Physical Activity and Abnormal Blood Glucose Among Healthy Weight Adults

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Arch G. Mainous III, PhD  HSRMP Department Chair Florida Blue Endowed Professor of Health Administration University of Florida Health

Dr. Arch G. Mainous III

Arch G. Mainous III, PhD
HSRMP Department Chair
Florida Blue Endowed Professor of Health Administration
University of Florida Health

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: As our post-industrial society becomes more and more sedentary, there is a concern that a lack of activity is associated with poor health outcomes like diabetes. At the same time, the medical community has a strong focus on determining whether patients are overweight or obese as a way to classify them as  being at higher risk for poor health outcomes. However, individuals at a “healthy weight” in general, are considered to be at low risk. Some recent studies have shown that many individuals at “healthy weight” are not metabolically healthy. How then might we predict who at “healthy weight” would be unhealthy? We hypothesized that individuals at “healthy weight” who had a sedentary lifestyle would be more likely to have prediabetes or undiagnosed diabetes.

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Fewer Workout Repetitions May Be At Least As Beneficial For Health Benefits

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Niels Vollaard Lecturer in Health and Exercise Science Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport Scotland's University

Dr Niels Vollaard

Dr Niels Vollaard
Lecturer in Health and Exercise Science
Faculty of Health Sciences and Sport
Scotland’s University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Although the health benefits of regular exercise are undisputable, many people do not manage to achieve the minimum recommended amount of exercise. Because lack of time is a commonly identified reason for not doing enough exercise, over the past decade researchers have increasingly focussed on sprint interval training (SIT) as a time-efficient alternative to aerobic exercise. However, while most SIT protocols do indeed only include a short duration of sprint exercise, they also require recovery periods after each sprint. Therefore, the total training time commitment per session tends to be close to half an hour, which is no less than what is recommended for less strenuous moderate intensity exercise.

To date, most sprint interval training studies have used the protocol that was employed in one of the first studies to look at aerobic adaptations following repeated sprints. This protocol consists of 6 repetitions of 30-second ‘all-out’ sprints. Very few studies have attempted to justify why this number of sprint repetitions would be optimal or even appropriate. Nonetheless, the number of sprint repetitions is of clear importance, as fewer sprints would result in more time-efficient training sessions. Thus, recent years have seen increasing interest in the benefits of SIT protocols with fewer sprints, which makes the protocol shorter and easier. However, up to now it remained unclear what the impact is of the number of sprint repetitions on key markers of health, such as maximal aerobic fitness (VO2max). This is of importance, as VO2max is the best predictor of risk of future disease and premature death.

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45 Minutes of Exercise Per Week Maintains Function in Adults With Arthritis

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dorothy D. Dunlop Ph.D. Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine Institute for Public Health and Medicine Center for Healthcare Studies Chicago, IL 60611

Dr. Dorothy Dunlop

Dorothy D. Dunlop Ph.D.
Professor of Medicine and Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine
Institute for Public Health and Medicine
Center for Healthcare Studies
Chicago, IL 60611 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

 

  • We know is being active is good for health.
  • Good evidence supports the current federal guidelines of doing 150 minutes of moderate physical activity each week to prevent serious conditions such as heart disease
  • But only 1 in 10 older US adults with arthritis in their lower limb joints (e.g., knees) meet federal physical activity guidelines
  • Inadequate physical activity is a major public health concern because It can lead to poor function, which threatens a person’s ability to live independently.

These issues motivated our study to investigate the minimum time commitment needed to improve function (or sustain high function) for adults with lower joint osteoarthritis.

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“Weekend Warriors” Reduce Mortality From Heart Disease and Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Gary O’Donovan, Ph.D. Research Associate: Exercise as Medicine School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine Loughborough University

Dr. Gary O’Donovan,

Gary O’Donovan, Ph.D.
Research Associate: Exercise as Medicine
School of Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences
National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine
Loughborough University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study was inspired by the classic Harvard University study of weekend warriors. It was a privilege to work with Professor I-Min Lee, one of the authors of the classic study. Our study was much larger than the classic study.

With greater statistical power, we found that, compared with inactive adults, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, and cancer mortality risks were significantly lower in weekend warriors who performed the recommended amount of 150 minutes of moderate or 75 minutes of vigorous activity in one or two sessions per week. Our study extends the classic study by showing that the benefits of the weekend warrior physical activity pattern are much the same in men and women.

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Non-Exercise Algorithm Predicts Fitness and Lifestyle-Related Disease

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Bjarne M. Nes, PhD
K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in
Medicine, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Trondheim, Norway.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It is well known that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk. Still, fitness levels are rarely measured in clinical practice, likely because of costly and time-consuming procedures that requires quite a lot of training.

Therefore, we wanted to test the ability of a simple estimation of fitness, from a so-called non-exercise algorithm, to identify individuals at high and low risk of cardiovascular mortality. We tested fitness alone and in combination with traditional risk factors such as high blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking and family history of heart disease and diabetes, among 38,480 men and women from the Nord-Trondelag Health Study in Norway. We found that estimated fitness strongly predicts premature deaths from all causes and that traditional clinical risk factors added little above and beyond fitness in terms of predicting risk.

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High Fitness Level Can Reduce Cardiovascular Risk of Prolonged Daily Sitting

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ulrik Wisløff, PhD Professor, Head of K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in Medicine Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging Norwegian University of Science and Technology Norway

Dr. Ulrik Wisløff

Ulrik Wisløff, PhD
Professor, Head of K.G. Jebsen Center for Exercise in Medicine
Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging
Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Norway

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Prolonged time spent sedentary on a daily basis is detrimental for general health and is associated with increased risk of developing and dying from lifestyle related diseases such as cardiovascular disease – even in those following todays advice for physical activity given by health authorities worldwide. Number of hours spent inactive tend to increase with increased age. A person’s fitness level is regarded the best predictor of future health. We tested, in older adults (aged 70-77 years old) whether meeting physical activity recommendations and/or having high age-specific fitness level attenuated the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on cardiovascular risk factor clustering.

Main finding was that high age-specific fitness level fully attenuated the adverse effect of prolonged sedentary time on clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, independent of meeting the physical activity recommendation in older adults.

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Exercise and Pregnancy in Recreational and Elite Athletes Reviewed

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Kari Bø PhD Norwegian School of Sport Sciences Oslo, Norway

Prof. Kari Bø

Prof. Kari Bø PhD
Norwegian School of Sport Sciences
Oslo, Norway

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background is that more and more female elite athletes continue to exercise into their 30s and beyond and more want to become pregnant and some to continue to compete at the same level after giving birth.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Response: To date there is little scientific knowledge on elite athletes and others who perform strenuous exercise (eg women in the military) during pregnancy and after childbirth and we therefore have to be cautious when recommending intensity levels of both endurance and strength training exercise. However, given the knowledge we have now.

  • Elite athletes planning pregnancy may consider reducing high impact training routines in the week after ovulation and refraining from repetitive heavy lifting regimens during the first trimester as some evidence suggests increased miscarriage risk.
  • There is little risk of abnormal fetal heart rate response when elite athletes exercise at <90% of their maximal heart rates in the second and third trimesters.
  • Baby birthweights of exercising women are less likely to be excessively large (>4000g) and not at increased risk of being excessively small (<2500g).
  • Exercise does not increase the risk of preterm birth.
  • Exercise during pregnancy does not increase the risk of induction of labour, epidural anesthesia, episiotomy or perineal tears, forceps or vacuum deliveries.
  • There is some encouraging evidence that the first stage of labour (before full dilatation) is shorter in exercising women.
  • There is also some encouraging evidence that exercise throughout pregnancy may reduce the need for caesarean section.

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Do People Wearing Activity Trackers Really Exercise More?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Aarti Sahasranaman, PhD
Duke-NUS Gradaute Medical School
Singapore

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: More than half of adults in developed countries do not achieve recommended levels of physical activity. Despite the popularity of activity trackers as a tool for motivating and monitoring activity levels, little research exists on whether they can help people lead healthier lives, or if financial incentives could encourage people to wear them for longer and achieve higher fitness levels. One in ten US adults owns an activity tracker but research suggests that about a third of people abandon them within 6 months of purchase.

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Poor Fitness Second Only To Smoking As Mortality Risk

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Per Ladenvall Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy University of Gothenburg Sweden

Dr. Ladenvall

Dr Per Ladenvall
Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Sahlgrenska Academy
University of Gothenburg
Sweden

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Aerobic capacity has been shown in other studies with shorter duration to be of importance for mortality. In the 1963 a population based study including every third man living in Gothenburg started. These men have since been followed up repeatedly until 100 years. For the present analysis men were invited to do a bicycle exercise test in 1967 and were followed up to 99 years.

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Maintaining Aerobic Fitness Linked Decreased Risk of Premature Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jari Laukkanen MD, PhD Cardiologist Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition University of Eastern Finland Kuopio Finland

Dr. Jari Laukkanen

Jari Laukkanen MD, PhD
Cardiologist
Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition
University of Eastern Finland
Kuopio Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In this population-based study we found a strong inverse association between long-term change in directly measured cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF), using maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and all-cause mortality. A small decrease in CRF over 11-years was associated with a lower risk of all-cause death in a graded fashion. The observed association was independent of risk factors. This population-based study with repeated and direct assessment of CRF using a very similar time-interval for all participants, whereas some previous studies showing the value of CRF were constructed on participants referred to exercise testing at varying time-intervals between two repeated tests using only indirect cardio-respiratory fitness assessment or other exercise scores.

Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed at baseline and follow-up using respiratory gas analyzer which is a golden standard for assessing aerobic fitness level. A single assessment of CRF predicts outcomes, however, no previous studies using directly measured VO2max have shown the association between long term changes in VO2max (i.e. 10 years) and its association with mortality. In the recent study VO2max defined from respirator gases with similar time-interval between two separate assessments of VO2max (=directly measured). This is a very novel finding in the field of exercise sciences, as well as in cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation.

Although cardio-respiratory fitness is recognized as an important marker of functional ability and cardiovascular health, it is currently the major risk factor that is not routinely and regularly assessed in either the general or specialized clinical setting, although it is suggested that an individual’s CRF level has been even a stronger or similar predictor of mortality than the traditional risk factors, including smoking, hypertension, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

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Children With Atopic Diseases Are Less Physically Active

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH Assistant Professor in Dermatology Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Jonathan Silverberg

Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH
Assistant Professor in Dermatology
Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Dr. Silverberg: We previously demonstrated that children with atopic disease have higher cardiovascular risk. One possible explanation for this association is that children with atopic disease are more sedentary. Indeed, children with atopic disease have a number of risk factors for sedentary behavior, including poor sleep and flaring of asthma and eczema from vigorous activity.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Dr. Silverberg: We found that children with asthma had decreased vigorous physical activity and less sports participation. In particular, severe atopic disease and atopic disease accompanied by sleep disturbance were associated with less vigorous physical activity or participation in sports and more time watching television and playing video games.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

Dr. Silverberg: Asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever are chronic diseases can negatively impact children’s health behaviors. This study demonstrates that children with atopic disease are less physically active and more sedentary. It is important for clinician’s to recognize the effects of these disorders.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Dr. Silverberg: Asthma, atopic dermatitis and hay fever are chronic diseases can negatively impact children’s health behaviors. This study demonstrates that children with atopic disease are less physically active and more sedentary. It is important for clinician’s to recognize the effects of these disorders.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Atopic Disease in United States Children

Strom, Mark A. et al.
The Journal of Pediatrics , Volume 0 , Issue 0

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.03.063

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

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Matching Genotype to Training Program Improves Performance

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Nicholas Jones BSc (Hons) MSc ISAK CSCS ASCC
DNA Sports Performance Ltd Director

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Coaches and trainers all know that individuals can respond differently to the same stimulus. One person may be a super responder to X training method, another may be a none-responder to the very same training method. The reasons for this have never been fully explained, however genetics have been discussed and thought to play a role for some time.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: At the beginning of the eight weeks of training, the participants were set two fitness tests to measure their power and endurance. Power was measured by a countermovement jump (CMJ) and endurance by an aerobic three minute cycle test (known as Aero3).

After eight weeks, those whose training had been matched to their genes improved their CMJ power test of 7.4% compared to just a 2.6% increase in the mismatched group. In the cycle endurance test, those who trained to their genetic strengths saw an average 6.2% improvement compared to 2.3% for the mismatched group.

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