Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Diabetes, Pharmacology, Science / 05.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Don Gary Benjamin Biozentrum, University of Basel Basel, Switzerland. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We initiated the study to find a co-drug that would increase the anti-cancer effect of the commonly prescribed anti-diabetic drug metformin. Metformin is a very well tolerated medication, however the dosage required to show anti-cancer activity is higher than that usually prescribed, hence the aim of the study. We found that metformin in combination with a second drug, syrosingopine (an anti-hypertensive), potently kills cancer cells in a variety of pre-clinical models. Quite nicely, both these drugs combine to kill the cells at a concentration where they have no impact on cell growth when applied singly.
Annals Thoracic Surgery, Author Interviews, Diabetes, Duke, Heart Disease, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, Pharmacology / 04.01.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30926" align="alignleft" width="156"]Matthew J. Crowley, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine Member in the Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University Medical Center Dr. Matthew Crowley[/caption] Matthew J. Crowley, MD, MHS Assistant Professor of Medicine Member in the Duke Clinical Research Institute Duke University Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Although metformin is widely considered to be the first-line drug for type 2 diabetes, concerns about lactic acidosis have traditionally limited its use in some populations. However, FDA now indicates that metformin may be used safely for patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease and other historical contraindications like congestive heart failure. With the lactic acidosis question addressed for these groups, this review asked “what do we know about how metformin affects mortality and other outcomes for patients with historical contraindications and precautions?” The main take-home message is that metformin appears associated with lower mortality in patients with mild-moderate chronic kidney disease, congestive heart failure, and chronic liver disease.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, JAMA, Lipids / 29.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30835" align="alignleft" width="170"]Marshall B. Elam PhD MD Professor Pharmacology and Medicine (Cardiovascular Diseases) University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center Memphis Dr. Marshall B. Elam[/caption] Marshall B. Elam PhD MD Professor Pharmacology and Medicine (Cardiovascular Diseases) University of Tennessee Health Sciences Center Memphis MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This manuscript presents the findings of extended follow up of patients with Type 2 Diabetes who were treated with fenofibrate, a member of a group of triglyceride lowering medications known as fibrates or PPAR alpha agonists, as part of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in T2DM (ACCORD) study. ACCORD was designed to test the effect of intensive treatment of cardiovascular risk factors including blood glucose, blood pressure and lipids on risk of heart attack, stroke and cardiac death in patients with Type 2 Diabetes. The lipid arm of ACCORD tested the hypothesis that adding fenofibrate to statin therapy would further reduce risk of these cardiovascular events.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, Exercise - Fitness, Lifestyle & Health / 12.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30507" align="alignleft" width="161"]Bernard M Duvivier  Department of Human Biology and Movement Science NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre Maastricht, the Netherlands Dr. Bernard M Duvivier[/caption] Bernard M Duvivier  Department of Human Biology and Movement Science NUTRIM School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Centre Maastricht, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?  What are the main findings? Response: The health benefits of exercise have been well established but sitting is a risk factor for health, independent of exercise. As many people with type 2 diabetes don’t like to exercise we investigated whether replacing sitting time with light-intensity activities (standing and light walking) is equally effective to exercise when energy expenditure is comparable. Our results suggest that for people with type 2 diabetes, light-intensity activities (light walking and standing) can be an alternative to exercise to improve glucose regulation. In addition we showed that too much sitting has negative effects on insulin sensitivity which could not be fully compensated by 1 hour of exercise per day.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Parkinson's, Science / 09.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30315" align="alignleft" width="200"]Patrik Brundin, M.D., Ph.D. Director, Center for Neurodegenerative Science Van Andel Research Institute Dr. Patrik Brundin[/caption] Patrik Brundin, M.D., Ph.D. Director, Center for Neurodegenerative Science Van Andel Research Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The investigational drug at the heart of our study, MSDC-0160, has been in development to treat type 2 diabetes by improving cellular metabolism. In Parkinson’s, reductions in cellular metabolism slow down vital housekeeping processes that clear out toxic proteins that otherwise accumulate with age. If these proteins aren’t removed, they clump together, leading to the damage and cell death that causes Parkinson’s hallmark symptoms, such as rigidity and tremor. MSDC-0160 helps keep these housekeeping processes working, ultimately protecting the brain. We demonstrated that MSDC-0160 has strong, reproducible, positive effects across multiple models of Parkinson’s disease—it rescued dopamine-producing cells, improved behavioral deficits in mouse models and reversed inflammation. Overall, we believe it is a strong candidate for repurposing as a potential treatment that actually may slow the disease’s progression, rather than only mitigating symptoms.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nature / 06.12.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30275" align="alignleft" width="250"]Platypus Platypus[/caption]   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Platypus and Echidnas are the only representative of the unique group of egg-laying mammals. These peculiar animals are human’s most distant relatives amongst living mammals and they have allow unprecedented insights into the evolution of mammals. Many aspect of the biology of these extraordinary mammals are unusual. One of the most remarkable changes is that monotremes lack a functional stomach and lost many genes involved in digestion. This sparked our interest to investigate the Insulin release pathway as a key aspect of blood glucose regulation which is affected in Diabetes. When we identified and characterised the hormone that is central to the release of insulin after a meal (called GLP-1)we were surprised to see it active in gut where is should be but also in the venom gland of platypus and echidna. When we investigated the monotreme GLP-1 further we discovered that this hormone is not degraded in human serum. This is exciting as the human GLP-1 is degraded very rapidly (within minutes) and a major treatment approach in type 2 diabetes is to develop long-lasting GLP-1 variants like the one we discovered in platypus and echidna.
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, Diabetes, JCEM, Outcomes & Safety / 19.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amit Akirov, MD Institute of Endocrinology Rabin Medical Center- Beilinson Hospital Petach Tikva, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As hypoglycemia is common among hospitalized patients with and without diabetes mellitus, we aimed to investigate the association between spontaneous and insulin-related hypoglycemia including severe hypoglycemia and all-cause mortality among a large cohort of hospitalized patients.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Rheumatology / 16.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof.dr. M.T. Nurmohamed, MD, PhD and Rabia Agca MD Dept. of Rheumatology | VU University Medical Center Amsterdam Rheumatology & immunology Center EULAR center of excellence in rheumatology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: About 20 years ago the increased mortality in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was well known, but not the causes. In daily clinical practice it seemed that RA patients more frequently suffered from myocardial infarctions than general population persons. Therefore, we started this study more than 15 years ago as at that time there were only sparse data with respect to cardiovascular morbidity in rheumatoid arthritis.
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, Diabetes, JAMA / 08.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29503" align="alignleft" width="200"]Tara Gomes, MHSc Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Tara Gomes[/caption] Tara Gomes, MHSc Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michael’s Hospital, The Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In August 2013, the Ontario government introduced reimbursement limits for blood glucose test strips. Subsequent research has suggested that the provincial government saved $24 million in the first year after implementing this quantity limit policy. This study investigated whether these quantity limits led to any change in diabetes-related patient outcomes. We found that limiting the number of blood glucose test strips reimbursed by the government to levels recommended by the Canadian Diabetes Association had to no change in diabetes control (measured as rates of emergency department visits for hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and mean HbA1c) in the 1.5 years after implementation. Similarly, there was no worsening of patient outcomes in a subgroup of individuals who had been frequent users of test strips prior to the policy being announced.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Nutrition, PLoS, University of Michigan / 06.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with> Katarina Borer, Ph.D. Professor Po-Ju Lin,PhD School of Kinesiology The University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: This study was part of the doctoral dissertation of Po-Ju Lin, who is now a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Rochester. With this study, we wanted to answer three questions: (1) Is daily carbohydrate load responsible for evening glucose intolerance and post-meal insulin resistance. (Evening glucose intolerance represents well-documented higher glucose and insulin responses in the evening than in the morning when the same quantity of glucose is eaten or infused intravenously) To answer this question we offered two daily meals containing about 800 Kcal and either 30% or 60% of carbohydrates. (2) Will exercise before the meals improve glucose tolerance (glucose clearance from the blood and insulin response) after eating? (Exercise is a well-known means of increasing glucose uptake by the muscle and of increasing muscle sensitivity to insulin action for a number of hours after exercise). To answer this question we had the subjects exercise for two hours walking on a treadmill at 45% of their maximal aerobic effort one hour before each meal. (3) Is the upper-intestinal hormone GIP involved in any effects associated with variation in dietary carbohydrate? (GIP or glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, stimulates insulin secretion in advance of absorbed glucose).
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Weight Research / 04.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29416" align="alignleft" width="144"]Patrick M. O'Neil, Ph.D. Director, Weight Management Center Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, SC 29425
 Dr. Patrick M. O'Neil[/caption] Patrick M. O'Neil, Ph.D. Director, Weight Management Center Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Medical University of South Carolina Charleston, SC 29425 MedicalResearch.com: What is already known about the subject? • Even modest weight loss (2-5%) from clinical interventions improves glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. • Commercial weight loss programs, comparatively more affordable and accessible than clinic-based modalities, can produce weight losses in this range, although they typically do not offer diabetes-specific counseling. • Data are sparse on such programs’ effects on glycemic control for adults with T2DM.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Electronic Records / 04.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29420" align="alignleft" width="200"]Lee Kallenbach, PhD, MPH Principal Investigator Practice Fusion Dr. Lee Kallenbach[/caption] Lee Kallenbach, PhD, MPH Principal Investigator Practice Fusion MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Clinical inertia, or the tendency for patients and providers to continue using the same course of treatment even when clinical markers may suggest that treatment intensification is necessary, is an ongoing factor that can contribute to inadequate diabetes care. This is especially true when the treatment intensification may involve a switch from an oral medication to an injectable medication. It is less challenging for a patient to take a pill than it is to give themselves a shot. Even with all the new diabetes treatments available, clinical inertia is still common among patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes (T2D). To further understand the extent of clinical inertia among patients with T2D, the study assessed treatment intensification patterns and associated demographic and clinical characteristics for patients with uncontrolled T2D who were already taking two or more oral anti-diabetes medications. The study consisted of a retrospective observational analysis leveraging data from Practice Fusion’s de-identified clinical database, which includes more than 38 million records, representing 6.7 percent of all practices across the United States.1 Using a cohort of 25,365 de-identified records, we studied the care given by providers in independent practices to patients in need of intensifying their antidiabetic therapy for managing T2D. To our knowledge, this is one of the largest real world evidence (RWE) studies of T2D that has leveraged a de-identified clinical database from an electronic health record (EHR) platform.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Exercise - Fitness, Nutrition / 18.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28972" align="alignleft" width="152"]Andrew Reynolds Department of Human NutritionUniversity Otago Dunedin New Zealand Andrew Reynolds[/caption] Andrew Reynolds Department of Human NutritionUniversity Otago Dunedin New Zealand MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Current guidelines for people with type 2 diabetes are to undertake activities such as walking for at least 150 minutes a week, or 30 minutes a day. When to walk in the day is not specified. We thought it reasonable that walking after meals would improve blood sugars more so than a walk where the timing was unspecified. Our randomised controlled trial considered exactly this, a prescription to walk as per the guideline of 30 minutes a day and a prescription to walk for 10 minutes after each meal. Our participants were free-living, but wore accelerometers to record their movement, and continuous glucose monitoring systems to observe their blood glucose levels. We found that post-meal blood sugar levels dropped 12 per cent on average when the participants followed the walking after meals advice compared to walking at any time of the day. Most of this effect came from the highly significant 22 per cent reduction in blood sugar when walking after evening meals, which were the most carbohydrate heavy, and were followed by the most sedentary time.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Pediatrics / 14.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28869" align="alignleft" width="142"]Tuure Kinnunen, MD, PhD Academy Research Fellow School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland Dr. Tuure Kinnunen[/caption] Tuure Kinnunen, MD, PhD Academy Research Fellow School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland Kuopio, Finland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. It typically manifests in childhood and early adolescence. Diabetes-associated autoantibodies are highly predictive of type 1 diabetes risk and they can be typically detected in the blood of patients even years before the onset of the disease. Follicular helper T cells are a recently described type of immune cells that have a central role in activating B cells, which in turn are responsible for producing antibodies. Since the emergence of autoantibodies is a common feature of type 1 diabetes development, it is plausible that follicular T helper cells have a role in the disease process. This notion is also supported by evidence recently generated in the murine models of type 1 diabetes.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA / 03.10.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28458" align="alignleft" width="200"]Dr. Saeid Shahraz Assistant Professor of Medicine Tufts Medical Center Dr. Saeid Shahraz[/caption] Dr. Saeid Shahraz Assistant Professor of Medicine Tufts Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: American Diabetes Association (ADA) has set up a lower cut point for diagnosing prediabetes ( those with Impaired Fasting  Glucose   100 mg/dL) compared to the World Health Organization's cut point, which is 110 mg/dL. This arbitrariness in cut point definition triples the number of cases labeled as prediabetes. Along with lowering the diagnostic threshold by the ADA, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the American Medical Association (AMA), and the ADA endorsed and advertised a web-based risk model to define high-risk population for prediabetes. The risk engine asks a few questions ( age, sex, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes and high blood pressure, physical activity and weight) and outputs a score that defines if the person is at risk for prediabetes. We suspected that the risk engine might overestimate the risk.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, NIH, OBGYNE / 21.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28228" align="alignleft" width="158"]Cuilin Zhang MD, PhD Senior Investigator NICHD, National Institutes of Health Dr. Cuilin Zhang[/caption] Cuilin Zhang MD, PhD Senior Investigator NICHD, National Institutes of Health  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Pregnant women are at high risk of developing depressive symptoms; at least 10% US women suffering from depression during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is a common pregnancy complication, affecting 4-7% of pregnancies in the U.S..  Gestational diabetes has  adverse health implications on both women and their children.   Depression and glucose intolerance commonly co-occur among non-pregnant individuals; however, the temporal relationship between gestational diabetes and depression during pregnancy and the postpartum period is less understood.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, JAMA, Mayo Clinic, Outcomes & Safety / 21.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28018" align="alignleft" width="166"]Victor M. Montori, MD Mayo Clinic Dr. Victor Montori[/caption] Victor M. Montori, MD MSc Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit in Endocrinology Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hypoglycemia can acutely disrupt patients’ lives through symptoms ranging from bothersome to life-threatening; worsen quality of life; and hinder medication adherence and glycemic control. Hypoglycemia is now known to increase risk of mortality, cognitive impairment, and cardiovascular events. In order to improve the quality of diabetes care, healthcare organizations use publicly reported performance measures for quality measurement and improvement, and pay-for-performance initiatives. The degree to which existing performance measures are aligned with guidelines, particularly in regard to hypoglycemia avoidance, is uncertain.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Endocrinology, Hormone Therapy / 19.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jon Rasmussen, MD, PhD fellow Department of Internal Medicine Herlev Hospital, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids has become highly prevalent among young men involved in recreational strength training. A recent meta-analysis estimated that approximately 18% of young men involved recreational strength training abuse anabolic steroids. Well-known adverse effects following abuse of anabolic steroids include hypogonadism (For those who have interest, we have recently published a paper concerning this issue, it can be read and downloaded at: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0161208). Yet, we have a poor understanding on the adverse effects these compounds might have on the metabolism and insulin sensitivity.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, OBGYNE / 19.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anastasia Katsarou PhD LUND University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The study is using data from the Mamma study which screened pregnant women during 2003-2005. During this period, we gathered results from the oral glucose tolerance tests that the women underwent at the 28th week of pregnancy. We used data on the 2hour blood glucose levels from these tests and the frequency of women who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes and grouped them into months and seasons. We gathered also data on the mean monthly temperatures from the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. We observed that the 2hour glucose levels and the frequency of women diagnosed with gestational diabetes were statistically significantly higher during the summer months.
Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Diabetes, Pancreatic / 19.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Pavel Škrha Charles University, Prague Czech Republic MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Incidence of pancreatic cancer (PAC) is still increasing. The main problem is in the late diagnosis of the cancer. It was found, that diabetes mellitus was much more frequent in the pancreatic cancer patients than in the general population. DM can be already the first symptom of the disease (secondry T3cDM). In our study nearly 80 % of all the pancreatic cancer patients had DM/prediabetes and it was of new-onset (less than 2 years before the cancer diagnosis) in 73 % out of them. We have measured the current marker of PAC (CA 19-9) together with serum microRNA-196 and -200 (that we have chosen in the previous pilot study). All the markers were significantly elevated in the pancreatic cancer patients, without any difference between the subgroups according to DM presence/absence. While the sensitivity of CA 19-9 alone (to detect the cancer) was 85 % (specificity 73 %), combining all the three markers improved it to 95 % (specificity 77 %). In the pancreatic cancer group, there were only six patients with T1 or T2 stage (others had an advanced stage of the disease - T3, T4). While CA 19-9 alone identified only 2 patients of them, the combined test identified all the six patients (data not shown in the poster).
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Social Issues, Weight Research / 16.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27851" align="alignleft" width="200"]Professor Timothy Frayling PhD Professor of Human Genetics University of Exeter Medical School Exeter, UK Prof. Timothy Frayling[/caption] Professor Timothy Frayling PhD Professor of Human Genetics University of Exeter Medical School Exeter, UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know that genes and environmental factors influence our Body mass index. We know less about if and how they interact. We wanted to answer the question of whether or not aspects of the environment and our lifestyles accentuate any genetic predisposition to obesity. The question is important as it may highlight aspects of the environment that cause some people to be particularly susceptible to gaining weight. Previous, separate, studies have suggested that specific aspects of the environment are to blame. These included sugary drinks, fried food and TV watching.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Vitamin D / 16.09.2016

[caption id="attachment_27954" align="alignleft" width="133"]Elisa Benetti, PhD Elisa Benetti, PhD[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Elisa Benetti PhD Department of Drug Science and Technology University of Turin Turin, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The idea for this study comes from the debate on the role of vitamin D supplementation in the prevention or progression of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Epidemiological data point at a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and T2DM prevalence, however a causal relationship is still lacking. Here we wanted to explore the effect of vitamin D administration on insulin-sensitivity, particularly focusing on skeletal muscle, which is a crucial tissue in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and which was suggested to be a tissue target of vitamin D. Using a murine model of insulin-resistance induced by a High Fat-High Sugar Diet (HFHS), we demonstrated that a vitamin D supplementation (7 μg•kg-1, i.p. three times/week) was able to revert the deleterious effects evoked by the diet, including the increase in body weight and in the HOMA-IR (a parameter of insulin resistance) and the glucose tolerance impairment. Consistently, at the muscle level, vitamin D increased the insulin sensitivity by reducing tissue inflammation and fat accumulation (myosteatosis). These effects are due, at least in part, to the inhibition exerted by vitamin D on carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) production, one of the main Advanced Glucose End-products (AGEs), and on its receptor RAGE. Collectively, our data indicate the ability of vitamin D to reduce the development of muscle insulin resistance, the primary defect in T2DM patients.
Author Interviews, Depression, Diabetes / 16.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27956" align="alignleft" width="173"]Dr Cathy E. Lloyd Professor of Health Studies School of Health, Wellbeing and Social Care Faculty of Wellbeing, Education and Language Studies The Open University Milton Keynes Prof. Cathy Lloyd[/caption] Dr Cathy E. Lloyd Professor of Health Studies School of Health, Wellbeing and Social Care Faculty of Wellbeing, Education and Language Studies The Open University Milton Keynes UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We know from earlier epidemiological research that people with diabetes have an increased risk of developing depression and other mental health problems compared to those without diabetes. However the impact of this and what treatment and care should be provided is still unclear, in particular in countries other than the US or the UK. Our study aims to redress that imbalance, collecting data on diabetes and depression in 16 countries across the globe. Ours is the first study to measure depressive symptoms but also use a standardised clinical interview to diagnose depression according to ICD criteria. Overall 10.6% received a diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), however prevalence rates differed widely between countries with 1% diagnosed with MDD in Uganda and nearly 30% in Bangladesh. Twenty-five percent reported subthreshold levels (PHQ-9 score 5 -9) of depression. Those with MDD were significantly more likely to be female and living in an urban rather than rural location (p<0.001). Age and duration of diabetes did not significantly differ between those with and without MDD. Multi-variable analyses demonstrated that while controlling for country, a diagnosis of MDD was significantly associated with female sex, lower education, taking insulin, less exercise, higher levels of diabetes-related distress and a previous diagnosis of MDD. A negligible proportion of those with either MDD or subthreshold levels of depression had a diagnosis or any treatment for their depression recorded in their medical records.
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 16.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27951" align="alignleft" width="125"]Dr. Samiul Mostafa Dr. Samiul Mostafa[/caption] Dr. Samiul Mostafa Honorary Clinical Lecturer Diabetes Trials Unit University of Oxford MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In managing people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), international guidelines recommend individualisation of HbA1c (glucose) targets for long term maintenance; however, few data are available on the potential benefits that different blood sugar control targets might achieve. Therefore, there is a need to learn more about the incremental benefits of progressively lowering blood sugar levels. In this computer modelling study, we used the UKPDS Outcomes Model version 2.0 to estimate 10-year event rates for myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack), stroke, blindness and amputation by entering baseline risk factor variables (for example, weight, height, LDL-cholesterol, systolic blood pressure) taken from a for a current population of 5766 people with T2DM. Complication rates were estimated with HbA1c levels held constant at 10%, 9%, 8%, 7% and 6% for each individual whilst maintaining their risk factors at their baseline values. Standard statistical methods were used to calculate relative risk reductions of complications at each HbA1c level.
Author Interviews, Dental Research, Diabetes / 09.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27775" align="alignleft" width="159"]In-Seok Song, DDS, PhD Clinical Assistant Professor Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon Department of Dentistry, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea In-Seok-Song[/caption] In-Seok Song, DDS, PhD Clinical Assistant Professor Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon Department of Dentistry, Korea University Anam Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Periodontitis is a well-known cause of various systemic diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes. As for type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance is responsible for the low-grade systemic inflammation, which can deteriorate body function throughout pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and impaired fasting glucose. There are emerging evidences that insulin resistance is a cause of periodontal disease progression among Korean adults as well as other citizens including American, French, Finnish, and the British. In this study, we hypothesized that insulin resistance aggravates the severity of periodontitis. We investigated the associations between type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance, and severe periodontitis. The associations between severe periodontitis and insulin resistance in non-obese adults with normal body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) were also evaluated. We found that non-abdominal obese adults with insulin resistance were more likely to have severe periodontitis compared to metabolically healthy adults with normal waist circumference. Insulin resistance without abdominal obesity can be considered an independent risk factor of severe periodontitis.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia / 02.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Oluf Pedersen, MD Specialist in Internal Medicine and Endocrinology, The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Section of Metabolic Genetics, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Peter Gæde and Jens Oellgaard Department of Cardiology and Endocrinology Slagelse Hospital Copenhagen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The Steno-2 study was the attempt to investigate the effect of an intensified, multifactorial intervention in type 2 diabetes simultaneously targeting risk factors such as hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, blood platelet aggregation, and elevated urinary albumin excretion rate as well as life style factors such as smoking, diet and a sedentary lifestyle. On top of that patients were by a dedicated team of care givers offered continued education and motivation. A total of 160 Danish type 2 diabetes patients with microalbumuria (a biomarker of generalized vascular damage) were originally randomized either to intensified multifactorial treatment at Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen or to conventional multifactorial treatment at their general practitioners. The trial ended after 8 years, and patients in both of the original treatment arms were for the following 13 years given intensified multifactorial treatment as the one originally given to the intensified intervention group only. Three previous milestone reports from the Steno-2 trial published in Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine have provided unprecedented evidence that this targeted and multifaceted approach reduces the risk of diabetic late complications such as kidney, eye or nerve disease as well as cardiovascular disease and total mortality with around fifty percent.
Author Interviews, Baylor College of Medicine Houston, Diabetes, Health Care Systems, Heart Disease / 02.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Salim S. Virani, MD, PhD and Julia Akeroyd MPH Health Services Research and Development Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center Houston MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Given the increase in the number of Americans seeking primary health care due to the Affordable Care Act, combined with current and anticipated physician shortages in the US, there is a growing need to identify other models of primary care delivery to address chronic diseases.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Heart Disease, Stem Cells / 30.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27474" align="alignleft" width="164"]Jolanta U Weaver, FRCP MRCS PhD CTLHE Dr. Jolanta Weaver[/caption] Jolanta U Weaver, FRCP MRCS PhD CTLHE Senior Lecturer in Diabetes Medicine Honorary Consultant Diabetologist Newcastle MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Vascular stem cells, which are associated with an improvement of heart disease, are improved in type 1 diabetes by repurposing metformin, known to reduce heart disease in type 2 diabetes. We treated patients with type 1 diabetes with metformin for 8 weeks. The metformin dose varied between 500 mg a day to 2000 mg a day, depending on what patients were happy to take. Subjects were requested to keep diabetic control unchanged to study the direct effect of metformin on heart disease. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (vascular stem cells) count, Hill’s colonies and pro angiogenic cells function (in test tube) improved in comparison to patients, who did not take metformin but remained on standard therapy. Endothelial cells associated with vascular damage, on the other hand, were reduced following metformin therapy confirming improved vascular health. The glycaemic control remained unchanged (as planned at the onset of the study) to allow us to examine the effect of metformin ALONE on vascular health. Patients did not suffer any serious side effects.
Author Interviews, Autism, Diabetes, Mental Health Research / 25.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27380" align="alignleft" width="200"]Evdokia Anagnostou MD Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in Translational Therapeutics in Autism Senior Clinician Scientist and co-lead of the Autism Research Centre Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital Dr. Evdokia Anagnostou[/caption] Evdokia Anagnostou MD Canada Research Chair (Tier II) in Translational Therapeutics in Autism Senior Clinician Scientist and co-lead of the Autism Research Centre Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Researchers from Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabilitation Hospital / University of Toronto (Canada), Ohio State University, University of Pittsburgh, Columbia University, and Vanderbilt University, led a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial to examine whether metformin, a common type-2 diabetes drug, may be effective in counteracting weight gain commonly seen with the use of atypical antipsychotic medications, indicated by the FDA for the treatment of irritability in children and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Results showed that metformin was effective in helping overweight children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who take antipsychotic medications lower their body mass index (BMI). Both FDA-approved antipsychotic medications for treating irritability and agitation symptoms in children and adolescents with ASD can cause a significant increase in weight gain, which in addition to increasing BMI, enhances long-term risk of diabetes. This complicates an already challenging issue as adolescents with autism spectrum disorder are ~ two times more likely to be obese than adolescents without developmental disabilities. Findings of this research are important, especially for families of children with ASD, as managing long-term physical health while also treating irritability/agitation symptoms, can help ensure that their child can participate fully in life (school, etc.).
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Nutrition, Weight Research / 25.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27302" align="alignleft" width="125"]Jaime Uribarri, MD Professor, Nephrology Icahn School of Medicine Mt. Sinai Medical Center Dr. Jaime Uribarri[/caption] Jaime Uribarri, MD Professor, Nephrology Icahn School of Medicine Mt. Sinai Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We have been doing research in the area of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) for many years. AGEs are chemical compounds that form normally in the body in small amounts and also in food when cooking under high heat and dry conditions; a percent of AGEs in food is absorbed and part of it is retained in the body leading to increased smoldering inflammation and oxidative stress that eventually produce most of modern chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. We have previously demonstrated that a diet low in AGEs, which essentially means changing the cooking methods to include less application of heat, plenty of water,etc, decreases inflammation of oxidative stress in people with diabetes, chronic kidney disease and in healthy subjects. In the current study we applied the same low dietary AGE intervention to a group of obese patients with the so-called Metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for Diabetes Mellitus.