Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Geriatrics, JAMA / 05.06.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_49471" align="alignleft" width="150"]Teresa Liu-Ambrose, PT, PhDCanada Research Chair (Tier II), Physical Activity, Mobility, and Cognitive NeuroscienceDirector, Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience LaboratoryUniversity of British Columbia Dr. Liu-Ambrose[/caption] Teresa Liu-Ambrose, PT, PhD Canada Research Chair (Tier II), Physical Activity, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience Director, Aging, Mobility, and Cognitive Neuroscience Laboratory University of British Columbia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Falls in older adults are the third-leading cause of chronic disability and the leading cause of hospitalization for adults over age 65. Older adults who experience multiple falls are at increased risk for disability, loss of independence, and even death. How to best prevent falls in this high risk group is not well established. 
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Frailty / 04.02.2019

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: "DSC08418" by Debs (\xf2\u203f\xf3)\u266a is licensed under CC BY 2.0. To view a copy of this license, visit: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0Cathie Sherrington FAHMS Professor, NHMRC Senior Research Fellow Institute for Musculoskeletal Health The University of Sydney MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of exercise were tested or indicated? Response: Falls are a very common problem with at least one in three people aged 60+ falling each year. This review included all types of exercises delivered to people aged 60+ in the general community i.e., not those living in supported accommodation and not among people with particular health conditions such as a stroke or Parkinson’s disease.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Vitamin D / 25.04.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_41344" align="alignleft" width="143"]Dr. Alex Krist Dr. Krist[/caption] Dr. Alex Krist, M.D., M.P.H. Dr. Krist is is a professor of family medicine and population health at Virginia Commonwealth University and active clinician and teacher at the Fairfax Family Practice residency. What is the background for these recommendation statements? What are the main findings? Response: Falls are the leading cause of injuries in adults age 65 and older and can lead to serious disability and even death. Bone fractures—which may result from a fall—can also cause serious disability and death in older adults. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force looked into the most recent evidence on the best ways to prevent falls and fractures in older adults. We found that clinicians should recommend exercise or physical therapy to help prevent falls by older adults who live at home and are at higher risk for falling. Additionally, we concluded that taking a low dose of vitamin D and calcium does not help prevent fractures due to osteoporosis, but we don’t know if taking a higher dose is effective or not, so we are calling for more research.
Author Interviews, CDC, Cost of Health Care, Geriatrics / 04.04.2018

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_40978" align="alignleft" width="200"]Curtis Florence, PhD Division of Analysis, Research and Practice Integration  CDC’s Injury Center Dr. Florence[/caption] Curtis Florence, PhD Division of Analysis, Research and Practice Integration CDC’s Injury Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The estimates in this study provide a more robust indicator of the economic impact falls have on the U.S. economy.  Previous studies focused on Medicare spending. This study includes Medicare, Medicaid and out-of-pocket spending. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?  Response: Our study found that older adult (65 years and over) falls impose a large economic burden on the U.S. healthcare system. In 2015, with a total medical cost $50 billion for non-fatal and fatal falls.  About three-quarters of the total cost was paid by government-funded programs.  Medicare paid nearly $29 billion for non-fatal falls, Medicaid $8.7 billion, and $12 billion was paid for by Private/Out-of-pocket expenses.  For fatal falls, $754 million was spent in 2015.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Frailty, Geriatrics, JAMA, Osteoporosis / 07.11.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_38044" align="alignleft" width="200"]Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews Dr. Tricco[/caption] Andrea C. Tricco PhD, MSc Scientist and Lead of the Knowledge Synthesis Team Associate Professor Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto Associate Editor Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, BMC Medical Research Methodology, Systematic Reviews MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Falls are the leading cause of injury among older adults and account for $2 billion in direct health-care costs annually ($31 billion in costs to Medicare in the United States in 2012). We aimed to determine which types of fall-prevention programs may be effective for reducing falls in older people. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Exercise, along with vision assessment and treatment, as well as an assessment and possible modification of a person’s living environment, reduced the risk of injurious falls by 23% compared to usual care.
Accidents & Violence, Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Depression, Geriatrics, Karolinski Institute / 11.08.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_36437" align="alignleft" width="200"]Heidi Taipale, PhD Pharm Senior Researcher School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland; and Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet  Dr. Taipale[/caption] Heidi Taipale, PhD Pharm Senior Researcher School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland; and Department of Clinical Neuroscience Karolinska Institutet  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Antidepressant use among older persons has been associated with an increased risk of falling and fall-related events, such as hip fractures, in previous studies. Our previous study identified risk of hip fractures in antidepressant among persons with Alzheimer’s disease. As falling is the main causal factor for head traumas and traumatic brain injuries among older persons, we hypothesized that antidepressant use could also be associated with these injuries. We utilized a nationwide cohort of 70,718 persons newly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, identified from the Finnish registers. The risk of head injuries and traumatic brain injuries was compared between persons initiating antidepressant use and comparison persons of the same age, gender and time since they received diagnoses of Alzheimer’s disease but not using antidepressants. We found a 40-percent increased risk of head injuries and 30-percent increased risk of traumatic brain injuries associated with antidepressant use. Antidepressant use was associated with a higher risk of head injuries especially at the beginning of use – during the first 30 days – but the risk persisted even longer, up to two years. The association was also confirmed in a study design comparing time periods within the same person, thus eliminating selective factors.
Author Interviews / 19.06.2017

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nathalie van der Velde Internist-Geriatrician Erasmus MC Rotterdam The Netherlands MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In older persons, falls are the leading cause of injuries and often an adverse-drug reaction is involved. By lowering medication-related fall risk, loss of quality of life, institutionalization, and death can be prevented. Nevertheless, for optimal medication-withdrawal in clinical practice, better understanding of medication-related fall risk is essential, especially for the group of cardiovascular drugs, as previous studies showed contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of our study was to assess whether specific drug characteristics determine beta-blocker related fall risk, a frequently prescribed cardiovascular drug. Our study showed that fall risk was increased in users of non-selective beta-blockers. This was not the case for overall use of beta-blockers or other drug characteristics (lipid solubility, intrinsic sympathetic activity and CYP2D enzyme metabolism).
Author Interviews, Electronic Records, Geriatrics, Pharmacology / 29.11.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_30022" align="alignleft" width="130"]Jashvant Poeran MD PhD Assistant Professor Dept. of Population Health Science & Policy Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY Dr. Jashvant Poeran[/caption] Jashvant Poeran MD PhD Assistant Professor Dept. of Population Health Science & Policy Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Falls are an important patient safety issue among elderly patients and may lead to extended hospitalization and patient harm. Particularly important in elderly patients are high risk drugs such as sleep medications which are known to increase fall risk and should be dosed lower in elderly patients. In this study we looked at patients aged 65 years or older who fell during hospitalization. We found that in 62%, patients had been given at least one high risk medication that was linked to fall risk, within 24 hours before their fall. Interestingly, we found that also a substantial proportion of these medications were given at doses higher than generally recommended for elderly patients.
Author Interviews, CDC, Cost of Health Care, Frailty / 23.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28318" align="alignleft" width="144"]Gwen Bergen, PhD Division of Unintentional Injury National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC Dr. Gwen Bergen[/caption] Gwen Bergen, PhD Division of Unintentional Injury National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Older adult falls are the leading cause of injury death and disability for adults aged 65 years and older (older adults). In this study, we analyzed data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Our study found that, in 2014, older Americans reported 29 million falls. Almost a quarter of these or 7 million falls required medical treatment or restricted activity for at least one day. Women reported a higher percentage of falls (30%) compared with men (27%). Whites and American Indian/Alaskan Natives (AI/AN) were more likely to fall compared with Blacks and Asian/Pacific Islanders; and AI/AN were more likely to report a fall injury compared with all other racial/ethnic groups. The percentage of older adults who reported a fall varied by state, ranging from 21% in Hawaii to 34% in Arkansas.
Author Interviews, Frailty, Geriatrics, Lancet, Technology / 19.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28141" align="alignleft" width="200"]Anat Mirelman, PhD Director- Laboratory of Early Markers of Neurodegeneration (LEMON) Center for the study of Movement , Cognition and Mobility (CMCM) Department of Neurology Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv 64239, Israel Dr. Anat Mirelman[/caption] Anat Mirelman, PhD Director- Laboratory of Early Markers of Neurodegeneration (LEMON) Center for the study of Movement , Cognition and Mobility (CMCM) Department of Neurology Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University Tel Aviv 64239, Israel MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The main aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of using a motor cognitive training using virtual reality in reducing fall frequency and fall risk in older adults. Falls are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults. The prevalence of falls is huge, with one out of every 3 adults aged 65 years or older will fall at least once per year, with approximately half of these fallers suffering multiple falls in this period . These statistics are even higher in neurodegenerative conditions such as in Parkinson’s disease and in people with cognitive impairments. For example, studies have shown that as much as 80% of people with Parkinson’s disease fall each year. So many older adults are falling. The consequences of falls are huge. The most dramatic result is hip fracture. But this is relatively rare. However, even in the absence of a fracture or other injury, falls often lead to fear of falling, social isolation, and depression, which in turn often leads to inactivity, muscle weakness, impaired balance and gait, more falls, more social isolation. In other words, falls often start a vicious cycle, which has many important negative health consequences. Falls are associated with morbidity and mortality and they also have a huge economic impact. In many western countries, 1-2% of healthcare dollars are spent on falls. For many years, age-associated changes in muscle strength, balance and gait were viewed as the key factors that contribute to the risk of falls. However, more recently, we and others showed that certain aspects of cognition are also critical to safe ambulation. For example people with AD often fall, almost to the same amount as people with PD, highlighting the cognitive component of falls. This makes sense intuitively if we Imagine the cognitive skills we need just to cross a busy intersection. These tasks require executive function, specially, planning, the ability to avoid obstacles, and the ability to perform two or more tasks at the same time.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CDC, Cost of Health Care, Frailty, Geriatrics / 30.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27484" align="alignleft" width="150"]Elizabeth Burns, MPH Health Scientist, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC Elizabeth Burns MPH[/caption] Elizabeth Burns, MPH Health Scientist, Division of Unintentional Injury Prevention National Center for Injury Prevention and Control CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries among Americans aged 65 and older. In 2000, the direct cost of falls were estimated to be $179 million for fatal falls and $19 billion for non-fatal falls. Fall injuries and deaths are expected to rise as more than 10,000 Americans turn 65 each day. Within the next 15 years, the U. S. population of older Americans is anticipated to increase more than 50%, with the total number of older adults rising to 74 million by 2030.
Author Interviews, Frailty, Hip Fractures, Parkinson's, PLoS / 08.02.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_21392" align="alignleft" width="200"]Helena Nyström MD, PhD Candidate Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation Umeå University Umeå, Sweden Helena Nyström[/caption] Helena Nyström MD, PhD Candidate Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation Umeå University Umeå, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Parkinson’s disease (PD) has an insidious onset and the prodromal phase, preceding the onset of the characteristic PD symptoms, may last for decades. Most prodromal signs previously reported are of non-motor type, such as sleep and mood disorders. However, recent studies have reported balance problems and an increased risk of accidental injuries in the last 3-5 years before diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease , and in a previous study we found a lower muscle strength at military conscription in men who were diagnosed with  Parkinson’s disease three decades later. In this study, we aimed to investigate if such subtle strength deficits may translate into an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Response: The median study time was 20 years before the diagnosis of  Parkinson’s disease , and during this time more individuals with PD (18%) than controls (11.5%) had at least one fall-related injury. The risk was most increased in the last few years before the diagnosis of  Parkinson’s disease , but a difference between the groups appeared already a decade before the PD diagnosis. The risk of hip fracture was increased during the entire study time of 26 years before the diagnosis of Parkinson’s disease .
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Frailty, Geriatrics, Infections / 12.10.2015

Farrin A. Manian, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA Inpatient Clinician Educator, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital Visiting Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Farrin A. Manian, MD, MPH, FACP, FIDSA, FSHEA Inpatient Clinician Educator, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital Visiting Associate Professor, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02114 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Manian:  Falls are a leading cause of injury and death, afflicting about one-third of adults over 65 years of age annually.  Although there are many potential causes for falls, infections have received very little attention, with previous published reports primarily revolving around institutionalized elderly with dementia and urinary tract infection. We found that the spectrum of patients at risk for falls precipitated by infections goes far beyond the institutionalized elderly with dementia and urinary tract infection.  In fact, the majority of our patients fell at home and did not have a diagnosis of dementia.  In addition, besides urinary tract infections which accounted for 44.1% of cases, bloodstream (40.0%) and lower respiratory tract infections (23.0%) were also frequently represented.  Although the mean age of our patients was 76 years, 18% were younger than 65 years.  We also found that the signs and symptoms of these infections at the time of the presentation for the fall were often non-specific (e.g. weakness or mental status changes) or absent, with only 44% of patients meeting the criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome and only 20% having fever or abnormal temperature possibly related in part to advanced age.  These factors may make it difficult for the patient, family members and healthcare providers to readily consider infections contributing to the fall.  In fact a coexisting systemic infection was not initially suspected by providing clinicians in 40% of our patients and 31% of those who were later diagnosed with a bloodstream infection.
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Frailty, JAMA, Vitamin D / 23.03.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kirsti Uusi-Rasi, PhD, Adjunct Professor Senior Researcher UKK Institute for Health Promotion Research Tampere Finland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kirsti Uusi-Rasi: Falls are the leading cause of unintentional injuries and fractures in older adults, head injuries and fractures being the most severe consequences. Therefore, falls prevention is important when trying to prevent injuries. There is strong high-quality evidence from previous studies that exercise that includes strength and balance training can reduce the risk of falling in older adults. However, there are also studies that have reported no benefit in reducing the actual incidence of falls. Effects of vitamin D have also been studied widely, and vitamin D is known to be vital for bone metabolism and health. However, results regarding effects on falls and fractures are inconsistent. Furthermore, persons with low vitamin D levels (serum 25OHD) have been associated with lower physical performance and greater decline in physical functioning, but clinical trials exploring the role of vitamin D in reducing falls and fractures and in improving physical functioning are inconclusive. Because there is hardly any evidence about exercise and vitamin D together, we investigated the separate and combined effects of multimodal exercise training and vitamin D supplementation in reducing falls and injurious falls among older women at risk for falling. We assigned 409 participants randomly to one of four groups with: 1)vitamin D 800 IU/day and exercise 2) placebo and exercise 3) vitamin D 800 IU/day without exercise 4) placebo without exercise. Exercise consisted of strength, balance, mobility and agility group training. At the end of two years, exercise seemed to be more effective in reducing injurious falls in this age group, with or without vitamin D. Exercise also improved physical functioning (strength, balance and mobility). In general, the training program was well tolerated with no severe adverse effects or injuries. Vitamin D helped maintain femoral neck BMD and increased trabecular bone density at the tibia. Our study also suggests that the current vitamin D recommendation (800 IU/d for older people) is adequate.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, CDC, Cost of Health Care / 04.02.2015

Judy A. Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta GA 30341MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Judy Stevens PhD National Center for Injury Prevention and Control Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Stevens: Falls among people aged 65 and older are a serious, costly, and growing public health problem. As our population ages, falls will continue to increase unless we implement effective prevention strategies that are also cost-effective. This study found that three evidence-based fall prevention programs, the Otago Exercise Program, Tai Chi: Moving for Better Balance, and Stepping On, were not only practical and effective but also provided a positive return on investment (ROI) or net benefit.  An ROI of 150% means for each $1 spent on implementing the program, you can expect a net benefit of $1.50. The analysis found that the cost of implementing each of these fall prevention programs was considerably less than the potential medical costs needed to care for someone injured from a fall. These research findings can help community organizations and policymakers identify and use programs that can both save lives and reduce costs.
Aging, Author Interviews, Frailty / 17.01.2015

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander Voukelatos BSc, BA, MA(psych), PhD Healthy Populations Program Manager Health Promotion Sydney Local Health District and Conjoint Lecturer School of Public Health and Community Medicine University of NSW Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response:Falls in older people has been a significant public health issue in high income countries for several decades now. We know that if current trends continue, given that more people will be living for longer, falls will be an even bigger issue in the not too distant. Falls are not an inevitable part of ageing, and in fact many falls can be prevented relatively simply by increasing physical activity. For over 15 years we've known that physical activity is one of the most effective ways of reducing the risk of falls in older people living in the community; since the publication of the first Cochrane review on Interventions for preventing falls in the elderly by Gillespie and colleagues. [1]  I know that Health Departments here, in Australia, and in New Zealand - as I suspect has been the case in many high income countries - have invested a lot of resources over the past few decades into reducing falls-related hospital admissions in older people. Much of this going into promoting and funding physical activity programs for older people. However, this investment has had very little if any impact on falls-related hospital admissions in older people. There may be several reasons we haven't seen any difference in these rates. In New South Wales - Australia's most populous state -  we know that physical activity rates amongst older people have actually risen by about 15% between 1998 and 2005,[2] the most popular activity by far being walking,[3] yet we haven't see any corresponding change in falls-related hospitalization rates. Perhaps there has not been enough time for these programs to have made an impact on hospitalization rates, or perhaps the change in physical activity levels is insufficient to make an impact on these rates. Another possibility could be that while we've seen an increase in physical activity in older people perhaps its not the kind of physical activity that results in a reduction in falls. Sherrington and colleagues [4] reviewed effective physical activity interventions for preventing falls in older people and found they had several elements in common: a) the physical activity included balance challenging exercise i.e. exercises taking participants to the limits of their stability, b) at least 50 hours of accumulated activity was needed, and c) no walking was included in the exercises. So we know not all types of physical activity will be equally effective in reducing the risk of falling. There is some disagreement in the literature about walking. There are several studies that included walking as part of the intervention and showed a reduction in falls in older people. Other studies supported the conclusions made by Sherrington that walking is not associated with a reduction in falls. All of these studies included walking as a component of an intervention which makes it difficult to figure out what effect walking specifically has on falls rates. This is were our study comes in. We wanted to investigate the effectiveness of a walking program on falls in older people, specifically sedentary older people, who we presumed would get the most benefit from becoming more physically active. We developed a walking program specifically for sedentary older people, that they could do themselves in their own time, at their preferred locale. The aim of the program was to get participants walking for at least 150 minutes per week at a brisk pace. The program comprised of four parts: the first part focused on increasing the frequency of walks, the second part focused on getting participants to walk for at least 150 minutes per week, followed by walking for 150 minutes at a brisk pace, while the final part focused on supporting participants in maintaining their walking levels and incorporating walking as part of their daily activities.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Pediatrics / 02.12.2014

Prof. Denise Kendrick Professor of Primary Care Research Division of Primary Care, University Park Nottingham UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Denise Kendrick Professor of Primary Care Research Division of Primary Care, University Park Nottingham UK Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Kendrick: More than 1 million US children aged 0-4 years attend emergency departments because of  a fall each year. Approximately half of all ED attendances in this age group are for falls, and most of these are falls from furniture, most commonly from beds, chairs , baby walkers, bouncers, changing tables and high chairs. In the US around 18,000 0-4 year olds are admitted to hospital following a fall each year  and in 2012 there were 31 deaths in the US in 0-4 year olds from falls. Healthcare costs for falls in the US  were estimated at $439 million for hospitalised children and $643 million for  ED attendances in 2005. We found that children were more likely to attend hospital because of a fall from furniture in families that did not use safety gates across doorways or on stairs. For infants (aged 0-12 months) we found they were more likely to attend hospital because of a fall from furniture if they had been left on a raised surface (e.g. beds, sofas, work tops etc), had diapers changed on a raised surface or been put in a car seat or bouncing cradle on a raised surface. We also found that children aged over 3 years who had climbed or played on furniture were more likely to have a fall requiring a hospital visit than children who had not. Finally we found that children whose parents had not taught their children rules about climbing on objects in the kitchen were more likely to have a fall needing a hospital visit than children whose parents had taught these rules.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Insomnia / 02.11.2014

Lars Laugsand, MD, PhD, Postdoctoral fellow Department of Public Health Norwegian University of Science in Technology Trondheim, Norway.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lars Laugsand, MD, PhD, Postdoctoral fellow Department of Public Health Norwegian University of Science in Technology Trondheim, Norway. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Laugsand: Very few prospective studies have assessed the association of insomnia symptoms and risk for injuries. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Laugsand: We found that increasing number of insomnia symptoms was strongly associated with higher risk for both overall unintentional fatal injuries and fatal motor-vehicle injuries in a dose-dependent manner. Those who reported to suffer from all major insomnia symptoms were at considerably higher risk than those who had no symptoms or only a few symptoms. Among the different insomnia symptoms, difficulties falling asleep appeared to have the strongest and most robust association with fatal injuries.
Aging, Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 30.09.2014

Associate Professor Dafna Merom Ph.D Physical Activity and Health University of Western Sydney Penrith NSW AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Associate Professor Dafna Merom Ph.D Physical Activity and Health University of Western Sydney Penrith NSW Australia   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Merom: In a cohort of 1667 older Australian men (mean age 76.8 years) data on incident falls were  collected every four months by telephone interview. We compared the rate of falling over 48 months of follow-up of  men who participated in  golf, Calisthenics, lawn balls, aerobic machines and swimming.  We  found that only swimming was associated with 33% reduction in falls occurrence. We also found that swimmers performed better on balance tests in our baseline measurements. In particular on the postural stability test and for  those whose leisure activity was  only swimming, apart from walking and other lifestyle activities.
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, Frailty, Lancet / 25.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. MichaelD. Keall PhD Otago University, Wellington, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Keall: We found that home injuries from falls could be reduced by 26% by making some simple modifications to people’s homes, consisting of handrails for steps and stairs, grab rails for bathrooms, outside lighting, edging for outside steps and slip-resistant surfacing for outside surfaces such as decks and porches.
Diabetes / 17.09.2014

Steven Brown School of Healthcare Science Faculty of Engineering Manchester Metropolitan University UKMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Steven Brown School of Healthcare Science Faculty of Engineering Manchester Metropolitan University UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our main findings were increased extremes of sideways sway in patients with diabetes and severe peripheral neuropathy during stair negotiation. Measured by an increase in the amount of lateral separation between the centre-of-mass and centre-of-pressure. Our results showed a 3cm increase in maximum sway in patients with diabetic peripheral neuropathy during both stair descent and stair ascent.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Diabetes, Disability Research / 20.08.2014

Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524MedicalResearch.com Interview with Karen Margolis, M.D., M.P.H. Senior Investigator (Director of Clinical Research) HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research Minneapolis, MN, 55440-1524 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Margolis: The study compared falls and fractures in patients aged 40-79 with diabetes who were treated for high blood pressure.  One group received treatment that aimed at getting systolic blood pressure under 120, while the other group received treatment to achieve systolic blood pressure under 140. The results show that patients who received intensive blood pressure treatment did not fall more than less intensively treated patients, nor did they incur more fractures over an average follow-up of about five years.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Geriatrics / 23.06.2014

Dr. Michele Callisaya Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences Monash University, ClaytonMedicalResearch.com Interview with:  Dr. Michele Callisaya Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences Monash University, Clayton MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Callisaya: Falls are common in older people and can lead to hip fracture and loss of mobility.  Blood pressure reducing medications are commonly taken by older people to protect against heart attacks and stroke, but may have some unwanted side effects such as light-headedness and loss of balance.  We found that older people who were on large doses of such medications were at increased risk of falling.
Author Interviews, Frailty, Lancet, Vitamin D / 23.04.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Mark Bolland, PhD Bone and Joint Research Group, Department of Medicine University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Bolland: In a meta-analysis of 20 randomized clinical trials, there was no effect of vitamin D with or without calcium on falls.  In a trial sequential analysis of these trials, the effect estimate for vitamin D with or without calcium on falls lay within the futility boundary, providing reliable evidence that vitamin D supplementation does not alter the relative risk of falls by ≥15% and suggesting that future trials that are similar in design to current trials are unlikely to change that conclusion.