the first study to do so. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, JAMA / 02.01.2015

Seth A. Berkowitz, MD, MPH Division of General Internal Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital, BostonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Seth A. Berkowitz, MD, MPH Division of General Internal Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Berkowitz: Prior studies had looked the association between single unmet basic material needs and diabetes control, but hadn't necessarily looked at multiple things people may not be able to afford, which more closely mirrors real-life. Also, prior studies had been done in a 'pre-Affordable Care Act' setting, while, by being in Massachusetts, our study was conducted in a setting of near-universal healthcare coverage that is similar to what the rest of the US is moving towards. We found that difficulties meeting basic material needs, such as difficulties affording food, known as food insecurity, and having financial barriers to taking medications, called cost-related medication underuse, are associated with worse diabetes control and increased use of costly health services in diabetes patients, despite near-universal health insurance coverage (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 30.12.2014

Aramesh Saremi MD   Phoenix VA Health Care System Health Research Scientist Phoenix, AZ 85012-1892MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Aramesh Saremi MD   Phoenix VA Health Care System Health Research Scientist Phoenix, AZ 85012-1892   Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Saremi: Our study was a post-hoc analysis of the data that was available from VA cooperative study,  the Veterans Affair Diabetes Trial  (VADT).  The VADT was one of the  recent landmark studies examining the effect of intensive glycemic control on cardiovascular events  in older adults with type 2 diabetes. The main finding in the VADT and other two other landmark studies (ACCORD and ADVANCE ) was that intensive glycemic control does not reduce cardiovascular  disease events in people with type 2 diabetes of moderate to long duration.  However, our subsequent post-hoc analysis suggests that intensive glycemic control was associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular events in Hispanics, but not in non-Hispanic Whites or Blacks. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 20.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Guy Fagherazzi Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health INSERM, Villejuif, France, and colleagues. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Fagherazzi: Our work has been based on previous findings regarding the associations between blood type and the risk of stroke or coronary heart disease, where people with the O blood group seamed to have lower risk of developping the disease. The suggested mechanisms could be also be involved with type 2 diabetes. And our results were in agreement with our first hypothesis. We have followed more than 80 000 women from the E3N cohort study, during 18 years and we have found that individuals with the O blood type had lower risk of type 2 diabetes than the others (people with groups A, B and AB). (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nature, Weight Research / 12.12.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. Patrice D. Cani PhD, Research Associate FRS-FNRS Louvain Drug Research Instiute, Metabolism and Nutrition WELBIO, Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology NeuroMicrobiota lab, European Associated Laboratory (INSERM/UCL) and Dr Amandine Everard Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain Drug Research Institute, WELBIO (Walloon Excellence in Life sciences and BIOtechnology), Metabolism and Nutrition Research Group, Brussels, Belgium Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our intestine harbors more than 100 trillions of bacteria. This huge number of bacteria permanently interacts with our own human cells. Among the systems involved in this crosstalk, the immune system plays a key role in these interactions. We previously showed that specific gut bacteria are able to control energy metabolism, harmful inflammation associated with obesity, body weight gain and type-2 diabetes. However mechanisms involved these effects of gut bacteria on the host during obesity and type-2 diabetes were poorly understood. We identify the essential role of the intestinal immune system in the onset of obesity and type-2 diabetes both induced by a high dose of fat in the diet. This discovery highlights an unexpected mechanism for the control of energy metabolism during obesity and type-2 diabetes. We demonstrate for the first time that the inactivation of a part of the intestine immune system (more specifically the protein MyD88), which is overstimulated by a diet rich in fat, allows to induce weight-loss and to reduce type-2 diabetes associated with obesity. When we tune the immune system by disabling the protein MyD88 specifically in cells covering the intestine, we are able to limit the adipose tissue development induced by the diet rich in fat, to slow down diabetes, to reduce harmful inflammation associated with obesity, to reinforce gut barrier function assumed by our intestine to avoid the inappropriate translocations of bacteria compounds from our intestine in our body. We reveal various mechanisms explaining the partial protection against obesity induced by the inactivation of this protein of the immune system. Among them, we point out that mice that do not have this protein of the immune system (i.e. MyD88) in their intestine are partially protected against obesity because they spend more energy than other obese mice. Moreover, our study shows that this protein of the immune system is able to shape the composition of the gut microbiota residing in our intestine under a high-fat diet. These changes observed in mice deleted for this protein also explain their protection against obesity because when we transfer intestinal bacteria of these mice into other mice that are axenic (without flora), these latest mice are also partially protected against obesity. In conclusions, our studies published in the scientific journal Nature Communications, demonstrated that during consumption of fat food, the intestinal immune system plays an important role in fat storage regulation in the body and is capable to modify the composition of intestinal bacteria (including some which are still unidentified), confirm the implication of intestinal bacteria in the onset of obesity. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease / 07.12.2014

Simin Liu, MD, ScD, Professor of Epidemiology School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine The Warren Alpert School of Medicine Director, Molecular Epidemiology and Nutrition Brown UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Simin Liu, MD, ScD, Professor of Epidemiology School of Public Health, Professor of Medicine The Warren Alpert School of Medicine Director, Molecular Epidemiology and Nutrition Brown University MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Liu: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly heritable and share many risk factors and show ethnic-specific prevalence. Nevertheless, a comprehensive molecular-level understanding of these observations is lacking. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of whole genome assessment using network-based analysis in >15,000 women and identified eight molecular pathways share in both diseases as well as several “key driver” genes that appear to form the gene networks in which these pathways connect and interact. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, General Medicine / 28.11.2014

Longjian Liu, MD, PhD, MSc(LSHTM), FAHA Interim Chair, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics Senior Investigator, Center for Health Equality Drexel University School of Public Health, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine, Drexel U. College of Medicine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Longjian Liu, MD, PhD, MSc(LSHTM), FAHA Interim Chair, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Associate Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Senior Investigator, Center for Health Equality Drexel University School of Public Health, and Adjunct Associate Professor of Medicine, Drexel U. College of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Liu: The prevalence of diabetes is increasing rapidly in the United States and worldwide. In 2010, 25.8 million Americans, or 8.3% of the population had diabetes in the United States. In 2012, these figures were 29.1 million, or 9.3% in the nation. Philadelphia, the largest city in PA, ranks as the 5th largest city in the nation. However, the city also had the highest prevalence of diabetes according to the national surveys in 2009. We face a great challenge to stop the epidemic of diabetes locally and nationally. It is well-known personal risk factors at individual level, including lifestyles, play a role in the prevention and control of diabetes. However very limited studies addressed the importance that physical and socioeconomic environmental factors at community level may also play a pivotal role in the prevention and control of the disease. This study aimed to quantitatively examine (1) the trend of diabetes from 2002 to 2010 in the city of Philadelphia, and (2) the impact of physical and socioeconomic environmental factors at community level (assessed using zip-codes based neighborhoods) on the risk of the prevalence of diabetes. The main findings support our hypotheses that
  • (1) the prevalence of diabetes significantly increased from 2002 to 2012.
  • (2) residents who lived in neighborhoods with physical and socioeconomic disadvantage had an increased risk of the prevalence of diabetes.
(more…)
Author Interviews, BMC, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Nutrition / 27.11.2014

Prof. Frank B Hu Department of Nutrition Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public HealthMedicalresearch.com with: Frank B. Hu, MD, PhD Professor of Nutrition and Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Hu: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects approximately 26 million people in the United States and 366 million people worldwide, and thus primary prevention of T2D has become a public health imperative. The relation between consumption of different types of dairy and risk of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Exercise - Fitness / 25.11.2014

Lauren Marie Sparks, PhD Faculty Scientist at the Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes Florida Hospital and the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute Orlando, FLMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren Marie Sparks, PhD Faculty Scientist at the Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes Florida Hospital and the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute Orlando, FL Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Sparks: As a clinical scientist focused on exercise effects on muscle metabolism in diabetes, I have seen first-hand a significant minority of individuals with diabetes not improve their glucose control (HbA1c) after 9 months of supervised exercise. They poured their hearts out on those treadmills 3-4 days a week for 9 months and still ended up no better than when they started. I have also seen similar data from some of my colleagues’ studies. So I really want diabetes research to invest the intellect and dollars into discovering what these roadblocks are—I happen to believe it is in the DNA (genetics) and the way that DNA is “read” or expressed (epigenetics). So it’s a bit of a ‘call to action’ for researchers to start looking into some of their data to find these people and better understand this phenomenon and for hopefully the funding sources to recognize this as a viable area of research. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Nutrition / 23.11.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wenjie Ma MS Doctoral Student Harvard School of Public Health Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the process whereby excess carbohydrate and protein are converted into saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs). Emerging animal and in vitro evidence suggests that DNL might play an important role in metabolic regulation and influence the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. We used circulating biomarkers SFAs and MUFAs to investigate the prospective associations with incident diabetes in the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based cohort of older US adults. We found that circulating palmitic acid and stearic acid were associated with higher risk of incident diabetes, whereas vaccenic acid was associated with lower risk. In contrast, dietary intakes of saturated fatty acids and monounsaturated fatty acids were not associated with diabetes risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition / 18.11.2014

Dr. Patrice Carter Diabetes, Nutrition & Lifestyle Research Associate Diabetes Research Centre (Broadleaf) University of Leicester Leicester General Hospital Leicester UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Patrice Carter Diabetes, Nutrition & Lifestyle Research Associate Diabetes Research Centre (Broadleaf) University of Leicester Leicester General Hospital Leicester UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Carter: Type 2 diabetes is a growing concern, worldwide prevalence is expected to increase to 552million by 2030.  Prevalence is closely linked to increasing obesity rates which are associated to environmental changes that have led to more sedentary lifestyles and poor-quality dietary intake.  Consumption of fast food has previously been linked to the obesity epidemic and consumption is associated with low adherence to dietary recommendations. We analysed data of over 10,000 individuals to investigate the association between screen detected type 2 diabetes and the number of fast food outlets in their neighbourhood. In summary we found the mean number of fast food outlets in areas with high social deprivation as compared to low social deprivation; mean number  of outlets was 3.53 (SD 4.83) and 0.91 (1.89) respectively. The number of fast food outlets was positively associated with screen-detected type 2 diabetes (OR=1.05; 95% CI 1.04, 1.07; p<0.001).  In addition, we used these data to calculate that for every additional two outlets we would expect to see one more diabetes case, assuming a 7% prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in neighbourhoods with no outlets and approximately 200 residents in a 500m radius, and assuming a causal relationship. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Metabolic Syndrome, Weight Research / 12.11.2014

Gang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA Assistant professor & Director, Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health, LSU Health Sciences Center Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LouisianaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gang Hu, MD, MPH, PhD, FAHA Assistant professor & Director Chronic Disease Epidemiology Lab Adjunct assistant professor, School of Public Health LSU Health Sciences Center Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, Louisiana Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Hu: Many previous studies had small samples, and thus lacked adequate statistical power when the analysis was focused on those who are extremely obese (BMI ≥40 kg/m2). In addition, most epidemiological studies only use a single measurement of BMI at baseline to predict risk of all-cause mortality, which may produce potential bias. The current study indicated a U-shaped association of BMI with all-cause mortality risk among African American and white patients with type 2 diabetes. A significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality was observed among African Americans with BMI<30 kg/m2 and BMI ≥35 kg/m2, and among whites with BMI<25 kg/m2 and BMI ≥40 kg/m2 compared with patients with BMI 30-34.9 kg/m2. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ, Diabetes, Electronic Records / 04.11.2014

Dr. Tim A. Holt PhD MRCP FRCGP NIHR Academic Clinical Lecturer University of Oxford Department of Primary Care Health Sciences Radcliffe Observatory Quarter Woodstock Road OxfordMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Tim A. Holt PhD MRCP FRCGP NIHR Academic Clinical Lecturer University of Oxford Department of Primary Care Health Sciences Radcliffe Observatory Quarter Woodstock Road Oxford Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Holt: Undiagnosed diabetes is a serious and very costly problem. Early diagnosis is important to reduce risk of long term complications. A structured approach to management at the practice level involves electronic diabetes registers, enabling audit of care, automated recall, and screen reminders. Such registers depend on the presence of an electronic code for diabetes in the record.  (more…)