Author Interviews, CDC, HIV / 21.07.2014

Anna Satcher Johnson MPH Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Anna Satcher Johnson MPH Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The new analysis confirms historical trends suggesting that we’ve made significant progress in reducing HIV in the U.S. over time – overall and among several key populations, including injection drug users and heterosexuals. Overall, new HIV diagnoses from 2002 to 2011 declined 33 percent. However, these findings underscore continued concerns of a surging HIV epidemic among young gay and bisexual men. We found a significant increase in HIV diagnoses among young men who have sex with men between the ages of 13 and 24. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA / 20.07.2014

Dr Peter MacPherson MBChB PhD Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Fellow Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Department of Clinical Sciences Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Peter MacPherson MBChB PhD Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Fellow Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Department of Clinical Sciences Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine Pembroke Place, Liverpool L3 5QA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. MacPherson: In 2012, an estimated 35 million individuals were infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially reduces the risk of HIV transmission as well as greatly reducing illness and death, raising hopes that high uptake of annual HIV testing and early initiation of ART could improve HIV prevention as well as care. Achieving high coverage of HIV testing and treatment is a major challenge however, with low rates of HIV testing and poor linkage into HIV care. Self-testing for HIV infection (defined as individuals performing and interpreting their HIV test in private) is a novel approach that has seen high acceptance in Malawi and the United States, and is a process that could overcome barriers to conventional facility-based and community-based HIV testing, which lack privacy and convenience. However, no studies in high HIV prevalence settings have investigated linkage into HIV care after HIV self-testing. Among 16,6660 adults in Blantyre, Malawi offered HIV self-testing, optional home initiation of HIV care (including two-weeks of ART for those eligible) compared with standard HIV care resulted in a substantial and significant increase in the proportion of adults initiating antiretroviral therapy. HIV self-testing was also extremely popular, with 58% of the adult population self-testing with just 6-months. To our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate a comprehensive home-based HIV testing, eligibility assessment and treatment initiation strategy. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Lancet / 20.07.2014

Dr. Colette Smith MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Colette Smith: PhD Research Department of Infection and Population Health University College London, London, UK Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith: We followed a group of approximately 45,000 HIV-positive people from Europe, USA and Australia between 1999 to 2011. We found that the death rate approximately halved over the 12-year study period. For every 1,000 people, around 18 died per year in 1999-2001, reducing to 9 deaths per year in 2009-2011. We also studied what people died of. We found that the death rate from AIDS and from liver disease decreased by around two-thirds. Deaths from heart disease approximately halved. However, the rate of cancer deaths (excluding cancers that are classified as AIDS events) remained constant over time. One in three deaths were caused by AIDS in 1999 to 2011, and this decreased to one in five deaths in the last two years of the study. However, even in recent years it was the joint most common cause of death. The proportion of deaths from cancer increased over time. One in ten deaths were from cancer in 1999 to 2001, and this increased to one in five deaths in 2009 to 2011. By the end of the study it was the joint-most common cause of death. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.07.2014

Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jared Baeten, MD PhD Professor, Departments of Global Health and Medicine Adjunct Professor, Department of Epidemiology University of Washington Seattle, WA 98104 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baeten: Among heterosexual African couples in which the male was HIV positive and the female was not, receipt of antiretroviral pre-exposure preventive (PrEP) therapy did not result in significant differences in pregnancy incidence, birth outcomes, and infant growth compared to females who received placebo. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 18.07.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Joshua Thaden MD, PhD Duke University Division of Infectious Diseases Durham, North Carolina Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thaden: The primary findings of the study are that
  • The rate of detection of particularly antibiotic resistant bacteria -- the carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) -- has increased 5-fold in a set of community hospitals in the southeastern United States, and that
  • This increase is due to both changes in how we detect CRE and in increased endemicity (i.e., there are just more CRE around).
(more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Lancet, Pediatrics / 10.07.2014

Pete Dodd (BA, BSc, MMath, PhD) Research associate in health economic modelling Health Economics and Decision Science ScHARR Regent Court Sheffield MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pete Dodd (BA, BSc, MMath, PhD) Research associate in health economic modelling Health Economics and Decision Science ScHARR Regent Court Sheffield Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Dodd: We found that over 650,000 children under the age of 15 developed tuberculosis in the 22 highest burden countries in 2010, with around 7.6 million becoming infected with the bacillus and more than 50 million harboring latent infection. Our work points to a much larger gap between notifications and incidence in children compared to adults. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, mBio / 08.07.2014

Soo Chan Lee, PhD Senior Research Associate, Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. 27710 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Soo Chan Lee, PhD Senior Research Associate, Center for Microbial Pathogenesis, Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, N.C. 27710 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Soo Chan Lee: Mucor circinelloides strain isolated from recalled Chobani yogurt was found to be the most virulent subspecies M. circinelloides forma circinelloides that is commonly associated with human infections. When mice were infected with this fungus through the tail-vein, 80% mortality was observed 5 days post infection. When mice were fed with spores, the fungus survived passage through the GI tract as many as 10 days, indicating the fungus can colonize to cause infections. Whole genome sequence analysis revealed the possibility that this fungus could produce harmful secondary metabolites that are unknown in this fungal species. (more…)
Author Interviews, Herpes Viruses, HIV, PLoS / 06.07.2014

Dr. Don C. Des Jarlais PhD Director, International Research Core, Center for Drug Use and HIV Research Research Fellow, NDRI Director of Research, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Beth Israel Medical Center Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine MedicalResearch Interview with: Dr. Don C. Des Jarlais PhD Director, International Research Core, Center for Drug Use and HIV Research Research Fellow, NDRI Director of Research, Baron Edmond de Rothschild Chemical Dependency Institute, Beth Israel Medical Center Professor of Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Des Jarlais: HIV infection among non-injecting users of heroin and cocaine doubled doubled over the last several decades, from 7% to 14%. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of HIV. We examined HSV-2 infection among non-injecting heroin and cocaine user over the same time period using stored serum samples. HSV-2 infection was strongly related to HIV infection, and both increased over time. We calculated population attributable risk percentages (PAR%) to estimate the extent to which HSV-2 was driving increased HIV infection. HSV-2 infection was responsible for approximately half of the increase in HIV infection (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Herpes Viruses, HIV / 01.07.2014

Connie Celum, MD, MPH Professor of Global Health and Medicine Director, International Clinical Research Center University of Washington Harborview Medical Center Seattle WA 98104 MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Connie Celum, MD, MPH Professor of Global Health and Medicine Director, International Clinical Research Center University of Washington Harborview Medical Center Seattle WA 98104 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Celum: We conducted a randomized, double blind study of daily oral tenofovir and tenofovir combined with emtricitabine (FTC) as oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV among HIV serodiscordant couples (in which onepartner had HIV and the other partner did not) in Kenya and Uganda. Because of recent studies showing that tenofovir gel could reduce the chances of becoming HSV-2 infected, we studied the subset of HIV-uninfected partners who did not have HSV-2 and compared the rates who became HSV-2 infected during follow-up among those who received oral pre-exposure prophylaxis versus those who received placebo. We found that oral pre-exposure prophylaxis reduced HSV-2 acquisition by 30%. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Infections, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 25.06.2014

Kay Wang Academic Clinical Lecturer Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford, Oxford, UK MedicalResearch.com: Interview with Kay Wang Academic Clinical Lecturer Nuffield Department of Primary Care Health Sciences University of Oxford, Oxford, UK MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: We have found evidence of recent whooping cough infection in 1 in 5 school age children who see their doctor with a persistent cough and in 1 in 6 children who have been fully vaccinated against whooping cough. We have also shown that whooping cough can still cause clinically significant cough in fully vaccinated children. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Infections / 14.06.2014

Dr. Stuart Gordon MD Gastroenterologist Henry Ford Hospital Detroit, MI 48202. MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Stuart Gordon MD Gastroenterologist Henry Ford Hospital Detroit, MI 48202. MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gordon: In a large American cohort of Hepatitis B patients, those who took antiviral therapy had a significantly lower risk of developing liver cancer than those who did not take such therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, HPV / 08.06.2014

Dr. Christian S Hinrichs MD Assistant Clinical Investigator Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD 20814 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Christian S Hinrichs MD Assistant Clinical Investigator Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute Bethesda, MD 20814 MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hinrichs: Objective tumor regression occurred in 3/9 patients with metastatic cervical cancer. Two responses were complete and are ongoing 22 and 15 months after treatment with a single infusion of T cells targeting the HPV oncoproteins. (more…)
Author Interviews, MRSA / 05.06.2014

Dr. Brad Spellberg MD Associate Program Director, Internal Medicine Training Program Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Division of General Internal Medicine MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Brad Spellberg MD Associate Program Director Internal Medicine Training Program Professor of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of General Internal Medicine MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Spellberg: The rates of community-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CO-MRSA) varied dramatically among academic medical centers in California, New York, Illinois and North Carolina, suggesting there is not a uniform change in the "national epidemic" of the "superbug" that has generated extensive public health concern over the past decade, according to a new study.The study surveyed hospital records of 4,171 cases of MRSA and MRSA-related infections between 2008 and 2011 in five medical centers located in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Chicago, New York City and Raleigh-Durham, NC.The rates of MRSA acquired in the community declined 57% from 2008-2011 in the Los Angeles medical center. In contrast, CO-MRSA rates tripled at the New York medical center, while the rates remained stable in San Francisco, Chicago and Raleigh-Durham. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Respiratory, UT Southwestern / 04.06.2014

Dr. Eric M. Mortensen, M.D., M.Sc. VA North Texas Health Care System and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Eric M. Mortensen, M.D., M.Sc. VA North Texas Health Care System and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas   MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mortensen: The main findings of our study was that for older patients hospitalized with pneumonia that with the use of azithromycin although there is a small increase in the number of non-fatal heart attacks there was a much lower decrease in mortality. In addition there were no other significant increases in cardiac events. So the overall risk:benefit ratio was that for each non-fatal heart attack there were 7 deaths that were prevented. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, Lancet / 27.05.2014

Dr. Duncan Chanda MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Duncan M. Chanda MD Institute for Medical Research & Training and UNZA-UCLMS Research and Training Project University Teaching Hospital Lusaka, Zambia MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chanda: The main findings are that in this cohort of relatively healthy patients, with a median CD4 of 367, ART can be delayed till the end of TB short course chemotherapy without deleterious effects. This differs from studies that looked at cohorts with very low median CD4 ( around 25-150 in most cases) in which early cART was found to reduce mortality and other AIDS defining events.   (more…)
Author Interviews, Flu - Influenza, Vaccine Studies / 10.05.2014

MedicalResearch Interview: Dr Nicoline van der Maas MD Epidemiologist National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Centre for Infectious Disease Control Epidemiology and Surveillance The Netherlands MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. van der Maas: The main finding, presented at the ESPID, is that we found no difference in growth, development and infection related contact rates with the general practitioner after the first year of life between infants of unvaccinated mothers and infants of mothers, vaccinated with an adjuvanted Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine during the second and third trimester of pregnancy. The offer of a H1N1 vaccination to pregnant women in their second and third trimester did not have a negative impact on infants’ health during the first year of life. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 09.05.2014

Meagan F. Vaughn, PhD Postdoctoral Trainee Department of Epidemiology Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meagan F. Vaughn, PhD Postdoctoral Trainee Department of Epidemiology Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Vaughn: Outdoor workers are at high-risk for tick-borne diseases. Adherence to recommended tick-bite prevention methods is poor. While permethrin treatment of clothing is highly protective against many arthropod vectors, the need for frequent reapplication lessens adherence. A double-blind randomized intervention was conducted to determine the effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin-impregnated uniforms for tick bite prevention among outdoor workers from North Carolina. Treatment group uniforms were factory-impregnated with long-lasting permethrin by Insect Shield, while control group uniforms received sham treatment. Participants completed weekly tick bite logs during two tick seasons. 130 participants reported 1,045 work-related tick bites over 5,251 person-weeks of follow-up. The effectiveness of long-lasting permethrin impregnated uniforms for prevention of work-related tick bites was 82% (p<0.001) for the first year and 34% (p=0.38) for the second year. These results indicate that long-lasting permethrin impregnated uniforms are highly effective for at least one year against tick bites among North Carolina outdoor workers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Stroke / 01.05.2014

Professor Stuart Allan Faculty of Life Sciences, AV Hill Building The University of Manchester Manchester, M13 9PT MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Stuart Allan Faculty of Life Sciences, AV Hill Building The University of Manchester Manchester, M13 9PT MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Allan: Using an experimental model of stroke it was found that animals with preceding Streptococcus pneumoniae infection had a worse outcome than uninfected animals. This confirms and extends previous data, both clinical and preclinical, that systemic inflammation is a key contributor to stroke outcome. Importantly, effects of infection were also demonstrated in animals with co-morbidities associated with stroke (atherosclerosis and age), with outcomes worse than observed in healthy young subjects. Exacerbating effects of infection on stroke are mediated via the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), shown by reversal of the increased ischaemic brain damage and functional impairments by treatment with the IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra). Infection also leads to increased platelet activation and microvascular coagulation after stroke, which contributes to the increased injury. Collectively, these data are the first to show, how systemic inflammatory mechanisms induced by one of the most common non-invasive, human S.pneumoniae isolates, lead to critical illness after stroke in different rodent species and strains, and how common stroke comorbidities interact with infection to worsen outcome after stroke. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dengue, Ebola, Genetic Research, Infections, NEJM, NIH / 24.04.2014

Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) LHD, NIAID, NIH Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sergio D. Rosenzweig, MD, PhD Director, Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic (PID-C) Head of the Infectious Diseases Susceptibility Unit at the Laboratory of Host Defenses, National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases National Institutes of Health Bethesda, MD, 20892 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rosenzweig: We diagnosed a disease called CDG-IIb in two siblings with severe development issues and very low levels of immunoglobulins, which include infection-fighting antibodies. These children were referred to the NIAID Primary Immunodeficiency Clinic through the NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program. CDG-IIb is an extremely rare congenital disorder of glycosylation (CDG), with only one other case reported. The genetic defect of the disease disrupts glycosylation, the process for attaching and trimming sugars from proteins. Almost 50% of our proteins have sugars attached, and these are called glycoproteins. They include immunoglobulins and also some viral glycoproteins that are made when cells are infected by a virus. The spread of some viruses, including HIV and influenza, depend on viral glycoproteins in order to infect additional cells and form viral protective shields. We found that this type of virus was less able to replicate, infect other cells, or create adequate protective shields in CDG-IIb patient cells because of the glycosylation defect. In comparison, adenovirus, poliovirus, and vaccinia virus, which either do not rely on glycosylation or do not form protective glycoprotein shields, replicated normally when added to both CDG-IIb and healthy cells. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, Kaiser Permanente, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 11.04.2014

Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612. MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Roger Paul Baxter, MD Co-Director Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Oakland, CA 94612. MedicalResearch.com What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Baxter: Menveo, the currently licensed CRM-conjugate meningococcal vaccine, showed an excellent booster response in adolescents, regardless of which conjugate vaccine they had received previously. Also, although titers from the priming dose waned, at 3 years there were still protective antibodies in the majority of immunized individuals. The other US-licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, uses a different protein conjugate. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, Social Issues / 11.04.2014

Amy Nunn, ScD, MS Assistant professor (research) of Behavioral and Social Sciences Brown University School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amy Nunn, ScD, MS Assistant professor (research) of Behavioral and Social Sciences Brown University School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings are that people living in poor, mostly-minority urban neighborhoods, where health resources such as HIV testing and linkages to care are often lacking, are at a greater risk of contracting HIV and dying of AIDS. This is not because of differences in behavior. It's because they live in medically underserved areas where HIV incidence is very high and fewer people know their status. Fewer people knowing their status means fewer people on treatment. Fewer people on treatment means it's easier for people to come into contact with the virus, even if they don't engage in any higher risk behavior. In the paper, my colleagues and I call for increasing the focus of public health efforts on these neighborhoods where the epidemic is concentrated and contributing heavily to racial and economic disparities in AIDS mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, HIV, Mental Health Research, University of Pennsylvania / 11.04.2014

Michael B. Blank, PhD MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael B. Blank, PhD Associate Professor of Psychology in Psychiatry Perelman School of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Philadelphia, PA 19104-3309 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Blank: We found that people in treatment for mental illnesses in inpatient and outpatient settings in Philadelphia and Baltimore were about times as likely to be infected with HIV as the general population in those cities and about 16 times as likely to be HIV infected as the general population of the US. We also found that severity of psychiatric symptoms increased the likelihood of infection. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, University of Michigan / 01.04.2014

Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary A.M. Rogers, PhD, MS Research Associate Professor Research Director, Patient Safety Enhancement Program Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2800 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rogers: The risk of serious infection is considerably elevated after receiving allogeneic (donor) red blood cell transfusions. For every 38 patients under consideration for transfusion, 1 patient could be spared an infection if more restrictive hemoglobin thresholds were used. When patients were given transfusions only after their hemoglobin fell below 7.0 g/dL, 1 patient avoided an infection of every 20 patients treated. The results were most consistent in elderly patients receiving hip and knee replacement surgeries. Their risk of infection decreased by 30% when lower hemoglobin thresholds were used. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, NIH, Rheumatology / 31.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eleftherios Mylonakis, M.D., Ph.D., FIDSA Dean's Professor of Medical Science Chief, Infectious Diseases Division Alpert Medical School and Brown University and Dr. Irene Kourbeti MD Research Associate Infectious Disease Division Rhode Island Hospital, Providence, RI MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Answer : There was high quality of evidence that biologic agents are associated with increased risk of all opportunistic infections, but there was no difference in mortality attributed to the opportunistic infections. Patients receiving biologics were twice more likely to develop opportunistic infections (OIs) compared to controls (OR 1.79; 95% CI, 1.17-2.74) with a number needed to harm (NNH) of 582 patients. That means that 1 opportunistic infection would occur in every 582 patients receiving biologics. The opportunistic infections usually occurred at the commencement of the use of the biological agent and they were not statistically more in patients with a previous exposure to anti-TNF agents as compared to the patients that had never received an anti-TNF agent.. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Hand Washing, Hospital Acquired, Infections, NEJM / 26.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shelley S. Magill, M.D., Ph.D. From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Emory University School of Medicine Atlanta, Georgia MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Magill: The results of this survey show that healthcare-associated infections continue to be a threat to patient safety in U.S. acute care hospitals. Among the more than 11,000 patients included in the survey, approximately 4% (or 1 in 25) had at least one healthcare-associated infection at the time of the survey. We used these results to develop national estimates of healthcare-associated infections. We estimated that in 2011, there were approximately 721,800 healthcare-associated infections in U.S. acute care hospitals. The most common types of infections were surgical site infections (SSIs), pneumonias, and gastrointestinal infections. (more…)
HPV, MD Anderson / 26.03.2014

Dr. Judith A. Smith is an Associate Professor in the Department of Gynecologic Oncology & Reproductive Medicine in the Division of Surgery at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston (UTMDACC), MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Judith A. Smith Pharm.D. Associate Professor Department of Gynecologic Oncology & Reproductive Medicine Division of Surgery The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith: This study first demonstrated in vitro suppression of HPV expression. After a single dose at 24 hours and with repeated dosing every 24 hours for 7 days followed by 7 days of no treatment, HPV eradication was achieved. These findings were confirmed with in vivo animal studies. HPV expression was eradicated with once daily AHCC dosing for 90 days and sustained after 30 day observation off treatment. Immune modulation (increase) of IFNα (p < 0.03), IFNβ (p <0.03), and IFN (p< 0.03) and IgG1 (P < 0.05) was observed in AHCC treated mice compared to untreated controls. AHCC mechanism of immune modulation of the IFN pathways to eradicate HPV was particularly relevant because E6/E7 oncogenic activity in HPV infection is believed to be related to suppression of IFN expression/signaling. These data suggest AHCC may help clear HPV infections and have a potential role in the prevention of HPV-related cancers. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, JAMA, OBGYNE / 19.03.2014

Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, London MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shamez Ladhani, MRCPCH PhD Health Protection Services, Immunisation, Hepatitis, and Blood Safety Department, Public Health England, London   MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ladhani: Pregnancy was associated with an increased of serious infection by a bacterium called Haemophilus influenzae which is usually associated with respiratory tract infections. Nearly all the H. influenzae were unencapsulated; that is, they did not have an outer sugar capsule which is often required to make the bacterium more virulent. The encapsulated H. influenzae type b (Hib), for example, was the most common cause of bacterial meningitis in your children prior to routine immunisation. We also found that infection with unencapsulated H. influenzae was associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, including miscarriages, stillbirth and premature birth. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 18.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Rachel J Sacks Jefferiss Wing, St Mary's Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London UK MedicalResearch.com: What is the background of this study? Dr. Sacks: 2247 anonymous questionnaires were completed by young women, aged 13-19 years old, attending sexual health services across England, looking at their HPV vaccination outcomes and prevalence of risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, and comparing the survey results with national data where available. Known HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development risk factors include cigarette smoking, early age at first intercourse, increasing number of lifetime partners, co-infection with other sexually transmitted infections. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Sacks:
  • Young women, aged 13 to 19 years old attending sexual health services across England had higher prevalence of known risk factors associated with HPV acquisition and cervical cancer development, compared with national data.
  • Survey respondents had lower HPV vaccination offer and lower HPV vaccination completion rates than nationally.
  • Subgroups within the survey respondents were identified as having a significantly lower offer and significantly lower completion rate of the HPV vaccination. These subgroups included respondents from London, those of non-white ethnicities, 17 to 19 year olds, smokers and those not in education, employment or training (NEETs).
  • The highest risk individuals, in terms of HPV related risk factors, were the least likely to be offered and additional the least likely to complete the HPV vaccination course.
  • Currently sexual health services in England are not involved in the delivery of the HPV vaccination programme and this is felt to be a huge missed opportunity for the primary prevention of HPV acquisition and its potential sequelae. Sexual health services should be included as a supplementary HPV vaccination delivery site in order to target these particularly vulnerable young women and to increase the success of the HPV vaccination programme in England.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Hospital Acquired, Infections, NIH, Surgical Research, University of Pennsylvania, Wake Forest / 09.03.2014

William G Ward, Sr. MD Chair of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chief of Musculoskeletal Service Line - Guthrie Clinic One Guthrie Square Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (Professor Emeritus - Wake Forest University Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery) MedicalResearch.com Interview with: William G Ward, Sr. MD Chair of Orthopaedic Surgery, Chief of Musculoskeletal Service Line - Guthrie Clinic Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (Professor Emeritus - Wake Forest University Dept of Orthopaedic Surgery) MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Ward: The main findings of the study include:
  1. The use of disposable spun-lace “paper” gowns was associated with a dramatic decrease in the likelihood of culture-detected bacterial contamination on the surgeon’s gloved hand and gown sleeve.
  2. For a double-gloved surgeon, changing the outer glove just prior to implant handling should decrease bacterial contamination from the surgeon by about 50%.
  3. Bacteria suspended in saline solution transgressed the material of standard reusable scrub attire in 96% (26/27) of tested gowns and in 0% (0/27) of spun-lace disposable “paper” gowns. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Cancer Research, HPV, Vaccine Studies / 05.03.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Julia Brotherton Victorian Cytology Service, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Dr Elizabeth Crowe The University of Queensland, School of Population Health, Brisbane, Australia NHS Borders, Department of Public Health, Melrose, Scotland, UK Prof. David Whiteman Group Leader / Department Coordinator QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute Royal Brisbane Hospital, QLD 4029 MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings of the study? 1. We conducted a case-control study in which we retrieved the HPV vaccination histories of young Australian women who were notified to the Pap smear registry with high-grade cervical lesions or with other types of cervical lesions, and compared them with the vaccination histories of women whose Pap smears showed only normal cytology. 2. We found that women with high grade cervical lesions were significantly less likely than women with normal cytology to have received 3 doses of the quadrivalent HPV vaccine, equivalent to a vaccine effectiveness of 46%. 3. The vaccine effectiveness among 15-19 year old women was even higher at 57%. We believe this reflects the fact that HPV16 causes an even higher proportion of high grade disease in young women due to its higher oncogenicity and shorter latent period. 4. The HPV vaccine had 34% effectiveness against other cervical lesions (i.e. those not proven to be high grade lesions on histology). 5. We also observed that 2 doses of the vaccine were 21% effective in preventing both high grade lesions and other grade lesions. (more…)