Author Interviews, C. difficile, Probiotics / 24.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Nicole Shen New York-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical College MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Shen: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a persistent, healthcare associated infection with significant morbidity and mortality that costs the US billions of dollars annually. Prevention is imperative, particularly for patients at high risk for infection – hospitalized adults taking antibiotics. Trials have suggested probiotics may be useful in preventing CDI. We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis in this high-risk population, hospitalized adults receiving antibiotics, to evaluate the current evidence for probiotic use for prevention of CDI. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Hospital Acquired, Infections, Surgical Research / 22.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Luis Nombela-Franco, MD, PhD Structural cardiology program. Interventional Cardiology department. Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Cardiovascular Institute Madrid, Spain (Dr. Nombela-Franco, has a special interest in interest on percutaneous treatment of structural heart disease and coronary interventions with special focus on chronic total occlusion) MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Nombela-Franco: In-hospital infections are one of the most common complications that may occur following medical and surgical admissions, significantly impacted length of hospital stay, costs and clinical outcomes. In addition, approximately one third of hospital-acquired infections are preventable. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is currently the standard of care for symptomatic patients with severe aortic stenosis deemed at high surgical risk or inoperable. Patients undergoing TAVR have several comorbidities and the invasive (although less invasive the surgical treatment) nature of the procedure and peri-operative care confers a high likelihood in-hospital infections in such patients. This study analyzed the incidence, predictive factors and impact of in-hospital infections in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Technology / 22.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Albert Mihranyan, PhD Pharm Professor of Nanotechnology Wallenberg Academy Fellow Nanotechnology and Functional Materials Department of Engineering Sciences Uppsala University Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mihranyan: We describe for the first time a paper filter that can remove even the worst-case viruses from water with high efficiency and at industrially relevant rates. The filter is produced from 100% naturally derived cellulose and is formed into paper sheets using very simple processing, which is essentially the same as that for making paper on a large scale. Filter paper is used ubiquitously in every day life from coffee filters to chemistry classrooms but these filters have normally too large pores to retain microbes, let alone viruses. We show for the first time that we can remove viruses as small as 20 nm! How is it possible? We use cellulose nanofibers from green algae and we possess know-how to control the distribution of the pores inside the paper to be able to remove such small particles. One important aspect, which we discuss in detail in the article, is the special internal layered structure of the filter, which is remarkably similar to French pastry mille-feuille- hence, the name mille-feuille filter. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections, Technology / 18.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sushanta K. Mitra, PhD, PEng Associate Vice-President Research Kaneff Professor in Micro & Nanotechnology for Social Innovation FCSME, FASME, FEIC, FRSC, FCAE, FAAAS Y York University Toronto  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mitra: As a mechanical engineer I got interested in the water problem when I had discussions with Tata Consultancy Services (TCS), India and the tertiary public health centre doctors near Mumbai, where the doctors had to deal with large number of patients with water-borne diseases. This was hugely a challenge from resource point of view as the doctors would much preferred to have their attention focused on more pressing diseases. They approached me about developing tools for rapid detection of water-borne pathogen in drinking water. Hence, my journey started on water quality monitoring. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Mitra: Here, we have developed a low-cost compact E. coli and total coliform detection system, which uses commercially available plunger-tube assembly. We incorporate a hydrogel (porous matrix) inside the tube so that the plunger-tube assembly act as a concentrator and a detector at the same time. Specially formulated enzymatic substrates are caged inside the hydrogel so that an E. coli cell trapped within the hydrogel will be lysed and react with the  enzymatic substrates to produce a red color. (more…)
Antibiotic Resistance, Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Infections / 16.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Andreas J. Bäumler, Ph.D Editor, Infection and Immunity Associate Editor, PLOS Pathogens Section Editor, EcoSal Plus Professor, Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology Vice Chair of Research University of California, Davis School of Medicine Davis, California   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Bäumler: Antibiotics are generally beneficial for treating bacterial infection, but paradoxically a history of antibiotic therapy is a risk factor for developing Salmonella food poisoning.  Our study reveals the mechanism by which antibiotics increase susceptibility to Salmonella infection. Antibiotics deplete beneficial microbes from the gut, which normally provide nutrition to the cells lining our large bowel, termed epithelial cells. Depletion of microbe-derived nutrients causes our epithelial cells to switch their energy metabolism from respiration to fermentation, which in turn increases the availability of oxygen at the epithelial surface. The resulting increase in oxygen diffusion into the gut lumen drives a luminal expansion of Salmonella by respiration. Through this mechanism, antibiotics help Salmonella to breath in the gut. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, Infections / 14.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabriele Messina, MD  Dr.PH  MSc Research Professor of Public Health University of Siena Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine Area of Public Health. Room: 2057 Siena, Italy MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Messina:  Studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s conferred to environmental surfaces a marginal role in the transmission of health care associated infections (HAIs). Today, it is demonstrated that several pathogens such as C. difficile, VRE (Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus) and MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) can survive even for months on inanimate surfaces. Up to 40% of HAIs can be spread by the hands of doctors and hospital staff after touching infected patient and/or contaminated surfaces; furthermore, people hospitalized in rooms previously occupied by patients infected by microorganism that can persist on surfaces present an increased  risk to develop HAIs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, OBGYNE, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 09.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Julie H. Shakib, DO, MS, MPH Assistant Professor of Pediatrics | University of Utah Medical Director | Well Baby and Intermediate Nursery Salt Lake City  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Shakib: Immunization against influenza in the first six months of life is ineffective  due to an immature immune response. Passive protection via maternal immunization offers an alternative but only a few studies have evaluated the efficacy of this immunization strategy. We found that in infants born to women immunized against influenza during pregnancy, the risk of laboratory-confirmed influenza and influenza-related hospitalization were reduced by 70% and 81% in their first 6 months of life, respectively.This large study provides more evidence that when women are immunized against influenza during pregnancy, their infants are much less likely to be diagnosed with influenza in their first 6 months. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, PLoS, Sexual Health, STD / 07.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Charu Kaushic. PhD. Professor OHTN Applied HIV Research Chair Department of Pathology and Mol. Medicine McMaster Immunology Research Center, McMaster University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Kaushic: Female sex hormones, estradiol and progesterone have been shown to regulate immune responses in many experimental and clinical studies. We and others have shown previously that these hormones also regulate susceptibility to and outcome of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including Chlamydia, HSV-2, SIV and HIV-1. Most studies show that progesterone generally increases susceptibility while estradiol generally confers protection against STIs. This has recently gained much more widespread attention because of the controversy surrounding use of injectable hormonal contraceptives in geographical areas where there is high prevalence of HIV-1. The most frequently used injectable contraceptive uses a progestin-based formulation which has been correlated with 2-fold increase in HIV acquisition and transmission in epidemiological studies. Oral contraceptives that contain a combination of estradiol and progesterone do not show similar correlation with increased infection. This is currently a very important women’s health issue, which is being carefully monitored by many public health agencies, including WHO. Many researchers are focusing efforts in understanding how sex hormones can increase or decrease susceptibility of women to STIs. We have published in this area for more than a decade, including a series of papers showing that in a mouse model, the outcome of genital herpes (HSV-2) infection can depend on which hormone we treat the mice with. A few years ago, we showed for the first time that mice that received an HSV-2 vaccine under the influence of estradiol were much better protected and showed less disease pathology (Bhavanam et al, Vaccine 2008). These results were reproduced a year later by another group, using an actual HSV-2 vaccine formulation. Since then, we have been working to understand at a cellular level, the underlying mechanism of estradiol-mediated enhanced protection. In this PLOS Pathogens paper, we report for the first time a cellular mechanism by which estradiol was seen to enhance immune protection against HSV-2 infection in mice. The main findings are that estradiol primes dendritic cells in the vaginal tract to induce enhanced anti-viral T cell responses. Dendritic cells are key immune cells that decide what type of immune responses will be mounted against an infection. Under the influence of estradiol, the dendritic cells in the vaginal tract of mice induced Th17 cells which in turn helped enhance anti-viral T cell responses (Th1), resulting in better protection against genital HSV-2. This regulation of anti-viral immunity was seen only in the reproductive tract. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, University of Pennsylvania / 06.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Robert Bonacci MPH, MD Candidate’16  University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: During the mid-2000’s, the HIV incidence rate stubbornly persisted around 50,000 infections per year. Responding to this trend, President Obama released the first comprehensive US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) in 2010. The NHAS hoped to spur a more coordinated national response and set ambitious targets for reducing HIV incidence (25 percent) and the transmission rate (30 percent), among other goals, by 2015. To evaluate whether the U.S. achieved the NHAS goals by 2015, we used mathematical models drawing on data from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) on HIV prevalence and mortality for 2007 to 2012, and our own previously published incidence estimates from 2008-2012. Changes seen from 2010 through 2012 were extrapolated for the time period 2013 through 2015. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bipolar Disorder, Infections, Johns Hopkins, Mental Health Research, Microbiome, Schizophrenia / 05.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Emily G. Severance, Ph.D Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology Department of Pediatrics Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, MD  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Severance: This research stems in part from anecdotal dialogues that we had with people with psychiatric disorders and their families, and repeatedly the issue of yeast infections came up. We found that Candida overgrowth was more prevalent in people with mental illness compared to those without psychiatric disorders and the patterns that we observed occurred in a surprisingly sex-specific manner.  The levels of IgG antibodies directed against the Candida albicans were elevated in males with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder compared to controls. In females, there were no differences in antibody levels between these groups, but in women with mental illness who had high amounts of these antibodies, we found significant memory deficits compared to those without evidence of past infection. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, JAMA / 04.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Fleming-Dutra: One of the most urgent public health threats of our time is the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The use of antibiotics is the single most important factor leading to antibiotic resistance around the world.  Simply using antibiotics creates resistance.  To combat antibiotic resistance we have to use antibiotics appropriately — only when needed and, if needed, use them correctly.  In 2015, the White House released the National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria (CARB), which set a goal for reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic use by 50% by 2020.  However, the amount of antibiotic use in the outpatient setting that is inappropriate was unknown. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Fleming-Dutra: In this study, we estimate that at least 30% of antibiotics prescribed in doctors’ offices, emergency departments and hospital-based clinics are unnecessary—meaning that no antibiotic was needed at all, which equates to 47 million unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions written annually in these outpatient settings.  Most of those unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions were written for acute respiratory conditions, a key driver of antibiotic overuse. Thus, in order to reach the White House goal of reducing inappropriate outpatient antibiotic use by 50%, a 15% reduction in overall antibiotic use in outpatient settings is needed by 2020. (more…)
AACR, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Infections / 02.05.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anala Gossai BSc, MPH PhD candidate Department of Epidemiology Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, New Hampshire and co-authors MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Gossai et al: Polyomaviruses (PyV) are potentially tumorigenic viruses in humans. However, limited data exists on the population seroprevalence or longitudinal serostability of PyVs, and individual characteristics that relate to seropositivity. Further, PyVs may be associated with the occurrence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) – one of the most common malignancies in humans with increasing incidence reported in the US. In a US nested case-control study, BK and JC seroreactivity was measured on 113 SCC cases and 229 matched controls who had a prior keratinocyte cancer. Repeated serum samples from controls, and both pre- and post-diagnosis samples from a subset ofsquamous cell carcinoma cases, were also assayed. Antibody response against each PyV type was measured using multiplex serology of recombinantly expressed VP1 capsid proteins. Among controls, BK and JC seroreactivity was stable over time, and there was little evidence of seroconversion following SCC diagnosis among cases. Odds of squamous cell carcinoma  associated with seropositivity to each PyV type were estimated using conditional logistic regression. JC seropositivity prior to diagnosis was associated with an elevated risk of SCC (OR=2.5, 95% CI: 1.2-5.2).  (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Vaccine Studies / 27.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Anna C. Phillips PhD CPsychol AFBPsS Reader in Behavioural Medicine School of Sport, Exercise & Rehabilitation Sciences University of Birmingham Edgbaston Birmingham MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Phillips: We know that various factors can affect the response to vaccination and that older adults have a poorer response than younger people, i.e. they produce fewer antibodies.  We also know that many immune messengers and important hormones have daily rhythms in their levels and wanted to test whether the antibody response to vaccination might also be affected by time of day.  We randomised surgeries to giving morning or afternoon vaccinations and tested before and one month after the vaccination for levels of antibodies. Two of the three flu strains (viruses) contained in the vaccine showed a higher antibody response in the morning than in the afternoon, up to 4 x higher to one of the strains (A/California) and 1.5 x higher to the B strain. None of the potential mechanisms we measured (immune messengers, hormones) seemed to be driving this effect. (more…)
Author Interviews, C. difficile, Hospital Acquired, JAMA, McGill / 26.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yves Longtin, MD, FRCPC Chair, Infection Prevention and Control Unit Montreal Jewish General Hospital - SMBD Associate professor of Medicine, McGill University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Longtin: Clostridium difficile is a major cause of infection in hospitalized patients. Current infection control measures to prevent the spread of C. difficile in hospitals focuses almost entirely on patients who present symptoms. Patients with symptoms of diarrhea due to C difficile are placed under isolation in hospitals (for example, healthcare workers will wear a gown and gloves when caring for them). However, many studies have shown that some patients may be asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile. These patients carry the C difficile bacteria in their digestive tract without being sick. It was known that these asymptomatic carriers could spread the bacteria to other patients, but it was unclear whether putting them into isolation would help prevent the spread of the microbe in hospitals. Our study tested the hypothesis that placing asymptomatic carriers under isolation could lead to a decrease in the number of infections with C  difficile. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Lancet / 23.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof Jean-Pierre Allain Principal Investigator, Department of Haematology University of Cambridge, Cambridge Blood Centre Cambridge UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Prof. Allain: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), 70% of the transfusions are in the form of  whole blood units (generally 1 or 2). Lack of resources limit the safety measures to donor questionnaire, viral/bacterial testing (HIV, HCV, HBV and Syphilis). Other measures used in rich countries i.e. nucleic acid testing, filtration, bacterial culture etc. are not done because of cost. Pathogen reduction would be an effective way to overcome these issues as it is able to inactivate viruses, bacteria, parasites and nucleated cells in one go, provided it is applied to whole blood and affordable. The study consisted in assessing the efficacy of such a method (Mirasol using riboflavin and UV illumination) taking inactivation of plasmodium as major endpoint of a randomised controlled clinical trial called AIMS (African Investigation of Mirasol System). (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, HPV, NYU / 18.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Adam S. Jacobson, MD Associate Professor, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Associate Director, Head and Neck Surgery NYU Langone Medical Center and Perlmutter Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com Editor’s note: Dr. Jacobson is an Otolaryngologist, an Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) physician specializing in the diagnosis of head and neck tumors and cancers, including cancers of the mouth and throat. Dr. Jacobson discussed oral (mouth) and pharyngeal (throat) cancers in recognition of Oral, Head and Neck Cancer Awareness Week. MedicalResearch.com: How prevalent is the problem of Oral, Head and Neck Cancer?  Is this type of cancer becoming more frequent? Dr. Jacobson: Oropharynx cancer is currently on the rise.  MedicalResearch.com: Have HPV-induced cancers become more common? (Note HPV or Human Papilloma Virus is a virus associated with various wart infections.) Dr. Jacobson: Yes - Specifically tonsil and base of tongue cancer. (more…)
AACR, Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Colon Cancer, HPV, MD Anderson / 16.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Van K. Morris, MD Assistant Professor, GI Medical Oncology The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Morris: Anal cancer is a very rare cancer and accounts for approximately 2% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Currently, there is no accepted standard of care for patients with metastatic disease, which raises challenges for oncologist who may not have extensive experience caring for patients with metastatic anal cancer given that there are not accepted agents to treat with. This clinical trial was the first clinical trial ever conducted for patients with stage IV disease who had received prior chemotherapy in the past. Given the well-known association with human papilloma virus (HPV) and the development of anal cancer, we were interested in the use of immunotherapy drugs as a new possible way to awaken the immune system to attack this tumor, especially as there may be viral components in the tumor cells which the immune system could potentially recognize. Nivolumab is an immunotherapy drug which has shown activity in other solid tumors like melanoma, kidney cancer, non-small cell lung cancer, and bladder cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, HPV, Kidney Disease, Transplantation, Vaccine Studies / 15.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Delphine Robotham MD Division of Pediatric Nephrology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore, Maryland Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and is almost entirely caused by high risk HPV genotypes.  Vaccines to high risk HPV genotypes have shown great success in protecting healthy women from the sequelae of infection, including cervical cancer and genital warts. Young women with a kidney transplant as well as those with chronic kidney disease have abnormal immune systems and as a result have a significantly increased burden of HPV-related disease making the potential health benefits of the HPV vaccine substantial in this particularly vulnerable population.  This study examined the immune response to the HPV vaccine among girls and young women with kidney disease. The goal of this research was to determine if girls and young women with chronic kidney disease (abnormal kidney function, on dialysis, or post kidney transplant) showed evidence of immune response to the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.  Immune response was determined by measuring the amount of antibody made by the patients against each of the 4 HPV genotypes included in the vaccine.  There are established thresholds of antibody above which patients are believed to have protection from infection.  We found that study participants with chronic kidney disease and those on dialysis had antibody levels above the threshold, indicating the vaccine should be effective in protecting them from HPV related disease.  A significant proportion of patients with kidney transplants showed evidence of inadequate antibody response.  This is important information as it means patients with a kidney transplant, whom we know are at increased risk of developing cervical cancer from HPV infection, may not be protected from HPV infections from the HPV genotypes included in the vaccine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Outcomes & Safety / 15.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Thomas C King, MD, PhD Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine Chief of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine St. Vincent Hospital Worcester, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. King: This landmark study provides a broad based, real world appraisal of the reliability of the T-SPOT®.TB test, an interferon gamma release assay (IGRA), based on results in screening workers in 19 U.S. hospitals. The large size of the study (more than 42,000 test results from more than 16,000 healthcare workers analyzed) provides a solid benchmark to assess performance of T-SPOT.TB in serial screening healthcare workers. In recent years, results from several studies have shown that there can be significant differences between using an IGRA and the tuberculin skin test (TST) in terms of accuracy and cost. Several studies have confirmed a risk of high false positive rates and numerous conversion/reversion rates when retesting patients with the TST. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, HPV, JNCI, MD Anderson / 15.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Harrys A. Torres, MD, FACP, FIDSA Associate Professor Director of Hepatitis C Clinic Department of Infectious Diseases, Infection Control and Employee Health The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center Houston TX 77030 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Torres: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an oncogenic virus and is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer and certain types of non-Hodgkin lymphomas. In 2009, at MD Anderson Cancer Center, we set up the first clinic in the United States, and probably in the world, specifically devoted to managing HCV infection in cancer patients. In the clinic, we expected to see a number of patients with liver cancers and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, as these have documented associations with HCV. Unexpectedly, we saw a high number of HCV-infected patients with head and neck cancers, and wondered whether there was an undiscovered association between having the infection and head and neck cancers. To explore this, we conducted a case-control study using 409 head and neck cancer subjects (164 oropharyngeal, 245 non-oropharyngeal [oral cavity, nasopharynx, larynx] cancers) and 694 control subjects with other smoking-associated cancers (378 lung, 168 esophagus, and 148 urinary bladder cancers), and compared the prevalence of HCV infection in the two groups. We observed a high prevalence of HCV infection in oropharyngeal (14%) and non-oropharyngeal (20%) cancer patients when compared to control subjects (6.5%). After adjusting for confounders such as smoking, alcohol intake, and socioeconomic status, HCV-infected individuals were 2.04 times more likely to have oropharyngeal cancers and 2.85 times more likely to have non-oropharyngeal cancers. Of note, HCV was associated only with patients with oropharyngeal cancers that tested positive for human papilloma virus, which is one of the main virus linked with increased risk of oropharyngeal cancers. (more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, BMJ, Radiology, Zika / 14.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria de Fatima Vasco Aragao MD, PhD Radiologist and Neuroradiologist Professor of Radiology, Mauricio de Nassau University, Recife, Brazil Scientific Director of Multimagem Radiology Clinic, Recife - PE, Brazil President of Pernambuco Radiology Society MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The new Zika virus epidemic in Brazil was recognized as starting in the first half of 2015 and the microcephaly epidemic was detected in the second half of that same year. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?
  • Response:  In our study of the 23 mothers, only one did not report rash during pregnancy (rash is a sign that can happen in Zika virus infection). However, Zika virus infection can be asymptomatic in three of every four infected patients. All of the 23 babies had the same clinical and epidemiological characteristics and other congenital infection diseases had been excluded. Of these 23 babies, six were tested for IgM antibodies, specific to Zika virus and all six proved positive. So, by deduction, the other 17 babies on whom it was not possible to make the IgM test, were considered as also having presumed congenital infection related to the Zika virus, after other congenital infections being excluded.
  • All the babies showed malformations of cortical development and sulcation.  The most frequent cortical malformation were: Microcephaly with a simplified cortical gyral pattern and areas of thick cortex of polymicrogyria or pachygyria which were located predominantly in the frontal lobes.
  • Abnormalities of the corpus callósum (hypogenesis and hypoplasia) were common.
  • Decreased brain volume was a common finding. Ventriculomegaly was present in all the babies, with a predominant enlargement of the posterior portions of the lateral ventricles,
  • Delayed myelination were also common. The cisterna magna was enlarged in most of the cases, with or without cerebellar hypoplasia.
  • Some of the babies showed a symmetrical enlargement of the anterior subarachnoid space of the supratentorial compartment, associated with severe ventriculomegaly.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Herpes Viruses, Ophthalmology / 13.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kimberly D Tran, MD Bascom Palmer Eye Institute MedicalResearch.com: What is the background and purpose for this study?  Dr. Tran: Approximately 30% of the population will suffer from herpes zoster (also known as shingles) at some point in their lifetime, with an estimated 1 million cases in the U.S. each year (1).  The most common long term complication of  herpes zoster is postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), or persistent neuropathic pain lasting beyond three months after initial presentation of  herpes zoster. PHN can negatively affect quality of life to a degree similar to congestive heart failure, depression, acute myocardial infarction,diabetes. Postherpetic neuralgia is a leading cause of suicide in patients over 70 with chronic pain.(3,4) Of all the cases of herpes zoster, an estimated 10-20% will have herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO), which is defined as shingles in the area of the face near the eye, and sometimes the eye itself becomes involved.  Approximately 50% of individuals with HZO will develop ocular complications without antiviral treatment, while antiviral induction within the first 72 hours of rash onset reduces this number to 20-30% (2). Randomized control trial has demonstrated the efficacy antiviral therapy in the treatment of herpes zoster on first presentation.(6) What is less understood is the course of HZ after its initial presentation. Traditionally studied and treated in the acute phase,(5-7) recent data suggest that some patients experience a chronic or recurrent disease course. Based on this data, it is clear that more information is needed on the long term clinical course of herpes zoster ophthalmicus. The purpose of this study was to characterize the epidemiology of recurrent and chronic HZO in a unique South Florida population, with an ethnically and racially mixed, predominately male population. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease, HIV, JAMA, Vaccine Studies / 13.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Odile Launay MD, PhD Paris Descartes University Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Cochin Hospital  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Launay: In patients with HIV infection, responses to standard HBV vaccination regimens remain suboptimal compared with responses in HIV seonegative individuals. We previously reported that alternative regimens (a 4 injection IMdouble dose regimen and a 4 injection intradermal low dose regimen) improve antibody response compared with the standard HBV vaccination regimen (ANRS HB03 VIHVAC-B study). Further precision on the duration of response achieved with alternative HBV vaccination regimes was needed. We report in this paper the results from the follow-up of the study. The results of this study show that the 4 dose IM regimen induces higher seroconversion rate but also higher long term seroprotection in HIV infected patients (more…)
Author Interviews, Hand Washing, Hospital Acquired / 12.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Jacqui Reilly PhD Institute for Applied Health Research Glasgow Caledonian University Glasgow MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Reilly: Hand hygiene is the single most important intervention to reduce avoidable illness and prevent infections. Two techniques have been reported for hand hygiene use with alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) in international guidance:  6 step by the WHO and 3 step by the Center for Disease Control. Neither of these techniques have an evidence base to support their effectiveness. The study provides the first evidence in a RCT that the 6 step technique is superior in reducing residual bacterial load on the hands. The reduction was not related to coverage, type of organism or staff group. The 6 step technique was microbiologically more effective at reducing the median log10 bacterial count (3.28  to 2.58)than the 3 step (3.08  to 2.88), (p=0.02), but did not increase the total hand coverage area (98.8% versus 99.0%, p=0.15) and required 25% (95% CI: 6%-24%) more time (42.50 seconds  vs 35.0 seconds, p=0.002). Total hand coverage was not related to the reduction in bacterial count. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, JAMA, Outcomes & Safety, Surgical Research / 12.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christina A. Minami, MD Surgical Outcomes and Quality Improvement Center Department of Surgery, Feinberg School of Medicine, Center for Healthcare Studies, Feinberg School of Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Dr. Minami: An earlier study by our group demonstrated a seemingly paradoxical relationship between hospital quality and hospital penalization in the Hospital-Acquired Condition, or HAC, Reduction Program. Basically, of those hospitals that were penalized more frequently were those that were major teaching hospitals, had more quality accreditations, and had better performance on process and outcome measures. When CMS released that surgical-site infections were going to be added to the HAC scoring, we decided to see if these additional measures might exhibit the same paradoxical association between quality and penalization. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Dr. Minami: The SSI measures follow the same trend as was previously illustrated. Basically, the hospitals who were in the bottom 25% (that is, those who were the worst performers) were more often those that were major teaching hospitals, with more quality accreditations, and offered more advanced services. It’s possible that this is due in part to surveillance bias, or “the more you look, the more you find” phenomenon. Also, what do we really call an infection? The National Healthcare Safety Network has specific definitions and guidelines, but there are still different data collections used by different hospitals. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 09.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Ramiz Boulos PhD School of Chemical and Physical Sciences Flinders University, Bedford Park Chief Executive Officer Boulos & Cooper Pharmaceuticals Pty Ltd Port Adelaide, SA, Australia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Boulos: Zolav® is a first generation antibiotic belonging to a novel class of small molecule synthetic antibiotics that was developed using in-silico modelling. It targets the mechanosensitive ion channel of large conductance, a highly conserved ion channel in bacteria not found in the human genome, making it a well sought after target. The channels have evolved to rescue bacteria from a high osmotic environment by acting as an emergency valve, opening up, and preventing bacteria from lysis. Our antibiotics reduce the threshold at which the channels open and elongate their opening times, in essence causing bacteria to "vomit". Acne affects about 650 million people worldwide making it one of the top ten most common diseases.  Isotretinoin, a vitamin A derivative, is currently the standard of care for treatment. However, it has a number of side effects among which a well-established teratogenic activity is the most serious, a reason for the development of novel and low-risk treatment options for acne. Zolav®,like other antibiotics in this new class, have low cytotoxicity, antioxidant properties and high chemical stability. The very low concentrations needed to yield a therapeutic effect and reduce inflammation in the mouse intradermal acne infection model, and the low risk nature of a topical administration of the drug, makes Zolav® a potentially very attractive option for the treatment of acne. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, HPV, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 07.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Natalie L. McCarthy, MPH Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Recently, deaths immediately following 4vHPV vaccination have garnered intense media attention.  Often, these media stories do not take into account the background rates of death in older children and young adults or disclose the potential for non-vaccine related causes of death.  The publicity surrounding deaths temporally associated with HPV and the paucity of studies examining deaths in adolescents following vaccination, was the basis for our evaluation of deaths following vaccines administered to individuals 9 through 26 years of age in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD). The VSD is a collaborative project between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several integrated healthcare systems, which monitors the safety of vaccines in the U.S. This study assessed the risk of death in the first 30 days following vaccination, described the causes of death, and included an evaluation of the potential association of vaccination and death among older children and young adults. The risk of death was not increased during the 30 days following vaccination, and no deaths were found to be causally associated with vaccination. The causes of death were consistent with what would be expected for this age group. (more…)
Author Interviews, Global Health, Infections / 05.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Ciccozzi Massimo Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Italy; Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immune-Mediated Diseases, Epidemiology Unit, Reference Centre on Phylogeny, Molecular Epidemiology, and Microbial Evolution (FEMEM), National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy. Prof. Ciccozzi Massimo Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Laboratory University Hospital Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Italy; Department of Infectious, Parasitic, and Immune-Mediated Diseases, Epidemiology Unit, Reference Centre on Phylogeny, Molecular Epidemiology, and Microbial Evolution (FEMEM), National Institute of Health, Rome, Italy.   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Prof. Massimo: In the spring 2011 civil war becoming in Syria providing condition for diseases outbreaks In the Syrian Arab Republic before the crisis, the access to health services increased since the 1980s, with better equity between the rural populations and the middle class. the capacity of the health system, so as the quality of care, were not sufficient to improve the decrease the inequity. As normally happens the onset of civil war can led to the complete deterioration of the health infrastructure through the destruction of facilities. We describe a group of 48 Syrian migrants arrived in the second week of October 2015 in the asylum seekers centre (ASC) in Rome (Italy) where they receive social, legal and health assistance. An internal healthcare facility (IHF) is operative where specialized personnel (e.g. infectivologist, nurses and psychologist) was prompt to receive the Syrian people making them all the tests for microbial agents presence (bacterial and virus agents). This group is of importance not only because refugee from the tremendous civil war but also because stopped in this Centre for only twenty days. Our aim was the knowledge of their health status, this is important for people that have to travel in north Europe facing many kilometers again. Rectal, nasal and pharyngeal swabs were collected from all refugees, whereas serum samples were available from 30/48 subjects. Eighteen refugees refused phlebotomy for blood collection for religious reasons. All refugees resulted negative for HBV, HBC and HIV infections. Bacterial microorganism and fungi isolated from surveillance swabs were found with Gram-negative bacteria representing by a larger number of species than Gram-positive and fungi microorganisms. These reports enforce the hypothesis that circulation of new emerging pathogens found, can be source of infection in susceptible patients or nosocomial settings. Interestingly, in some subjects, polymicrobial colonization was found and in some cases until to six different microorganisms, potentially pathogens, were isolated in the same individual. The microbiological surveillance performed in this group of Syrian migrants upon their arrival in Italy evidenced the carriage of unusual microorganism, potentially pathogens and carriers of antimicrobial resistance in some cases, that could be introduced in the country giving asylum. These migrants moving from a country to another could promote the diffusion of these microorganisms within different settings during their traveling around the world. (more…)
Author Interviews, Compliance, Infections / 01.04.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Loren G. Miller, M.D., M.P.H. Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Division of Infectious Diseases Los Angeles BioMedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Torrance CA 90502  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Miller: We know that medication adherence (compliance) by patients to all sort of treatments for a variety of diseases is suboptimal. Adherence to medication varies a lot by disease state (e.g. it is typically high in cancer and low in hypertension), but adherence to antibiotics for skin infection is unstudied. We wanted to find out what adherence is to antibiotics for patients with skin infections is and whether it was associated with important clinical outcomes. We measured patients adherence to antibiotic dosing by using medication containers fitted with electronic caps that reported when the patient opened the antibiotic container. We followed 87 patients who had been hospitalized and suffered S. aureus associated skin and soft tissue infections We found that patients with S. aureus skin and soft tissue infections, on average, took just 57% of their prescribed antibiotic doses after leaving the hospital. Lower antibiotic adherence was associated with a higher chance of skin infection relapse or recurrence. Interestingly, we also found a large discrepancy in patient reports and the electronic measurement. Patients reported taking, on average, 96% of their medication, or nearly twice the 57% reported by the electronic caps. This suggests that asking patients how well they took their medication is highly problematic as non-adherent patients will typically vastly overstate their medication adherence. We also found higher rates of non-adherence to antibiotic regimens among patients who were prescribed more than one antibiotic after leaving the hospital, didn’t see the same healthcare provider for follow-up visits or felt they didn’t have a regular healthcare provider (more…)