Home Based Physical Therapy Can Help Prevent Falls in the Elderly

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Teresa Liu-Ambrose, PT, PhDCanada Research Chair (Tier II), Physical Activity, Mobility, and Cognitive NeuroscienceDirector, Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience LaboratoryUniversity of British Columbia

Dr. Liu-Ambrose

Teresa Liu-Ambrose, PT, PhD
Canada Research Chair (Tier II), Physical Activity, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience
Director, Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory
University of British Columbia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response:  Falls in older adults are the third-leading cause of chronic disability and the leading cause of hospitalization for adults over age 65. Older adults who experience multiple falls are at increased risk for disability, loss of independence, and even death. How to best prevent falls in this high risk group is not well established. 

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Drivers with Diabetic Neuropathy May Need Assistance Controlling Accelerator Pedal

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
foot-neuropathyMonica Perazzolo

Research Centre for Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine
School of Healthcare Science, Faculty of Science and Engineering,
Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, UK
Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences
University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research on motor control in diabetes focussed on the effect of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on driving. Drivers with diabetic peripheral neuropathy showed a less well controlled use of the accelerator pedal and sometimes larger, faster steering corrections needed to stay in lane when driving a simulator compared to healthy drivers and people with diabetes but no neuropathy.

Despite these negative findings, an important result is that drivers with diabetic peripheral neuropathy demonstrated an improvement in their driving with practice. 

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14% Drivers with Kids in the Car Tested Positive for Cannabis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Angela Eichelberger, Ph.D.
Senior Research Scientist
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Dr. Romano and Dr. Kelley-Baker have previously studied the problem of child endangerment in alcohol-related crashes. In the United States, each year, about 200 children die and another 4,000 are injured while being driven by a drinking adult.

For this study, we wanted to take the opportunity to look at the prevalence of alcohol and cannabis use among drivers who participated in a roadside survey in Washington State. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine cannabis use among drivers transporting a child.

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40% of High School Drivers Text While Driving

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:,
Motao Zhu, MD, MS, PhD Principal Investigator Center for Injury Research and Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital? Columbus, OHMotao Zhu, MD, MS, PhD
Principal Investigator
Center for Injury Research and Policy
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital?
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We know that texting while driving occurs frequently among teen drivers. This study looks at the differences of texting while driving among teens between states.

Motor vehicle crashes continue to be the leading cause of death among teenagers in the United States. In 2016, over 2,000 teens in the US aged 14-18 years died in motor vehicle crashes and nearly 260,000 were seriously injured in traffic-related incidents. Even though there are cheap car insurance brokers available, teen motor vehicle crashes are preventable, and proven strategies can improve the safety of young drivers on the road. Among distracted driving, texting while driving may be especially risky because it involves at least three types of driver distraction: visual, physical, and cognitive. Texting while driving is banned for all drivers in 47 states and the District of Columbia, yet this study shows it still occurs regularly among teen drivers.

Overall (nationally), about 40% of high school student drivers text while driving at least once/month. The rate varies among states. The lowest is 26% (Maryland) and highest is 64% (South Dakota). Texting while driving among high school student drivers is highest in Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska.

These results were not surprising. There are state level factors to explain them. The top 5 highest texting while driving among high school student drivers (Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Nebraska) are rural states with a high percent of high school student drivers and students can get their learners permit by age 15. Continue reading

Alarming Increase in Violent and Unintentional Injuries Since 2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Angela Sauaia, MD, PhD Professor of Public Health and Surgery University of Colorado Denver Statistical Editor, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery Statistical Consultant, Department of Surgery Denver Health Medical Cente

Dr. Sauaia

Dr. Angela Sauaia, MD, PhD
Professor of Public Health and Surgery
University of Colorado Denver
Statistical Editor, Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Statistical Consultant, Department of Surgery
Denver Health Medical Center 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: As injury researchers we monitor national trends in injury.

The CDC WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System) is one of the few available open sources of injury data we can use. During the 1980’s and 1990’s, we saw much improvement in deaths due to most injury mechanisms, such as car accidents fatalities. Our study shows, however, that recent trends seem to be eroding these promising survival gains.

Both violent and unintentional injuries alike seem to be increasing, especially since 2014. We are unclear about the causes of this recent increase in trauma-related deaths, but it is an alarming trend.

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Self-Driving Cars Can’t Eliminate All Accidents So How Safe is Safe Enough?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Subaru cars waiting for ride” by JackeOb is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 3.0Dr. Peng Liu, Assistant Professor
Department of Industrial Engineering
College of Management and Economics
Tianjin University, China

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? 

Response: Self-driving vehicles promise to considerably reduce traffic crashes. However, they cannot eliminate all crashes.

On March 18, 2018, a female pedestrian was killed after being struck by an autonomous Uber vehicle in the self-driving mode in Arizona, USA. This fatal crash triggered a widespread public debate over the safety of self-driving vehicles. So, how safe is safe enough for self-driving vehicles?

Our findings show that our participants implicitly think self-driving vehicles should be four to five times as safe as the current human-driven vehicles. 

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Why Does Driving Make Us Sleepy?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Driving...” by Stig Nygaard is licensed under CC BY 2.0Prof. Stephen R Robinson PhD
Discipline Leader, Psychology
School of Health and Biomedical Sciences
RMIT University
Australia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Around the world, driver drowsiness and fatigue are estimated to contribute to 250,000 deaths on the road per year. Current research in this area has focused on detecting when drivers become drowsy, by examining their eye movements or steering patterns, and then alerting the driver with a warning tone or vibration of the steering wheel. Rather than this reactive approach, we are interested in helping to prevent drivers from becoming drowsy in the first place.

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Should Kids With Traumatic Injuries Be Screened For Mental Health Issues?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-Julie-Leonard

Dr. Leonard

Dr. Julie Leonard MD MPH
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We looked at children with unintentional injuries who were hospitalized to see if there was an increase in their mental health needs. We saw an average 63% increase in mental health diagnoses and a 155% increase in medications prescribed to treat a mental illness.

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Since Semi-Automatic Rifles Outlawed, Australia Has Had Zero Mass Shootings

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Simon Chapman AO PhD FASSA Hon FFPH (UK) Emeritus Professor in the School Public Health University of Sydney

Prof. Chapman

Simon Chapman AO PhD FASSA Hon FFPH (UK)
Emeritus Professor in the School Public Health
University of Sydney

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Since major gun law reforms in 1996, Australian has seen zero mass shootings (five or more deaths, not including the perpetrator).The law reforms outlawed semi-automatic rifles, those often favored by mass killers.

In the 18 years prior to the reforms, Australia experienced 13 mass shootings. The National Rifle Association and others have suggested that the 22 year absence of mass shootings may simply reflect that these events are rare and statistically unlikely to occur regardless of any policy.

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Snowboarders Have More Upper Body Injuries Than Skiiers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“First day of snowboarding” by kaolin fire is licensed under CC BY 2.0
Dr. Brett D Owens, MD
Dr. Owens is currently Team Physician for the US Lacrosse National Men’s Team, and
Team Physician for Brown University
Professor at Uniformed Services University and Professor at Brown University
Alpert School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study is a review of the literature on ski and snowboarding injuries. We summarize findings by our group and others on the injuries seen with these snow sports and report an overall increase in injuries as participation continues to increase.

Snowboarders have a higher injury rate and there are different injury patterns with skiers experiencing more lower extremity injuries (knee) and snowboarders experiencing more upper extremity injuries (wrist, shoulder, etc.).  Continue reading

Sending That Quick Text While Driving Can Kill You

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“texting and driving” by frankieleon is licensed under CC BY 2.0Ole J. Johansson

Junior researcher
Master’s in social psychology
Institute of Transport Economics

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Many countries have bans on driving while distracted and would fine drivers for texting while driving. Furthermore, people mostly know about the dangers of not paying attention to the traffic. Still, many people do engage in distracting behaviors. Thus, in this study, I wanted to examine:

a) Who are more likely to engage with distractors?

b) Is there an easy way to help people avoid distractions?

From these two points, we developed the study to engage with distracted driving from a psychological and scientific point of view.

Specifically using the theory of planned behavior and the big five to answer point a) and implementation intentions to answer point b).

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“Shall Issue” Gun Law States Associated With Higher Homicide and Firearm Death Rates

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael Siegel, MD, MPH Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences Boston University School of Public Health Boston, MA 02118

Prof. Siegel

Michael Siegel, MD, MPH
Professor, Department of Community Health Sciences
Boston University School of Public Health
Boston, MA 02118

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: A central question in the debate about public policies to reduce firearm violence is whether easier access to concealed handguns increases or decreases the rate of firearm-related homicides. Previous studies on the impact of concealed carry permitting laws have yielded inconsistent results. Most of these studies were conducted more than a decade ago. This study provided a reexamination of this research question with more recent data, up to and including the year 2015.

While all states allow certain persons to carry concealed handguns, there are 3 major variations in permitting policy. In 9 states, law enforcement officials have wide discretion over whether to issue concealed carry permits; these are referred to as “may issue” states because police chiefs can deny a permit if they deem the applicant to be at risk of committing violence, even if there is not a criminal history. In 29 states, there is little or no discretion; these are referred to as “shall-issue” states because permits must be issued if requisite criteria are met. In an additional 12 states, no permit is necessary to carry a concealed handgun.

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Costs of Bike Accidents Skyrocket

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Tom Gaither, MD, MAS Department of Urology San Francisco, CA 94143

Dr. Gaither

Tom Gaither, MD, MAS
Department of Urology
San Francisco, CA 94143

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Admission to the hospital because of bicycle crashes has increased over the past 15 years. We aimed to estimate the costs due to these bicycle crashes.

From 1999 to 2013, the total costs due to these injuries (direct medical costs, work loss costs, and pain and suffering) were $209 billion dollars. Costs due to non-fatal injuries have increased by 137% over the study period. In 2013, the total direct and indirect costs were $24 billion dollars, which is approximately doubling the costs due to occupational injuries in the US.

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Children Continue To Suffer Serious Injuries From Lawnmowers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH

Dr. Smith

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH
Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Lawn mowers continue to be an important source of serious pediatric morbidity in the United States (US) with initial treatment of pediatric lawn mower-related injuries costing about $90 million annually. The long-term physical, psychological, and financial effects of these traumatic injuries can be devastating for those injured and for their families.

This study comprehensively analyzes data over a 25-year period using a nationally representative database to evaluate the epidemiologic characteristics, including mechanism of injury, of lawn mower-related injuries to children in the US. It also provides a discussion of relevant injury prevention strategies.

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Fore! Most Common Golf Injuries Result From Getting Hit By Club or Ball

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH</strong> Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH

Dr. Smith

Gary Smith, MD, DrPH
Director, Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Golf is enjoyed worldwide as a leisure activity and competitive sport. While golf is viewed as a low-risk sport, acute traumatic and overuse injuries do occur. Previous studies have generally focused on the clinical aspects of golf-related injuries. Few studies examine injuries that occurred during practice at home or school, or due to conditions or hazards on a golf course.

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Cancer Patients Have Increased Risk of Injuries Around Time of Diagnosis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Qing Shen, PhD student Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics Karolinska Institutet

Qing Shen

Qing Shen, PhD student
Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics
Karolinska Institutet

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Injury, either iatrogenic (for example, complications from medical procedures and drug treatment) or non-iatrogenic (for instance, suicidal behavior and accidents), is one of the leading causes of non-cancer mortality for patients diagnosed with cancer. Iatrogenic injuries are common in those with cancer and have been shown to increase mortality in some cancer patients. Increased risks of suicide and accidental death after diagnosis have been reported, and the diagnostic process of cancer has been recognized highly stressful. It is, however, unknown whether the risk of injuries is also increased during the time period before receiving the diagnosis. Actually confirming a diagnosis can often be difficult due to patients sometimes concealing information. This is why Motivational Interviewing is important. Anyway, we analysed the risks of injuries during the weeks before and after diagnosis using a nationwide study sample in Sweden.

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Kids Suffer 50 Injuries Per Day From Strollers or Carriers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Kristi Roberts, MS, MPH
Research associate
Center for Injury Research and Policy
Nationwide Children’s Hospital.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Strollers (such as these luxury strollers) and carriers are used regularly by caregivers and are intended to provide a safe and secure way to transport young children during everyday activities. However, parents and caregivers should be aware that injuries do occur while using these products.

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Over 50% Reduction in Facial Fractures from Car Accidents With Combined Seat Belt and Air Bag use

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. David A. Hyman, MD
Division of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery
Department of Surgery
University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health
Madison

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Motor vehicle collisions represent a significant source of facial fractures seen at US trauma centers. In the last few decades there have been significant advances in airbag technology as well as a national legislative push regarding seat belt use which has led to increased safety device use. With these trends, we sought to assess the incidence of facial fractures in patients who present to US trauma centers as well as to analyze what effect restraint devices have on the likelihood of facial fractures after motor vehicle collisions. This analysis was performed using National Trauma Data Bank data from 2007-2012. We found the incidence of at least one facial fracture after a motor vehicle collision was 10.9% with nasal fracture being the most common facial fracture. Based on our analysis of more than 56 thousand patients with a facial fracture, we found that use of an airbag alone reduced the likelihood of a facial fracture by 18% while use of a seat belt alone reduced likelihood by 43%. Use of both reduced the likelihood of facial fractures in a crash by 53%. Younger age, male sex, and use of alcohol increased the likelihood of facial fracture.

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Hands-Free Cellphone Use While Driving Also Delays Reaction Times

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jeff C. Rabin, O.D., M.S., Ph.D., F.A.A.O., Dipl. Vision Science
Professor and Assistant Dean for Graduate Studies, Research and Assessment
Chief, Visual Neurophysiology Service
University of the Incarnate Word Rosenberg School of Optometry
San Antonio, TX

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Rabin: The use of hand-held cellphones during driving has been widely banned but the impact of hands-free communication on visual performance remained unclear. Therefore, we used a standard automobile Bluetooth device suspended above our visual display and determined that hands-free communication significantly delayed response time to detect low contrast black-white and color targets. Moreover, hands-free communication decreased sensitivity of “color-blind” subjects to detect targets corresponding to their color deficiency and all subjects showed a tendency for decreased sensitivity for detection of small, low contrast black-white targets.
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Traffic Deaths Related To Cannabis Impaired Drivers Doubled After Legalization

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Mr. Brian C. Tefft Senior Research Associate AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

Mr. Brian Tefft

Mr. Brian C. Tefft
Senior Research Associate
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In December 2012, a new law took effect in Washington state that effectively legalized the possession and use of small amounts of marijuana by adults aged 21 years and older for recreational purposes, and also created a legal limit for driving under the influence of marijuana such that having a concentration of 5.00 nanograms or greater of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, the main psychoactive chemical in marijuana) per milliliter of whole blood while driving in the state of Washington is per se driving under the influence.

Data from population-based surveys indicate that the proportion of Washington state residents who report using marijuana increased after this law took effect; however, not much was known about the impact of this new law on traffic safety in the state. To investigate the traffic safety impact of the new law, we examined drug test results from drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes that occurred in years 2010 – 2014 in Washington and resulted in the death of at least one person within 30 days of the crash. Specifically, we looked at the proportion of all drivers involved in fatal crashes who had detectable THC in their blood at or shortly after the time of the crash, which generally suggests that the driver had used marijuana within the past few hours.

Results showed that from 2010 through 2013, approximately 8-9% of drivers in fatal crashes each year were positive for THC, and that proportion was basically flat from 2010 through 2013. In 2014, the proportion basically doubled, to 17%. Our modelling suggests that an increasing trend in the proportion of drivers who were positive for THC began in late 2013, about 9-10 months after the new law took effect.

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Inadequate Sleep Linked to Injury-Related Risk Behaviors Among High School Students

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anne G. Wheaton, Ph.D.
Epidemiologist
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion
Division of Population Health
Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch
Atlanta, GA  30341-3717 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Wheaton: Unintentional injury, mostly from motor vehicle crashes, is the leading cause of death for adolescents. Adolescents who do not get enough sleep are at an increased risk for motor vehicle crashes and other unintentional injury, such as sports injuries and occupational injuries. We evaluated the association between self-reported sleep duration on an average school night and several injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) among more than 50 thousand US high school students.

The likelihood of each of five injury-related risk behaviors (infrequent bicycle helmet use, infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a driver who had been drinking, drinking and driving, and texting while driving) was significantly higher for students sleeping ≤7 hours on an average school night compared with 9 hours. Infrequent seatbelt use, riding with a drinking driver, and drinking and driving were also more likely for students sleeping ≥10 hours compared to 9 hours on an average school night. Although short and long sleep may simply be associated with other adolescent risk behaviors, insufficient sleep may cause individuals to take more risks and disregard the possibility of negative consequences. However, the study was cross-sectional, meaning the students were asked questions at one time point, so it is not possible to determine if there is a cause and effect association between sleep and these risk behaviors. Insufficient sleep may contribute to injury risk directly by slowing reaction time, impairing ability to pay attention, or causing a driver to fall asleep, but these results provide evidence that some of the increased risk associated with insufficient sleep might be due to engaging in injury-related risk behaviors.

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Truck Drivers With Sleep Apnea Who Don’t Use Their CPAP Have More Preventable Crashes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Stefanos N. Kales, MD, MPH, FACP, FACOEM Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School & Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health Director, Occupational Medicine Residency Division Chief OEM, Cambridge Health Alliance

Dr. Stefanos Kales

Stefanos N. Kales, MD, MPH, FACP, FACOEM 
Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School &
Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health
Director, Occupational Medicine Residency
Division Chief OEM, Cambridge Health Alliance

MedicalResearch: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Kales: Up to 20% of all large truck crashes are due to drowsy or fatigued driving, which would account for almost 9,000 fatalities and up to 220,000 serious injuries. OSA is the most common medical cause of excessive daytime sleepiness or fatigue, and has been linked with negative impacts on attention, working memory, vigilance, and executive functioning. Past studies primarily of passenger car drivers have linked untreated OSA with a several-fold increased risk of motor vehicle accidents. They have also shown that effective treatment with CPAP reduces this risk close to that of unaffected drivers.

Although commercial truck drivers undergo a biennial examination to determine their medical fitness to safely operate a vehicle, there are currently no mandatory standards for OSA screening or diagnosis, in part because there have been no large-scale studies evaluating the crash risk of commercial drivers diagnosed with OSA.

Our study examined the results of the first large-scale employer program to screen, diagnose, and monitor OSA treatment adherence in the U.S. trucking industry  Continue reading

History of Fainting Raises Risk of Motor Vehicle Accidents

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Anna-Karin Numé MD, PhD student
Copenhagen University Gentofte Hospital
Department of Cardiology
Cardiovascular Research
Hellerup Denmark 

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Numé: While it is obvious that a loss of consciousness while driving a car is very dangerous, what is not known is whether individuals who have had an episode of fainting (syncope) have a significantly higher risk of having car crashes in the future. Because about one third of patients with syncope are likely to have a recurrence, physicians face a difficult judgment about whether patients with syncope are fit to drive.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Numé: In this nationwide study of patients with syncope, having a history of syncope were associated with a 2-fold-higher risk of later motor vehicle crashes requiring medical attention at an emergency department or hospital compared with the general population – a risk that remained elevated throughout a follow-up of 5 years. This risk was small in absolute terms, yet raises important questions about policies towards driving.

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Accidents, Guns and Overdoses Account For Increase in Death Rate in US Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Andrew Fenelon PhD NIH Postdoctoral Fellow Brown University

Dr. Andrew Fenelon

Dr. Andrew Fenelon PhD
NIH Postdoctoral Fellow
Brown University

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Fenelon: The life expectancy of the US population is about 2 years less than that of other high-income nations, which is an important problem in public health. Although much previous work looks at differences in death rates among older adults, some recent work has shown that deaths at younger ages (below age 50) account for a significant fraction of the life expectancy gap. Our study examines the contribution of major injuries, Motor Vehicle Crashes, Firearm-related deaths, and drug poisonings, which often occur at younger ages and account for many years of lost life.

Our findings indicate that US men and women experience significantly higher death rates from these three causes of injury death than each of the 12 comparison high-income countries. Overall, these three causes of death explained 48% of the 2.2 year life expectancy gap between the United States and other high-income countries among men, with firearm injuries alone explaining 21%. Among women, these causes explained 19%.

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Young, Impulsive Motorcyclists Most At Risk For Accidents and Injuries

Professor Ajai Singh Department of Orthopaedic Surgery King George's Medical University India

Prof. Ajai Singh

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Professor Ajai Singh

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
King George’s Medical University
India 

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Prof. Singh: Road traffic accidents (RTAs), in the current scenario, have taken the form of an epidemic. Developing countries are presently showing an increasing trend with respect to the number of vehicles and population. Personality characteristics are becoming a significant contributor in RTAs, owing to rising stress levels and varying circumstances. In developing countries, most of the RTAs occur in urban regions and pedestrians, passengers, and motorcyclists collectively constitute around 90% of deaths. We, therefore, conducted this study in order to evaluate the patterns of various personality characteristics in patients suffering from nonfatal orthopedic injuries as a result of Road traffic accidents and attending a tertiary care center, with special focus on motorcyclists.

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Prof. Singh: Most of the accidental injuries are faced by motorized two wheeler drivers of younger age. This is probably due to the fact that we are a developing nation with a huge population having motorized two wheeler vehicles as a major means of private transport. Also, these motorized two wheelers have a low safety profile that makes their riders more prone to accident. Amongst all the motorcyclists encountering road traffic accidents, impulsive personality trait is found in 85.19% and histrionic trait was found in 82.72% of cases.

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Young Children Most Likely To Severe Injury and Death From Abuse

Dr. Ffion C Davies Consultant in Emergency Medicine & Paediatric Lead University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust Leicester Royal Infirmary Leicester UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Ffion C Davies
Consultant in Emergency Medicine & Paediatric Lead
University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust
Leicester Royal Infirmary
Leicester UK

Medical Research: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Davies: This study is from the Trauma Audit Research Network data, which is a major trauma database receiving data from nearly all hospitals in England and Wales. A 2012 TARN report on major trauma in children showed a peak of injuries resulting from child abuse in the younger age group. In this study we analysed the database in more detail, in order to profile this peak of injuries from non-accidental injury (NAI).

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Davies: The main findings are that severe injury and death resulting from non-accidental injury occurs nearly always in the under 5 year old age group, and 75% of cases are under 1 year old. This contrasts with reports in the media, whereby high profile deaths in children from non-accidental injury are often older children. This probably reflects reporting bias, because those children experienced a prolonged period of abuse, despite involvement of health and social services. Our study shows that very small infants are the most likely to die, or to sustain severe head injuries.

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Crib Bumpers Can Suffocate Babies and Should Never Be Used

N.J. Scheers, PhD Former manager of CPSC's Infant Suffocation Project BDS Data Analytics, Alexandria, VA

Dr. NJ Scheers

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
N.J. Scheers, PhD

Former manager of CPSC’s Infant Suffocation Project
BDS Data Analytics, Alexandria, VA

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Scheers: There are no federal regulations for crib bumpers. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the Canadian Pediatric Society, the National Institutes of Health, and others have long recommended against crib bumper use. Crib bumper manufacturers have a long-standing voluntary safety standard aimed at making crib bumpers safe. Neither of these approaches has worked to prevent deaths from bumpers. 

Medical Research: What are the main findings?

Dr. Scheers: Using data from the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), the research identified 48 deaths from crib bumpers from 1985-2012. Reports of the deaths increased significantly and were three times higher from 2006 through 2012 than in previous years.

In most of the deaths, the crib bumpers were the only source of suffocation, rebutting beliefs that other items in the cribs (comforters, pillows, blankets) caused the deaths. In other deaths, wedging occurred between the bumper and other objects such as pillows and infant recliners. All of these deaths would have been preventable if crib bumpers had not been in the cribs.

The study linked more deaths to crib bumpers than the 48 indicated in the CPSC data. A review of data from the National Center for the Review and Prevention of Child Deaths reveals reports of 32 bumper-related deaths from 37 states from 2008-2011. That puts the number of fatalities tied to crib bumpers at 77 and suggests the actual number is much higher.

The study identified 146 injuries from 1990-2012. Eleven were “near-misses” in which the babies were rescued before they died. These were near-suffocations, chokings, strangulations, and falls from infants using bumpers to climb out of the cribs. There were reports of poor bumper design, such as a lack of bottom bumper ties, or construction problems, such as bumper ties and decoration that detached.

Parents often buy bumpers to prevent slat entrapments or to prevent infants bumping their heads in the cribs. This is the first study to show that these events occurred even with a bumper present.

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Preventable Falls and Fights Cause Most Eye Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Christina R. Prescott, M.D., Ph.D
Assistant Professor of Ophthalmology
Johns Hopkins Wilmer Eye Institute

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Dr. Prescott: I wanted to look at the most common causes of severe ocular injuries, with the hope of helping to focus injury prevention strategies.

From 2002 to 2011, the mean hospital charge for inpatient hospitalizations due to eye injuries increased from $12,430 to $20,116, when controlling for inflation.  This increase paralleled the increase of mean hospital charges for all inpatient stays during the same time period, even when controlling for length of stay, which actually decreased slightly.  Costs were highest at large hospitals and for older patients.  Race, insurance, and gender were less strongly correlated to cost.

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More Ziplines Means More Injuries—Nearly 10 A Day

Tracy Mehan, MA Manager of translational research Center for Injury Research at Policy The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital Columbus, OH MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Tracy Mehan, MA

Manager of translational research
Center for Injury Research at Policy
The Research Institute at Nationwide Children’s Hospital
Columbus, OH

 

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
Response: We noticed an increasing number of ziplines popping up all over the United States and wanted to see if there were any potential safety concerns.  In 2001 there were only 10 commercial ziplines. By 2012, there were more than 200. If you include the number of ziplines now seen in backyards and in places like outdoor education programs and camps, the number skyrockets to over 13,000.

We found that from 1997 through 2012, there were just under 17,000 non-fatal zipline-related injuries treated in US emergency departments. Almost 70 percent of these injuries occurred in the last four years of the study indicating that this is a growing problem. In 2012 alone, there were more than 3,600 zipline-related injuries, nearly 10 a day.

The majority of the injuries were the result of a fall (77 percent) or a collision (13 percent) into a tree, a support structure, or another person. Close to half of the injuries were broken bones (46 percent) and one of every ten (11.7 percent) patients were admitted to the hospital.

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Toppling TVs a Danger To Toddlers

Nadine Parker M.Sc Injury Prevention Research Office Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute Keenan Research Centre St. Michael’s Hospital Toronto, Ontario, CanadaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nadine Parker M.Sc
Injury Prevention Research Office
Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute
Keenan Research Centre
St. Michael’s Hospital
Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: TV toppling injuries in children have become increasingly more common in recent years. Including in countries with developing economies where televisions are becoming more affordable. Unfortunately, most people don’t recognize televisions as a hidden home hazard. These easily preventable injuries can be severe or even fatal. Of the deaths due to TV toppling 96% were caused by a head injury. Most of these injuries occur at home with 75% of them unwitnessed by a parent or caregiver. Often furniture such as dressers are used as TV stands but they are not designed to support the weight of TV sets making them unstable. Unfortunately, curious and resourceful young children like to climb these unstable support furniture leading to a toppling event. Play or pushing and pulling the TV set are also common causes of tip-overs.

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