Experimental Bioelectronic Modulation of the Carotid Sinus Improves Glucose Tolerance

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Silvia Conde, PhD CEDOC, NOVA Medical School Faculdade de Ciências Médicas Universidade Nova de Lisboa Lisboa

Dr. Conde

Silvia Conde, PhD
CEDOC, NOVA Medical School
Faculdade de Ciências Médicas
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Lisboa

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In 2013, Silvia Vilares Conde and her research group described that the carotid body, a paired organ that is located in the bifurcation of the common carotid artery and that is classically defined as an oxygen sensor, regulates peripheral insulin sensitivity and that its dysfunction is involved in the development of metabolic diseases.

This first study (Ribeiro et al. 2013, Diabetes, 62:2905-16) and others afterwards performed by her group in diabetic rats (Sacramento et al. 2017, Diabetologia 60(1):158-168) showed that the bilateral resection of the carotid sinus nerve, and therefore the abolishment of the connection between the carotid body and the brain, restore insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Although efficient this surgical irreversible approach has disadvantages, since the carotid body possesses other physiological functions as the response to the lack of oxygen (hypoxia) or the adaptation to exercise. Silvia Conde’s team also described that the carotid body is over-activated in animal models of type 2 diabetes, suggesting that decreasing the activity of the organ could be a good therapeutic strategy.

In this new work (Sacramento et al. 2018, doi: 10.1007/s00125-017-4533-7), her group in collaboration with Galvani Bioelectronics (former Glaxo Smith Kline Bioelectronics) demonstrated that is possible to electrically modulate the carotid sinus nerve to maintain glucose homeostasis in diabetic animals without significant adverse effects.  Continue reading

Benefits of Gastric Bypass in Diabetes Control Significant But Diminish Over Time

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Charles Billington MD Chief, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism Minneapolis VA Health Care System Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota 

Dr. Billington

Charles Billington MD
Chief, Section of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Minneapolis VA Health Care System
Professor of Medicine, University of Minnesota 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: We wanted to know if adding gastric bypass to intense lifestyle and medical therapy would improve overall diabetes treatment as represented by the triple endpoint of blood sugar, blood pressure and cholesterol control. We found that adding gastric bypass did provide significant benefit at five years after surgery, but that the size of the benefit declined substantially from the first to the fifth year. We also found that gastric bypass did provide significantly better blood sugar control throughout the five years, but the rate of diabetes remission at five years was low. There were many more adverse events in the gastric bypass group. 

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Viral Vector Delivered Gene Therapy That Reversed Diabetes in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Xiangwei Xiao, M.D., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Department of Surgery,
Children’s Hospital of Pittsburgh
University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine,
Pittsburgh, PA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Diabetes is a prevalent chronic disease characterized by persistently high blood glucose. Diabetes has two main subtypes, type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. In type 1 diabetes, the immune system attacks and destroys insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, resulting in high blood levels of glucose. In type 2 diabetes, the beta cells do not produce enough insulin or the body is not able to use insulin effectively.

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Increased Diabetes Risk in African Americans Explained by Greater Obesity Rates

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael P. Bancks, PhD Northwestern University Chicago, Illinois 

Dr. Bancks

Michael P. Bancks, PhD
Northwestern University
Chicago, Illinois 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that the disparity in diabetes between black and white youth and young adults is growing, but the reasons why are unclear. We also know that traditional risk factors for diabetes, such as obesity and low socioeconomic status, are more common among blacks as compared with whites.

Our study describes how the unequal rates of these traditional diabetes risk factors explain or account for the higher rates of diabetes among blacks.

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Weaning To Hydrolyzed Infant Formula Did Not Reduce Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Baby Bottle” by brokinhrt2 is licensed under CC BY 2.0Mikael Knip, MD, PhD

Professor of Pediatrics
TRIGR PI 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Experimental studies have indicated that the avoidance of early exposure to cow’s milk proteins reduces the cumulative incidence of autoimmune diabetes in animal models of human type 1 diabetes, e.g. BB rats and NOD mice. Epidemiological studies in humans have suggested that there may be a link between type 1 diabetes and short breastfeeding or early introduction of infant formulas. All regular infant formulas contain intact cow’s milk proteins.

The main finding was that weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula did not reduce the cumulative incidence of Type 1 diabetes in at-risk children by the mean age of 11 years.

The extensively hydrolyzed formula did not contain any intact cow’s milk proteins but only small peptides (maximal size 2000 daltons).

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Hypoglycemia All Too Common In Hospice and End of Life Care

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Laura A. Petrillo MD
Instructor in Medicine
Harvard Medical School, and Palliative Care Physician
Massachusetts General Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hospice is end-of-life care focused on maximizing quality of life. Hospice often involves reducing or stopping treatments that are unlikely to have short-term benefit in order to avoid uncomfortable side effects. About a quarter of Americans die in nursing homes, and some of them receive hospice care in their final days. We looked at whether adults with type 2 diabetes experience low blood sugar while on hospice in veterans’ nursing homes, since low blood sugar signals inappropriately aggressive diabetes treatment in patients close to death and contributes to unnecessary discomfort.

We found that one in nine people experienced low blood sugar at least once while receiving hospice care. Among people who were on insulin, the number was one in three.

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Deep Learning System Can Screen For Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma and Macular Degeneration

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Blausen.com staff (2014). "Medical gallery of Blausen Medical 2014". WikiJournal of Medicine 1 (2). DOI:10.15347/wjm/2014.010. ISSN 2002-4436. Illustration depicting diabetic retinopathy

Illustration depicting diabetic retinopathy

Dr. Tien Yin Wong MD PhD
Singapore Eye Research Institute, Singapore National Eye Center,
Duke-NUS Medical School, National University of Singapore
Singapore

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Currently, annual screening for diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a universally accepted practice and recommended by American Diabetes Association and the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) to prevent vision loss. However, implementation of diabetic retinopathy screening programs across the world require human assessors (ophthalmologists, optometrists or professional technicians trained to read retinal photographs). Such screening programs are thus challenged by issues related to a need for significant human resources and long-term financial sustainability.

To address these challenges, we developed an AI-based software using a deep learning, a new machine learning technology. This deep learning system (DLS) utilizes representation-learning methods to process large data and extract meaningful patterns. In our study, we developed and validated this using about 500,000 retinal images in a “real world screening program” and 10 external datasets from global populations. The results suggest excellent accuracy of the deep learning system with sensitivity of 90.5% and specificity of 91.6%, for detecting referable levels of DR and 100% sensitivity and 91.1% specificity for vision-threatening levels of DR (which require urgent referral and should not be missed). In addition, the performance of the deep learning system was also high for detecting referable glaucoma suspects and referable age-related macular degeneration (which also require referral if detected).

The deep learning system was tested in 10 external datasets comprising different ethnic groups: Caucasian whites, African-Americans, Hispanics, Chinese, Indians and Malaysians

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Older Diabetes Drug Metformin May Resensitize Tumors to Chemotherapy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Terra G Arnason, MD PhD, Associate Professor, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine University of Saskatchewan Saskatoon, SK, Canada 

Dr. Arnason

Terra G Arnason, MD PhD, Associate Professor,
Division of Endocrinology,
Department of Medicine
University of Saskatchewan
Saskatoon, SK, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Response: Metformin has been used worldwide for decades to treat Type diabetes.

Metformin is a cheap non-toxic compound that was originally plant derived. In the past decade a number of meta-analyses have demonstrated that Type 2 individuals taking
metformin have a reduced risk of developing many different cancers and do better
longterm. The molecular events facilitating metformin’s activity remain obscure and
it is unknown whether metformin can help cancer patients avoid the development of
drug resistant cancers years after successful treatment.

In our study we asked whether metformin can not only restore sensitivity of multiple drug resistant tumors to chemotherapy once again, but whether metformin can prevent the development of multiple drug resistance in the “rst place. We demonstrate that metformin can sensitize drug resistant cells to chemotherapy once again, which supports recent
studies, but we also show for the “first time that Metformin can prevent the
progression of cancer cells towards drug resistance using cell culture experiments.

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Diabetic Atherosclerosis Management Can Be Personalized Using Coronary Artery Calcium Score

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. MalikDr. Shaista Malik MD PhD MPH
Director of Samueli Center For Integrative Medicine
Assistant Professor, School of Medicine
University of California, Irvine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Having diabetes has been considered to be a risk equivalent to already had a myocardial infarction for predicting future cardiovascular events.  We were interested in testing whether further risk stratification in those with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, using coronary artery calcium (CAC), would result in improved prediction of cardiovascular events.

We found that CAC score was associated with incident coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease more than a decade after the scoring was performed.  We also found that even after we controlled for the duration of diabetes (of 10 years or more), insulin use, or hemoglobin A1c level, coronary artery calcium remained a predictor of cardiovascular events.

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Despite More A1C Testing, Diabetes Control Plateaus

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Saeid Shahraz, MD, PhD
Heller School of Social Policy and Management
Brandeis University
Waltham, Massachusetts 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous researchers had shown a significant improvement in diabetes control in the US between the years 1998 and 2010. We wanted to show if the betterment in diabetes control continued after then.

As previously, we measured hemoglobin A1C that shows the extent to which blood glucose level is under control.

Our main finding was that this upward improving trend plateaued for years after 2007 up to 2014, the last year for which we had data. We examined both genders, white and non-white populations as well as three age groups; young, middle age, and elderly population and results were the same: no change.

Overall, in 2007, 14% of patients with diabetes showed a poor diabetes control (Hemoglobin A1C more than 9%) ; in 2014, 15% of patients with diabetes fell within the category of poor diabetes control. 55% of the patients had a Good control of diabetes (Hemoglobin A1C less than 7%) in 2007; this measure was 54% in 2014.

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Children and Young Adults With Diabetes Have Increased Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Diabetes Test” by Victor is licensed under CC BY 2.0Jesper Svane

Medical student
The Heart Center, University Hospital Rigshospitalet
Copenhagen 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: At the beginning of this research project, we were aware that persons with diabetes have an increased risk of death, which is partly explained by an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, previous studies on causes of death and mortality among young persons with diabetes, particularly type 2 diabetes, are sparse. Furthermore the incidence of sudden cardiac death among young persons with diabetes in a nationwide setting is unknown.

The main purpose of the study was to illuminate the risk of death and especially the risk of cardiac death among children/young adults with diabetes.

On a personal note, a friend of mine, who was healthy and fit, died suddenly a few years ago at the age of 19. This tragic death raised a lot of feelings as well as questions in me. When I got the chance to work with Dr. Lynge and Dr. Tfelt, I saw this as an opportunity to expand my knowledge of sudden cardiac death among the young. Furthermore, the opportunity of contributing to research in order to prevent these devastating events in the future was personally appealing to me.

I initiated the project together with Thomas Hadberg Lynge, MD, last year, with Jacob Tfelt-Hansen, MD, DMSc as supervisor. Both are experienced researchers within the field of sudden cardiac death. Dr. Tfelt-Hansen leads a very productive research group at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, whose main focus is arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

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Lifestyle Modifications Slow Progression To Diabetes As Effectively As Medications

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Karla Galaviz PhD
Hubert Department of Global Health
Rollins School of Public Health
Emory University
Sonya Haw, MD| Assistant Professor
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Lipids
Emory University, School of Medicine
Grady Memorial Hospital
Atlanta, GA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

  • Diabetes affects 1 in 11 adults worldwide and though there is evidence that lifestyle modification (eating healthier diets and exercising about 150 mins a week) and certain medications can prevent or delay diabetes onset, it is not clear which of these strategies offers long-term benefits.
  • To answer this question, we compiled all available randomized controlled trials of lifestyle programs and medications to prevent diabetes and analyzed the data to see if the diabetes prevention effects persisted in the long-term. We specifically compared studies where the lifestyle or drug interventions were discontinued to see if the effect was long lasting or diminished when the intervention was stopped.

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Kidney Failure From Diabetes Decreasing Across US

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nilka Ríos Burrows, MPH, MT (ASCP)
Lead, Chronic Kidney Disease Initiative
CDC Division of Diabetes Translation. 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Kidney failure treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant is called end-stage renal disease (ESRD).  ESRD is a costly and disabling condition often resulting in premature death.

During 2000–2014, kidney failure from diabetes among U.S. adults with diabetes decreased by 33%, and it declined significantly in most states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. No state experienced an increase in kidney failure from diabetes. Continued awareness and interventions to reduce risk factors for kidney failure, improve diabetes care, and prevent type 2 diabetes might sustain these positive trends.

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Study Finds ACE Inhibitors and Statins Can Be Safe In Type I Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
M. Loredana Marcovecchio, M.D.
Clinical Scientist and
Professor David Dunger M.D.
Director of Research
Professor of Paediatrics
University of Cambridge

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The efficacy and safety of ACE Inhibitors and statins in adolescents have been shown in the context of hypertension and familial hypercholesterolemia, respectively. However, there is a lack of data on the long-term use of these drugs in those with type 1 diabetes and, in particular, there is no clear indication for their use in patients with increased albumin excretion.

The Adolescent type 1 Diabetes cardio-renal Intervention Trial (AdDIT) was a multi-centre, international study, set up by investigators in the UK, Australia and Canada to explore if drugs already used to lower blood pressure (ACE inhibitors) and cholesterol levels (Statins) in adults with diabetes could reduce the risk of kidney, eye and cardiovascular disease in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes.

Neither ACE inhibitors nor statins significantly reduced the albumin-creatinine ratio during the 2-4 year trial period. However, some of the secondary outcomes suggest that the drugs may have important benefits.

Treatment with the ACE inhibitor resulted in a 43% reduction in the rates of progression to microalbuminuria, which was not statistically significant, but it could have important clinical implications. Preventing even intermittent cases of microalbuminuria is known to reduce the future risk of kidney and cardiovascular complications.

Statin therapy led to reduced levels of lipid levels, which could reduce long-term risk for cardiovascular complications.

These findings could translate into long-term benefits, but follow-up of this unique cohort will be essential. The essential biological samples and data provided by the participants will continue to inform our future understanding and our options for effective therapies for this vulnerable group of young people with type 1 diabetes.

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Insulin Pump Therapy May Be Superior to Multiple Injections in Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof. Dr. med. Reinhard Holl
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Medical Faculty
Aachen University, Aachen,
Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry
University of Ulm, Ulm
Germany 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Today there are two accepted strategies to treat type-1 diabetes: pump or multiple daily injections. In a large group of patients we compared both strategies, and our results indicate advantages for pump therapy with fewer severe hypos, fewer events of diabetic ketoacidosis, and better metabolic control.

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