Men and African Americans More Likely To Transition to Hypertension At Younger Age

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Shakia Hardy, MPH, CPH. PhD

Dr. Hardy

Shakia Hardy, MPH, CPH. PhD
Department of Epidemiology
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous studies characterizing blood pressure levels across the life course have relied on prevalence estimates at a given age.

Our study was interested in identifying critical ages at which net transitions between levels of blood pressure occurred. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012) to estimate age-, race-, and sex-specific annual net transition probabilities between ideal blood pressure, prehypertension and hypertension.

We found that African Americans and men were more likely to transition from ideal levels of blood pressure in childhood or early adulthood compared to white Americans and women, which puts them at increased risk of developing prehypertension and hypertension earlier in life.

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Intensive Systolic Blood Pressure Control Would Risk Side Effects But Save Lives

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Adam Bress, PharmD, MS. Assistant Professor, Population Health Sciences Division of Health System Innovation and Research University of Utah

Dr. Adam Bress

Dr. Adam Bress, PharmD, MS.
Assistant Professor, Population Health Sciences
Division of Health System Innovation and Research
University of Utah

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

  • Observational studies show a strong and graded association between higher blood pressure, beginning at 115 mm Hg systolic, and increased cardiovascular disease events.
  • Despite this, hypertension is diagnosed and treated among people with a blood pressure threshold, typically 140/90 mm Hg SBP/DBP.
  •  Until recently, randomized trials did not provide definitive evidence supporting lower SBP goals in high-risk sub-populations.
  • The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial showed that among U.S. adults at high cardiovascular disease risk but without diabetes, stroke, or heart failure, treating to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg compared to the standard goal of 120 mm Hg compared to the standard goal of <140 mm Hg, resulted in a 27 % reduction in all-cause mortality.
  • However, intensive treatment cause a higher rate of treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs).

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

  • To quantify the potential benefits and risks of SPRINT intensive goal implementation, we estimated the deaths prevented and excess SAEs incurred if the SPRINT intensive SBP goal (i.e., – Based on population estimates of U.S adults that would have been eligible for the SPRINT trial and their observed 5-year mortality rate and the treatment effects observed in SPRINT, we found that if intensive treatment is widely adopted and achieved in all of these people, about 100,000 deaths per year could be prevented.
  • It could also give rise to about 56,100 episodes of hypotension, 34,400 episodes of syncope, 43,400 serious electrolyte disorders, and 88,700 cases of acute kidney injury per year compared to standard blood pressure treatment.

MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report?

  • The public health impact of wide-spread implementation of intensive blood pressure treatment in the right patients is large.
  • However, careful patient selection and implementation are important because intensive treatment is associated with increased risk of hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, and acute kidney injury.

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

  • More research is needed to determine which patients derive the largest absolute benefit from intensive blood pressure treatment in order to maximize health benefits and minimize harms.
  • Research and development of tools to enhance shared decision making between providers and patients is also needed to maximize the positive public health impact of intensive blood pressure treatment.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: I am a member of the SPRINT Research Group

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Circulation. 2017 Feb 13. pii: CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025322. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.025322. [Epub ahead of print]
Potential Deaths Averted and Serious Adverse Events Incurred from Adoption of the SPRINT Intensive Blood Pressure Regimen in the U.S.: Projections from NHANES.
Bress AP1, Kramer H2, Khatib R3, Beddhu S4, Cheung AK4, Hess R5, Bansal VK6, Cao G3, Yee J7, Moran AE8, Durazo-Arvizu RA3, Muntner P9, Cooper RS3

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Over 100 Genetic Signals Influence Blood Pressure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Helen R Warren PhD</strong> Analysis, Statistics, Genetic Epidemiology Queen Mary, University of London

Dr. Helen Warren

Helen R Warren PhD
Analysis, Statistics, Genetic Epidemiology
Queen Mary, University of London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study analysed data from UK Biobank, which is a large cohort including over 500,000 male and female participants from across the UK, aged 40-69 years. We performed a genetic association study for blood pressure, which analysed ~140,000 individuals of European ancestry (as currently interim genetic data is only available for ~150,000 participants).

Our study identified 107 genetic regions associated with blood pressure, which had not been previously reported at the time of our analysis. All our new findings were robustly validated within independent replication data resources, comprising a large, total sample size of up to 420,000 individuals.

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Hypertension in Pregnancy Linked To Early Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Lauren Theilen, MD

Obstetrics/Gynecology specialist
Salt Lake City, Utah.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Women with a history of hypertensive disease of pregnancy are known to have increased risk of mortality from cardiovascular and other causes.

Our study shows that hypertensive disease of pregnancy is strongly associated with deaths due to diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The association is strongest for early mortality – deaths occurring before age 50 – and life expectancy decreases with increasing number of affected pregnancies.

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Hypertension Is Global Risk For Disability and Premature Death

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Gregory Roth MD Assistant Professor of Medicine Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and Division of Cardiology at the University of Washington

Dr. Gregory Roth

Dr. Gregory Roth MD
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation and
Division of Cardiology at the University of Washington

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The number of people in the world with high blood pressure has doubled in the past two decades, putting billions at an increased risk for heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. In the current study, we aimed to estimate the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) over 115 mm Hg, as well as SBP over 140 mm Hg, a condition known as hypertension, and the burden of different causes of death and health burden for 195 countries and territories over time.

In 2015, an estimated 3.5 billion adults had systolic blood pressure of at least 110 to 115 mm Hg, and 874 million adults had SBP of 140 mm Hg or higher. In addition, the rate of elevated SBP increased substantially between 1990 and 2015, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and deaths associated with elevated systolic blood pressure also increased.

Countries of lower developmental status – measured by the Socio-demographic Index (SDI) – saw greater increases in the number of deaths linked to elevated SBP than the most developed countries. The largest percent increase in elevated systolic blood pressure deaths between 1990 and 2015 occurred in low-middle countries (107%), and the most deaths occurred in high-middle SDI counties (2,844,499 deaths).

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Compared To Other Blood Pressure Medications Diuretics Have Bone Protective Effect

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Joshua I. Barzilay, MD Kaiser Permanente of Georgia Duluth, GA 30096

Dr. Joshua I. Barzilay

Joshua I. Barzilay, MD
Kaiser Permanente of Georgia
Duluth, GA 30096

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Hypertension (HTN) and osteoporosis (OP) are age-related disorders. Both increase rapidly in prevalence after age 65 years. Prior retrospective, post hoc studies have suggested that thiazide diuretics may decrease the risk of osteoporosis. These studies, by their nature, are open to bias. Moreover, these studies have not examined the effects of other anti HTN medications on osteoporosis.

Here we used a prospective blood pressure study of ~5 years duration to examine the effects of a thiazide diuretic, a calcium channel blocker and an ACE inhibitor on hip and pelvic fractures. We chose these fractures since they are almost always associated with hospitalization and thus their occurrence can be verified.

After the conclusion of the study we added another several years of follow up by querying medicare data sets for hip and pelvic fractures in those participants with medicare coverage after the study conclusion.

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Increased Aortic Stiffness May Explain Elevated Hypertension Risk in African Americans

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Wanpen Vongpatanasin, M.D. Professor of Medicine Norman & Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension Fredric L. Coe Professorship in Nephrolithiasis and Mineral Metabolism Research Director, Hypertension Section, Cardiology Division, UT Southwestern Medical Center Dallas, TX 75390-8586

Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin

Wanpen Vongpatanasin, M.D.
Professor of Medicine
Norman & Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension
Fredric L. Coe Professorship in Nephrolithiasis and Mineral Metabolism Research
Director, Hypertension Section,
Cardiology Division,
UT Southwestern Medical Center
Dallas, TX 75390-8586

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Aortic stiffness is known to be associated with cardiovascular disease, including heart attack, stroke, and heart failure, possibly related to increase afterload to the left ventricle. Previous studies have not directly assessed proximal aortic function among ethnic minorities in the United States. We evaluated the multiethnic, population-based Dallas Heart Study participants (N=2544, 54.2% women, 49.7% Black) who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) at 1.5 Tesla. Aortic stiffness and characteristic impedance (Zc) were determined from aortic arch PWV and lumen area measurements. Linear regression was used to evaluate ethnic differences in proximal aortic wall stiffness using aortic arch PWV and Zc as dependent variables with and without adjustment for traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

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Lower Salt Intake Linked To Decreased Blood Pressure, Heart Disease and Mortality

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Nancy Cook ScD Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Professor in the Department of Epidemiology Harvard T.H. Chan School Public Health Brigham & Women’s Hospital Division of Preventive Medicine Boston, MA 0221

Dr. Nancy Cook

Nancy Cook ScD
Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School
Professor in the Department of Epidemiology
Harvard T.H. Chan School Public Health
Brigham & Women’s Hospital Division of Preventive Medicine
Boston, MA 02215

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The association of sodium intake with later mortality has been controversial. While there is a well-accepted effect on blood pressure, the effects of sodium on later cardiovascular disease, and particularly mortality, have been subject to dispute. While the adverse effects of high sodium are now widely accepted, effects at lower levels of sodium intake are less clear. Some recent studies have found a J-shaped relationship, with increased disease rates among those consuming lower levels of sodium, contrary to the effects on blood pressure.

In contrast, we found a direct linear relationship of usual intake of sodium with later mortality over 20 years of follow-up. Those with the lowest sodium intake experienced the lowest mortality. Our measure of intake was based on the average over 1-3 years of several measures of 24hr urine sodium excretion, the gold standard of sodium measurement. This is much more precise than measurements based on a single 24hr sodium excretion or especially on a spot urine sample, which is used in many publications that found the J-shaped curve. Our data were assessed in a healthy cohort of men and women without hypertension or cardiovascular disease, so had less potential bias due to these factors. We thus believe that our results showing the lowest mortality among those consuming the lowest levels of sodium are more accurate.

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Large fluctuations in blood pressure associated with higher risk of heart disease and kidney failure

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Elvira Gosmanova MD Department of Nephrology University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis TN, 38163

Dr. Elvira Gosmanova

Elvira Gosmanova MD
Department of Nephrology
University of Tennessee Health Science Center
Memphis TN, 38163

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: It has been long known that elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for numerous adverse health-related outcomes. However, the majority of individuals do not have blood pressure in a constant range.

In contrary, blood pressure measured in the same individual tends to fluctuate over time. Moreover, some individuals have more blood pressure fluctuation, as compared with others. The impact of fluctuation in blood pressure is still poorly understood. Smaller studies suggested that increased fluctuation in blood pressure may be associated with hazardous health outcomes. However, large scale studies were still lacking. Therefore, we conducted a study involving close to 3 million US veterans to investigate the association of increased visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure (which was our measure of fluctuation of blood pressure over time) and all-cause mortality, and incident coronary heart disease, stroke, and end-stage renal disease.

We found that there was strong and graded increase in the risk of all the above outcomes with increasing visit-to-visit variability of systolic blood pressure.

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Intensive Blood Pressure Control of More Americans Could Further Reduce Annual Mortality Rate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Holly Mattix-Kramer, MD, MPH</strong> Public Health Sciences Medicine, Nephrology Associate Professor Loyola Medicine, Illinois

Dr. Holly Mattix-Kramer

Holly Mattix-Kramer, MD, MPH
Public Health Sciences
Medicine, Nephrology
Associate Professor
Loyola Medicine, Illinois

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background is that the Systolic Blood Pressure Lowering Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that intensive systolic blood pressure lowering reduces all-cause mortality by 27% compared to standard blood pressure lowering among adults age 50 years and older without diabetes or stroke but with high cardiovascular disease risk. We applied these findings to the U.S. population and asked “What if intensive systolic blood pressure lowering were applied to the U.S. population who meet SPRINT eligibility criteria?

We found that approximately 18.1 million U.S. adults meet SPRINT criteria and that their annual mortality rate is 2.2%. If intensive systolic blood pressure lowering reduces all-cause mortality by 27%, then the annual mortality rate would be reduced to 1.6% and approximately 107,500 deaths would be prevented each year.

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Intensive Blood Pressure Management Found To Be Cost Effective

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ilana B. Richman, MD Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Palo Alto, California Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research/Center for Health Policy Department of Medicine Stanford University School of Medicine Stanford, California

Dr. Ilana B. Richman

Ilana B. Richman, MD
Palo Alto VA Health Care System, Palo Alto, California
Center for Primary Care and Outcomes Research/Center for Health Policy
Department of Medicine
Stanford University School of Medicine
Stanford, California

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: In November of 2015, researchers published results from the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT). This large, NIH-funded study compared a systolic blood pressure target of 120 mm Hg vs 140 mm Hg among hypertensive, nondiabetic patients at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. SPRINT reported a 25% reduction in the rate of cardiovascular disease and death among those treated to a lower target. Those treated to a lower target blood pressure, though, experienced certain adverse events more frequently.

Our cost effectiveness analysis asked two questions: given the potential risks and benefits described in SPRINT, does achieving a lower systolic blood pressure result in net benefit over the course of a lifetime? And if it does, how much would it cost, compared to standard treatment? We found that achieving a lower blood pressure target does result in a net benefit, with a gain of about 0.9 years of life (quality adjusted) among those treated to a lower target compared to those treated to a standard target. This gain, though, required some investment. We found that treating to a lower blood pressure target cost $23,777 per quality-adjusted life year gained. Compared to other commonly used interventions here in the US, this would be considered an excellent value.

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Controversy Over Salt Content Continues

Salt-SodiumMedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Prof Andrew Mente PhD
Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University
Hamilton, Canada

MedicalResearch.com Editor’s Note:  Dr. Mente discusses his Lancet publication regarding salt intake below.  Dr. Mente’s findings are disputed by the American Heart Association (AHA).  A statement from the AHA follows Dr. Mente’s comments.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Prof. Mente: Several prospective cohort studies have recently reported that both too little and too much sodium intake is associated with cardiovascular disease or mortality. Whether these associations vary between those individuals with and without high blood pressure (hypertension) is unknown.

We found that low sodium intake (below 3 g/day), compared to average intake (3 to 6 g/day), is associated with more cardiovascular events and mortality, both in those with high blood pressure and in those without high blood pressure. So following the guidelines would put you at increased risk, compared to consuming an sodium at the population average level, regardless of whether you have high blood pressure or normal blood pressure.

High sodium intake (above 6 g/day) compared to average intake, was associated with harm, but only in people with high blood pressure (no association in people without high blood pressure).

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