Ornamental Bromeliad Plants Contribute to Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
“Bromeliad” by Selena N. B. H. is licensed under CC BY 2.0André Wilke, Ph.D.
Post Doctoral Associate
Division of Environment & Public Health
Department of Public Health Sciences
University of Miami Miller School of Medicine
Clinical Research Building
Miami, Florida 33136

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: As vector-borne diseases pose an increasing public health threat to communities in South Florida and elsewhere, a new study led by public health researchers at the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine has revealed that ornamental bromeliad plants contribute to breeding of the Aedes aegypti mosquito—a key culprit for the Zika outbreak that hit Miami-Dade County and other areas of Florida and the Americas in 2016.

In addition to Zika, bites from the Aedes aegypti mosquito can cause dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya. Zika has been linked to microcephaly and other birth defects in unborn babies when pregnant women contract the disease. The family of diseases linked to the Aedes aegypti can cause other severe symptoms. Yellow fever can be fatal.

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What Causes Failures in Personal Protective Equipment Use in Hospitals?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sarah L. Krein, PhD, RN Research Career Scientist VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System Ann Arbor, MI 

Sarah L. Krein, PhD, RN
Research Career Scientist
VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System
Ann Arbor, MI

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: We conducted this study to better understand the challenges faced by health care personnel when trying to follow transmission based precaution practices while providing care for hospitalized patients.  We already know from other studies that there are breaches in practice but our team was interested in better understanding why and how those breaches (or failures) occur so we can develop better strategies to ensure the safety of patients and health care personnel.

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What Do We Find Disgusting? and Why?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
rat- wikipedia imageMícheál de Barra, PhD

Lecturer in Psychology
Brunel University London

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Disgust has been called the “intuitive microbiologist”  – it tracks the sources of infection in our environment. But so far, there has been little attempt to link the sources of disgust to the sources of infectious disease in a comprehensive way. So we developed a method for developing stimuli based on a random sample illness.

We basically asked ourselves what the kinds of cues that might be associated with that kind of disease risk and asked people to rate disgust responses. The main motive for this was to contribute to a debate in the literature about if there are “kinds of disgust” and if so, how many. I results were a little ambiguous there I’m afraid.

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Widely Use Antibacterial in Hand Sanitizers and Toothpaste Can Attack Biofilms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher M. Waters PhD Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics BEACON Center for The Study of Evolution in Actio Michigan State University East Lansing, MI 

Dr. Waters

Christopher M. Waters PhD
Departments of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics
BEACON Center for The Study of Evolution in Actio
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research really centers on understanding and targeting bacterial biofilms. These are multicellular communities of bacteria encased in a slimy matrix that protects them from the immune system and antibiotic treatment during infections. One of the most common types of biofilm infections is in the lungs of cystic fibrosis by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CF patients can become chronically colonized by P. aeruginosa, and antibiotics are not able to clear these infections.

Our idea was can we find other molecules that make antibiotics more effective at killing biofilms? To this end, we screened about 6,000 compounds for those that would make tobramycin more effective at killing P. aeruginosa biofilms, and one of the best hits we found was the antimicrobial triclosan that has been widely used for decades in hand sanitizers, soaps, and tooth paste. Although neither triclosan nor tobramycin can kill biofilms alone, the combination is 100X more effective against virtually every P. aeruginosa strain tested. It also worked against other bacteria that commonly infect cystic fibrosis lungs such as Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cenocepacia.

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Pre-Emptive Therapy of CMV in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

 Dr-Roy F. Chemaly

Dr. Chemaly

Roy F. Chemaly, MD, MPH F.A.C.P., F.I.D.S.A.
Department of Infectious Diseases
Infection Control and Employee Health
Division of Internal Medicine
MD Anderson Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: CytomegalovirusCMV infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in allo-HCT recipients. Evidence suggests that CMV infection has not only an enormous clinical burden, but a substantial economic burden as well.

We conducted this study at MD Anderson to determine the economic and clinical burden of preemptive therapy (PET) for CMV infection. Between 2012 and 2015, 100 consecutive patients hospitalized at our institution for allo-HCT who experienced reactivation of CMV and were treated pre-emptively, were enrolled.

The majority of patients were men (55%), who had underlying leukemia (73%), and underwent matched unrelated donor transplant (59%). At the time of hospitalization, most patients had acute GvHD (62%), and were on steroids (58%) within 30 days of CMV reactivation which occurred at a median of 32 days post-HCT (2 -174). A total of 192 episodes of PET occurred in the 100 allo-HCT recipients within 1 year post-HCT. PET consisted of ganciclovir (41%), foscarnet (40%), and valganciclovir (38%). IVIG was also used as adjunct therapy in 20% of episodes.

Progression to Cytomegalovirus disease occurred in 4 patients (4%) and mainly affected the GI tract. Mean length of stay for patients treated with ganciclovir or foscarnet was 32 days (2-141) and 41 days (1-177), respectively. The average direct cost per patient admitted for PET was $126,038 ($7,866-$641,841) and the mean cost of CMV antiviral drug per hospitalization was $6,096 for IVIG, $2,410 for foscarnet, $836 for ganciclovir, and $780 for valganciclovir.

Serious side effects from PET were observed in 35% of patients on ganciclovir and 12% of patients on foscarnet. Total direct cost per encounter was significantly higher in patients who had serious side effects from foscarnet. All-cause mortality was 59% at 1 year post-transplant.

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New Cephalosporin Combination Tested for Complicated Sepsis Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Becky Jayakumar, PharmD College of Pharmacy Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice Roseman University of Health Sciences

Dr. Jayakumar

Becky Jayakumar, PharmD
College of Pharmacy
Assistant Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Roseman University of Health Sciences

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Bacteremia (bloodstream infections) due to Gram-negative (GN) bacteria are a frequent cause of severe sepsis and pose serious therapeutic challenges due to multidrug-resistance (MDR). Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T) is a novel antipseudomonal cephalosporin combined with an established β-lactamase inhibitor.

This retrospective, observational study evaluated the clinical outcomes of C/T real-world use in severely ill patients. Twenty-two patients with sepsis and/or bacteremia were included; 95% of whom had Pseudomonas aeruginosa that was resistant to almost all antibacterials with the exception of colistin. C/T successfully treated the majority of these complicated patients. In this real-world study, 77% of patients had a clinical response with C/T and 75% had a microbiological response. Clinical success rates were high and mortality rates were similar to other studies in this severely ill population. Continue reading

Merck Tests New Antibiotic Combination For Hard to Treat Bacterial Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Amanda Paschke, MD, MSCE Senior principal scientist Infectious disease clinical research Merck Research Laboratories

Dr.Amanda  Paschke

Amanda Paschke, MD, MSCE
Senior principal scientist
Infectious disease clinical research
Merck Research Laboratories

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This study sought to evaluate a new beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor antibacterial combination, imipenem/relebactam (IMI/REL), compared with colistin plus imipenem for the treatment of infections caused by resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

Patients enrolled in the trial had hospital-acquired or ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP), complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAI), or complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) caused by pathogens that were non susceptible to imipenem, a carbapenem antibacterial.

In this study, the primary outcome was a favorable overall response to treatment, which was comparable between the IMI/REL vs colistin + IMI arms. Colistin (often combined with a carbapenem) is currently among the standard of care treatment regimens for MDR infections.  A key secondary endpoint of the study was safety.  IMI/REL was well tolerated; among all treated patients, drug-related adverse events (AEs) occurred in 16.1% of IMI/REL and 31.3% of colistin + IMI patients with treatment-emergent nephrotoxicity observed in 10% (3/29 patients) and 56% (9/16 patients), respectively (p=0.002). Results of the trial support the use of imipenem-relebactam (IMI/REL) as an efficacious and well-tolerated treatment option for carbapenem-resistant infections.  Continue reading

How a PET Can Save Your Heart

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr-W-Robert-Taylor

Dr. Taylor

Robert Taylor, MD, PhD
Marcus Chair in Vascular Medicine
Executive Vice Chair, Medicine
Director, Division of Cardiology
Professor of Medicine and
Biomedical Engineering
Emory University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The early identification and localization of bacterial infections is a critical step for initiating effective treatment.   This is particularly challenging in the setting of infections associated with implanted medical devices.  We have developed a highly specific probe for bacteria that is based on the fact that bacteria have a specific system for taking up maltodextrins which are polysaccharides that mammalian cells cannot take up directly.  We can label this probe with either a fluorescent of radioactive tag that allows visualization of the bacteria.

In the current article, we have used an animal model of implantable cardiac devices to demonstrate that our probe is very specific and sensitive for detecting bacterial infections.  It is worth noting that these are subclinical infections that could not be detected by any other means except for surgical removal.

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Very High ‘Good Cholesterol’ HDL Linked To Increased Risk of Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Børge G. Nordestgaard, MD, DMSc Professor, University of Copenhagen Chief Physician, Dept. Clinical Biochemistry Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark

Prof. Nordestgaard

Børge G. Nordestgaard, MD, DMSc
Professor, University of Copenhagen
Chief Physician, Dept. Clinical Biochemistry
Herlev and Gentofte Hospital
Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: For decades research into the role and function of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has revolved around the believe that HDL protects against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, results from large genetic studies and from large randomized clinical trials with HDL cholesterol elevating drugs have all indicated that there is no causal association between HDL cholesterol and risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

Given the hitherto strong focus on cardiovascular disease, little is known about the possible role of HDL in other aspects of human health and disease. Preclinical evidence has indicated that HDL might be of importance for normal function of the immune system and susceptibility to infectious disease, but it had never previously been investigated if levels of HDL cholesterol is associated with the risk of infectious disease in individuals from the general population. In the present study we tested this hypothesis in more than 100.000 Danes from the population at large.

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Combination Meropenem-Vaborbactam (Vabomere) Successfully Treats Complicated Urinary Tract Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Keith S. Kaye, MD, MPH Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases University of Michigan Medical School Ann Arbor MI 

Dr. Kaye

Keith SKayeMD, MPH
Professor of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases
University of Michigan Medical School
Ann Arbor MI 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Complicated complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI), including acute pyelonephritis, are a major cause of hospital admissions, and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality and can be difficult to treat. While the most common pathogen is Escherichia coli, the more problematic pathogens are multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative organisms including other Enterobacteriaceae species. The prevalence of cUTI due to MDR gram-negative bacteria has risen. In some instances, MDR gram-negative bacteria isolated from the urinary tract can cause bacteremia.

Vabomere was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in August 2017 for the treatment of adult patients with cUTI, including pyelonephritis, caused by designated susceptible Enterobacteriaceae: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae species complex.   Vabomere is a fixed-dose (2g/2g) combination product of a carbapenem and a β-lactamase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), an important MDR organism associated with serious infections.

The Targeting Antibiotic Non-susceptible Gram-negative Organisms (TANGO I) trial was the pivotal Phase 3 study that compared the efficacy and safety of Vabomere to piperacillin-tazobactam in the treatment of patients with cUTI and acute pyelonephritis.

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