MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jay S. Giri, MD, MPH Director, Peripheral Intervention Assistant Professor of Clinical Medicine
Penn MedicineMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We analyzed data from 6,526 patients in the 5 most recent randomized trials comparing carotid artery stenting to carotid endarterectomy. These procedures are performed to prevent long-term stroke in patients with severe narrowings of their carotid arteries. We learned that the procedures are equally effective in preventing stroke over the long-term. However, the procedures have quite different safety profiles, defined as adverse events that the patients experienced within 30 days of their procedure. Carotid artery stenting was associated with a higher risk of stroke in the initial 30 days after the procedure. Carotid endarterectomy was associated with greater risks of myocardial infarction (heart attack) and cranial nerve palsy, a variable condition that most often results in difficulty with swallowing or speaking, over this timeframe.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_34236" align="alignleft" width="128"] Dr. Prabhakaran[/caption] Shyam Prabhakaran, MD, MS Department of Neurology
Feinberg School of Medicine
Chicago, IL MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Wake-up stroke, or stroke onset during sleep, accounts for one-quarter of stroke presentations. Yet, there are few studies exploring mechanisms or triggers of onset during sleep. We explored whether blood pressure variability which is known to have circadian patterns could trigger wake-up stroke. We found that in the first 24 hours after stroke, those with wake-up stroke had greater blood pressure variability than non-wake up stroke patients.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_33863" align="alignleft" width="200"] Dr. Eric Brandt[/caption] Eric J. Brandt, MD Yale University
Cardiovascular Disease Fellow MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: From previous studies we know that industrial trans fatty acid (trans fat) consumption is linked to elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Even small amounts of consumption can be deleterious to cardiovascular health. In New York state, there were 11 counties that restricted the use of trans fatty acids in eateries. We compared hospitalization for heart attacks and stroke from 2002 through 2013 in counties that did and did not have restrictions. Our study found that when comparing populations within New York state that restricted the use of trans fat, compared to those that did not, there was an associated additional decline beyond temporal trends for heart attacks and stroke events combined by 6.2%.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_33788" align="alignleft" width="180"] Dr. George[/caption] Mary G. George, MD, MSPH Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States, killing more than 130,000 Americans each year—that’s 1 of every 20 deaths—and costs the nation $33 billion annually, including the cost of health care services, medications, and lost productivity. And, stroke is leading cause of serious disability. An ischemic stroke, sometimes called a brain attack, is a stroke that occurs when there is a blockage of the blood supply to the brain.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anna De Simoni NIHR Academic Clinical Lecturer in Primary Care Research
Centre for Primary Care and Public Health
Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry
London E1 2AB MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Three in 10 stroke survivors will go on to have a further stroke, which causes greater disability or even death. Secondary prevention medications, including antihypertensives, blood thinning and lipid lowering agents, such as statins, can reduce risk of stroke recurrence by up to 75 per cent. However, patients’ persistence with these medications decreases over time because a minority of people experience side effects, which are mild in most cases. The analysis, involving Queen Mary University of London and the University of Cambridge and published in the journal Family Practice, was performed on the archives from TalkStroke, a UK online forum hosted by the Stroke Association. The forum is used by patients with stroke and their carers, and generated 21,596 posts during 2004-2011. 50 participants were found to discuss GP advice on prevention medications in 43 discussion threads.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jalal B. Andre M.D., D.A.B.R.® Drector of neurological MRI and
MRI safety officer at Harborview Medical Center
University of WashingtonMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients with good collaterals have better clinical outcomes. AIS is characterized by an ischemic penumbra, a region of salvageable brain tissue, that surrounds a core of irreversible ischemic infarct. The penumbra is tenuously perfused by collateral blood vessels which, if extensive enough, can maintain penumbral perfusion, improving the odds that a larger volume of brain tissue will survive. Standard, first-line methods for evaluating collaterals in the acute setting include CT angiography, MR angiography, and (less commonly) digital subtraction angiography. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is an emerging MRI technique that assesses cerebral perfusion. Its advantages include relatively short scan time (4-6 minutes), lack of ionizing radiation, and independence from an exogenous contrast agent (contraindicated in patients with impaired renal function or documented sensitivity). Collaterals can be identified within ASL images as foci of curvilinear hyperintensity bordering regions of hypoperfusion. We sought to explore a novel relationship between the presence of ASL collaterals (ASLc) and neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_33103" align="alignleft" width="140"] Dr. Aditi Kalla[/caption] Aditi Kalla, MD Cardiology Research Fellow
Einstein Medical Center
Philadelphia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: As of the recent 2016 election, decriminalization of cannabis passed in several states bringing the total count up to 28 states and D.C. where cannabis is now legal for medicinal and/or recreational purposes. From a physician’s perspective, it is rare that a drug has “hit the market” so to speak without undergoing clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy. Hence, we sought out to study if cannabis had any effects (positive or negative) on the cardiovascular system.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Ying XianMD PhD Department of Neurology,
Duke Clinical Research Institute
Duke University Medical Center
Durham, North CarolinaMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia. AF increases the risk for stroke and accounts for 10% to 15% of all ischemic strokes. While the burden of AF-related stroke is high, AF is a potentially treatable risk factor. Numerous studies have demonstrated that vitamin K antagonists, such as warfarin, or non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Based on these data, current guidelines recommend adjusted-dose warfarin or NOACs over aspirin for stroke prevention in high-risk patients with Atrial fibrillation.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Miikka Korja Chief Innovation Officer
Associate Professor of Neurosurgery
HUS, Helsinki University Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Helsinki University Hospital, one of the largest hospital organizations in industrialized countries, has a very long history in conducting studies on brain aneurysms and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The one and only study on the natural history of ruptured aneurysms has also been conducted in Helsinki 50 years ago (published in 1967). The term “natural history” refers to an approach where the cause of a patient’s disease is not treated at all. In this case, it means that ruptured aneurysms in patients with devastating brain hemorrhage, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, were left untreated. Therefore, these patients have a high risk of a rebleeding from the once ruptured aneurysm. As ruptured aneurysms are nowadays unexceptionally treated, if the patient survives the primary bleeding event, such natural history studies are impractical to conduct. We wanted to update the 50 years old data by using a historical patient registry. Back in the old days, many of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were not treated because for example surgery was considered too risky or patients were classified as too old for surgery. By using the historical data, we showed that aneurysmal SAH, if not treated, is even more devastating disease than believed. Based on our results, we can state that 75-89% of today’s patients die in a year without treatments.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Alessandro Pezzini, MD, FESO Professore Associato di Neurologia
Dipartimento di Scienze Cliniche e Sperimentali
Università degli Studi di Brescia
Italia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Scarce reports have suggested that a relation might exist between migraine and cervical artery dissection (CEAD), the most frequent cause of ischemic stroke in young adults in Western countries. However, data available so far were obtained from few studies conducted on small cohorts of patients, which limits the generalizability of their findings. In our study we analysed the data from the Italian Project on Stroke in Young Adults (IPSYS) project, one of the largest registries of young ischemic stroke patients, and observed that migraine, especially the subtype without aura was strongly and independently associated to CEAD. This seems particularly true for men and for people younger than 39 years.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Caterina Breitenstein, PhD Department of General Neurology, University of Muenster, Germany Annette Baumgärtner, PhD Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Hamburg, Germany MedicalResearch.com : What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: For a long time, it has been assumed that language recovery is limited to the first months after the initial stroke. During the past two decades, however, several clinical studies and systematic reviews have challenged this dogma by demonstrating functional gains in stroke survivors during the chronic post-stroke stage (at least 6 months post the initial stroke) whenever speech and language therapy (SLT) intensity was sufficiently high (i.e., at least 5 h/week for several weeks). These studies, however, lacked the methodological quality required for evidence-based interventions (for criteria, please refer to http://www.cebm.net/ocebm-levels-of-evidence). Until now, this lack in evidence severely hampers stroke survivors’ access to language rehabilitation services . The present multicenter randomized controlled healthcare trial FCET2EC (acronym stands for "From Controlled Experimental Trial to=2 Everyday Communication) is the first study worldwide to compare three weeks of intensive SLT provided under routine clinical conditions to an equally long period of no (or low intensity) SLT. After 3 weeks of intensive individualized therapy, the 156 stroke survivors with chronic aphasia verbally expressed themselves more effectively in daily-life communicative situations, like changing a doctor’s appointment by a telephone call. Additionally, patients and their significant other rated their communication-related quality of life as significantly improved. Last but not least, therapy effects remained stable over a follow-up period of six months after the intensive intervention.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32677" align="alignleft" width="280"] Dr. Jesse Dawson[/caption] Jesse Dawson MD, BSc (Hons), FRCP, FESO Clinical Reader / Honorary Consultant
Clinical Lead Scottish Stroke Research Network / NRS Stroke Research Champion
Chair MVLS Research Ethics Committee
Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences
College of Medical, Veterinary & Life Sciences
University of Glasgow MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many patients suffer long term arm weakness after stroke and there are few effective treatments. We are assessing whether stimulation of the vagus nerve can improve recovery after stroke. Stimulation of the vagus nerve, called VNS for short, triggers the release of neurotransmitters in the brain. These neurotransmitters are important for learning and memory. Pre-clinical studies have shown that combining vagus nerve stimulation with movement or rehabilitation tasks enhances brain plasticity, improves motor learning and leads to better recovery after stroke. Based on this, we performed a clinical trial in patients with arm weakness after stroke and found promising changes in the patients treated with VNS paired with rehabilitation compared to rehabilitation alone. In this study we performed a double blind sham stimulation controlled study of VNS paired with rehabilitation vs sham stimulation in patients with long term arm weakness due to ischaemic stroke. All participants were implanted with a VNS device and underwent a course of therapy. We didn’t see a statistically significant difference after 6 weeks of intensive in-clinic therapy but saw a large and significant difference after a further 60 days home exercise treatment with VNS. There were differences on several measures, including the clinical response rate which was 88% with VNS and 33% with controls.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32495" align="alignleft" width="144"] Dr. Maxwell[/caption] Emily C. Maxwell, Ph.D. Pediatric Neuropsychology Bugher Fellow
Division of Neurology
Instructor | Department of Pediatrics
University of Colorado School of Medicine
Aurora, CO 80045MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous research has found increased psychological problems and significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders after pediatric stroke. However, past studies have mainly used global indices, without comparison to age-based norms. Thus, little is known about the discrete symptomatology exhibited by these children and how discrepant these symptoms may be from normative expectations. At the University of Colorado Denver and Children’s Hospital Colorado, we studied 50 patients who suffered an arterial ischemic stroke during childhood. The parents of these patients completed the Child Behavior Checklist, a questionnaire assessing emotional and behavioral problems. We found that children with stroke had higher symptoms of depression, anxiety, physical complaints, and behavioral difficulties compared to a normative sample of same-aged peers. Additionally, levels of anxiety were higher in children who had a stroke at an early age (before 6 years of age) compared to children who had a stroke at a later age (after 10 years of age).
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32299" align="alignleft" width="120"] Prof. Philip Bath[/caption] Professor Philip Bath Stroke Association Professor of Stroke Medicine/Head of Division of Clinical Neuroscience
Faculty of Medicine & Health Sciences
University of NottinghamMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Blood thinning (antiplatelets) drugs reduce further strokes (recurrence) after stroke and mini-stroke (TIA). One antiplatelet, such as aspirin, is better than none, and two different drugs are better than one. The question then is whether three would be better still, providing excess bleeding is not problematic. 3096 patients with ischaemic stroke (stroke due to a blood clot) or mini-stroke were enrolled within 48 hours. They were randomised to take intensive separate antiplatelet therapy (three drugs comprising aspirin, clopidogrel and dipyridamole) or guideline therapy (either clopidogrel alone, or combined aspirin and dipyridamole) for 30 days (after which they took guideline treatment). At 90 days we assessed whether patients had had another stroke or mini-stroke, and how dependent or disabled this had left them. There were slightly fewer recurrent strokes and mini-strokes between intensive and guideline treatment but the difference was not different statistically, so a neutral trial. In contrast, major bleeding was significantly increased in the intensive group as compared with guideline treatment. When looking at the net benefit/harm, there was no difference between the treatment groups.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32416" align="alignleft" width="188"] Dr. Mathew Holtkamp,[/caption] Matthew D. Holtkamp, D.O. CPT, MC, USA Medical Director, Intrepid Spirit, Traumatic Brain Injury Clinic
Staff Neurologist, Department of Medicine
Teaching Fellow, Uniformed Services University
Carl R. Darnall Army Medical Center
Fort Hood, Texas 76544 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Racial and Socioeconomic disparities in the outcomes of stroke patients is well documented in the US Civilian Healthcare system. That Healthcare system has wide variations in access to care and in the levels of available care. In contrast, the Military Healthcare system is a single payer system meaning that every member has the same healthcare benefits.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32407" align="alignleft" width="200"] Dr. Ariela Orkaby[/caption] Ariela Orkaby, MD, MPH Geriatrics & Preventive Cardiology
Division of Aging, Brigham and Women's Hospital
Instructor in Medicine, Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Atrial Fibrillation is a common heart rhythm that affects 1 in 25 adults over age 60 and 1 in 10 adults over age 80. The feared consequence of atrial fibrillation is stroke, leading to the prescription of blood thinning medications (anticoagulants such as warfarin) to prevent strokes. However, there is an underutilization of these life-saving medications in older adults, and particularly in those who have dementia. In part, this is due to a lack of research and inclusion of older adults with dementia in prior studies. In this study, we used clinical Veterans Administration data, linked to Medicare, to follow 2,572 individuals over age 65 who had atrial fibrillation and until a diagnosis of dementia. The average age was 80 years, and 99% were male. We found that only 16% remained on warfarin. We used statistical methods to account for reasons why a patient would or would not be treated with warfarin and found that those who continued to take warfarin had a significantly lower risk of stroke (HR 0.74, 95% Confidence interval 0.54- 0.99, p=0.47) and death (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60-0.87, p<0.01) compared to those who did not continue to take warfarin, without an increased risk of bleeding.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Peter Brønnum Nielsen MD PhD Aalborg Thrombosis Research Unit
Department of Clinical Medicine
Faculty of Health
Department of Cardiology, Atrial Fibrillation Study Group
Aalborg University Hospital
Aalborg, Denmark MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Patients who sustain an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) event are often excluded from randomized trials investigating stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) by use of oral anticoagulant treatment.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_32330" align="alignleft" width="180"] Dr. Michel Piotin[/caption] Michel Piotin, MD PhD Principal investigator and Interventional Neuroradiologist
Rothschild Fondation Hospital, ParisMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) with a stent retriever (SR), in association with intravenous rtPA, is now the standard of care in anterior circulation ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion Thrombectomy (MT) with a stent retriever (SR), in association with intravenous (IV) rtPA, is now the standard of care in anterior circulation ischemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion. Favorable outcome is strongly associated with the successful reperfusion status. New techniques for MT such as ADAPT (A Direct first pass Aspiration Technique) is promising to increase reperfusion status and clinical outcome in retrospective studies. Our study objective was to determine which technique should be used in frontline strategy (ADAPT or Stent Retriever) to achieve maximum reperfusion. The ASTER study is the first independent large randomized controlled trial focusing on ADAPT technique with blinded assessment data.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Christopher Chen, FRCP Department of Pharmacology
Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine
Memory Aging and Cognition Center
National University Health System
Singapore Saima Hilal, PhD Department of Pharmacology, National University of Singapore
Department of Radiology, Epidemiology and Nuclear Medicine
Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs) are defined as small (usually <1 mm) regions of ischemic change found in the brain which are not readily visible on gross examination or on standard 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On microscopy they appear as foci of neuronal loss, gliosis, pallor, or cysts. Previous post mortem studies have shown that the presence of CMIs is relatively common in elderly individuals without dementia (24%) but more common in patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (43%) or vascular dementia (62%). Whilst a single CMI is likely to be “silent” as the region of brain affected is probably too small to produce symptoms or neurologic deficits, however, as a large number of CMIs exist in many individuals, especially in the cerebral cortex and watershed areas, the overall effect has clinical importance – as shown by neuropathologic studies which demonstrate an important role of CMIs in cognitive dysfunction and dementia. However in vivo studies have been hampered by the inability to detect CMIs reliably on neuroimaging, leading to CMIs being termed “invisible” during life. The advent of high spatial-definition 7-T MRI enabled the identification of cortical Cerebral microinfarcts in-vivo and importantly a study that directly compared 7-T and 3-T MRIs in the same patients reported that 3-T MRI detected about 1/3 of the lesions found on 7-T MRIs, suggesting that 3-T MRIs, which are more accessible than 7-T, may be able to detect larger cortical CMIs with a lower limit of approximately 1 mm in diameter. Our group has made major contributions recently on the clinical associations of 3T MRI detected cortical CMIs in patients from memory clinics as well as in community based subjects. Associations were found with age, vascular risk factors, other MRI markers of cerebrovascular disease as well as cognition. However, the causes of CMIs remain unclear and may be heterogeneous with microembolism, microthrombosis, and foci of inflammation as possible causative factors.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_31109" align="alignleft" width="135"] Dr. Matthias Eikermann[/caption] Dr. Matthias Eikermann, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Anaesthesia
Harvard Medical School
Clinical Director, Critical Care DivisionMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Up to one fifth of the general population have migraine, a primary, chronic-intermittent headache disorder affecting the neuronal and vascular systems and characterized by severe headache accompanied by nausea and/or sensory hypersensitivities such as photophobia and phonophobia. In approximately 20-30% of patients, the headache phase is preceded or accompanied by transient focal neurological disturbances presenting as visual symptoms but also sensory, aphasic, or motor symptoms known as migraine aura. Stroke is responsible for approximately 6.2 million deaths a year and is a leading global cause of long term disability. Considering that more than 50 million patients in hospital and 53 million ambulatory patients undergo surgical procedures in the United States every year. We found that patients with migraine, particularly migraine with aura, undergoing a surgical procedure are at increased risk of perioperative ischemic stroke and readmission to hospital within 30 days after discharge.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_31220" align="alignleft" width="181"] Dr. Vitor Mendes Pereira[/caption] Vitor Mendes Pereira MD MSc Division of Neuroradiology - Joint Department of Medical Imaging
Division of Neurosurgery - Department of Surgery
Toronto Western Hospital - University Health Network
Associate Professor of Radiology and Surgery
University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Our study is a pooled analysis of two large prospective stroke studies that evaluated the effectiveness of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) using one of the stent retrievers (Solitaire device ) in patients with acute ischemic stroke related to large vessel occlusion(LVO). It is known (after 5 randomized controlled trials in 2015) that IV rtPA alone failed to demonstrated benefit when compared to MT associated or not to rtPA. A question is still open: what it is the real benefit of IV rtPA in the context of LVO, particularly in centres that can offer mechanical thrombectomy within 60 minutes after qualifying imaging?
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30645" align="alignleft" width="153"] Dr. Mathew Dupre[/caption] Matthew E. Dupre, Ph.D. Associate Professor
Department of Community and Family Medicine &
Duke Clinical Research Institute (DCRI)
Duke University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: There have been a handful of recent studies showing how divorce and widowhood increase one’s risk of suffering a serious health event such as a heart attack or stroke. Our research is the first to show that an individual’s marital history can have significant consequences for their prognosis after having a stroke. We found that people who never married and those with a history of marital loss were significantly more likely to die after suffering a stroke than those who were stably married. We also found that adults who experienced more than one divorce or widowhood in their lifetime were about 50% more likely to die after having a stroke than those in a long-term stable marriage. We were also somewhat surprised to find that remarriage did not seem to reduce the risks from past marital losses.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christel Renoux, MD, PhD Assistant Professor, Dept. of Neurology & Neurosurgery
Centre For Clinical Epidemiology
Jewish General Hospital - Lady Davis Research Institute
Montreal Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase the risk for abnormal bleeding, in particular, gastrointestinal tract bleeding. Previous studies also suggested an increased risk for intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) in patients treated with SSRIs compared to non users. However, even if this risk exists, the comparison with a non-treated group may exaggerate the strength of a potential association and the comparison with a group of patients treated with other antidepressants may help better delineate the risk. The potential bleeding effect of antidepressants is linked to the strength of serotonin inhibition reuptake, and antidepressants that are strong inhibitors of serotonin reuptake have been associated with the risk for gastrointestinal or abnormal bleeding compared with weak inhibitors but the risk of ICH is unclear.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29867" align="alignleft" width="200"] Dr. Tony Antoniou[/caption] Dr. Tony Antoniou, PhD Research Scholar Department of Family and Community Medicine and a Scientist
Keenan Research Centre of the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute
St. Michael's Hospital
Assistant Professor in the Department of Family and Community Medicine and
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy
University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
What are the main findings?Response: Dabigatran etexilate is an anticoagulant that is commonly used for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation. Absorption of dabigatran etexilate is opposed by intestinal P-glycoprotein, an efflux transporter. Once absorbed, dabigatran etexilate is converted to its active form by carboxylesterase enzymes. Unlike other statins, simvastatin and lovastatin can inhibit P-glycoprotein and carboxylesterase. This may result in increased absorption of dabigatran etexilate, thereby increasing the risk of bleeding. Conversely, inhibition of carboxylesterase may decrease the effectiveness of dabigatran etexilate.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_29782" align="alignleft" width="180"] Dr. Catharina J. M. Klijn[/caption] Catharina J. M. Klijn, MD Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery
University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Centre for Neuroscience
Department of Neurology
Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre
Nijmegen, the Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?Response: The incidence of stroke is higher in men than in women. This difference attenuates with increasing age. Established risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, cigarette smoking and ischemic heart disease are more prevalent in men but only partly explain the difference in stroke incidence. The contribution of oral contraceptive use and hormone therapy to stroke risk has been previously reviewed. We aimed to evaluate what is known on other female- and male specific risk factors for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke incidence and stroke mortality through a systematic review and meta-analysis of 78 studies including over 10 million participants.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Eliza Miller, M.D.
Vascular Neurology Fellow
New York-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center
We collaborated with researchers at the Massachusetts General Hospital and with the New York State Department of Health. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: Prior research has found that older women of childbearing age are at higher risk of stroke during pregnancy and postpartum than younger women. We hypothesized that their increased stroke risk might not be due to pregnancy-related factors, but just due to the fact that stroke risk increases with age for all people. We used billing data from New York State hospitals to calculate incidence risk ratios for four age groups: 12-24, 25-34, 35-44 and 45-55. In each age group, we compared the incidence of stroke in women who were pregnant or postpartum to the incidence of stroke in women of the same age who were not pregnant. As in prior studies, we found that the incidence of pregnancy-associated stroke was higher in older women compared to younger women (about 47/100,000 deliveries in the oldest group, versus 14/100,000 deliveries in the youngest group). However, the incidence ratios showed that pregnancy increased stroke risk significantly in women under 35, but did not appear to increase stroke risk in women over 35. In the youngest group (age 12-24), pregnancy more than doubled the risk of stroke, and in the 25-34 age group, pregnancy increased stroke risk by 60%. In women aged 35 and older, pregnancy did not increase stroke risk. Women who had pregnancy-related strokes tended to have fewer traditional vascular risk factors like hypertension and diabetes, compared to same-aged women with non-pregnancy related strokes.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28589" align="alignleft" width="149"] Dr Paul Bentley[/caption] Dr Paul Bentley MA MRCP PhD Clinical Senior Lecturer in Clinical Neuroscience
Honorary Consultant Neurologist
Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust
Charing Cross Hospital
London MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?Response: gripAble was designed to help people with arm disability practise physiotherapy when a physiotherapist is not available, or in between physiotherapy sessions. We know that the amount of physiotherapy provision in the UK, after stroke or arm injury, is typically below that which is recommended by professional bodies. Furthermore, increasing research suggests that higher-intensity training can boost functional outcomes. The innovation was designed to help people with a range of disabilities including severe paralysis engage with computer games with their weak arm. At the same time its designed to be portable for use at home or in bed, and low-cost. gripAble also enables remote measurement and monitoring of arm function, by setting users a series of calibrated tasks played out on the tablet screen. This way doctors and physiotherapists can assess the needs of a patient, and gain an idea of how well a patient is responding to home physiotherapy.
MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28297" align="alignleft" width="133"] Dr. Michael Hill[/caption] Dr. Michael Hill, MSc, MD, FRCPC Professor for the Departments of Clinical Neurosciences, Community Health Sciences, Medicine and Radiology University of Calgary
Director of the Stroke Unit
Calgary Stroke Program
Alberta Health Services MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The HERMES collaboration is a pooled individual patient meta-analysis of recent endovascular ischemic stroke trials. The current analysis assesses the role of time to treatment and outcome. We show that there is a clear relationship between time from onset-to-treatment and outcome, with treatment gradually becoming less effective as time elapses from stroke onset. Treatment was still effect, on average, out to just beyond 7 hours from stroke onset.
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