What Type of Bread Is Best For Your Glycemic Index?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof. Avraham A. Levy Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences Weizmann Institute of Science Rehovot Israel

Prof. Levy

Prof. Avraham A. Levy
Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences

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Prof. Elinav

Prof. Eran Elinav
Department of Immunology

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Prof. Segal

Prof. Eran Segal
Department of Computer Science And Applied Math

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot Israel

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: We performed a type of clinical trial that is very powerful in comparing short term effects of interventions – a crossover trial. In this trial, each subject is compared to themselves; in our case, we compared increased short-term (1 week) consumption of industrial white bread vs. matched consumption of artisanal sourdough-leavened whole-wheat bread – which we originally viewed as radical opposites in terms of their health benefits. We measured various clinical end points – weight, blood pressure, various blood tests – and also the gut microbiome.

To our great surprise, we found no difference between the effects those two breads had on the various end points that we measured. This does not mean that bread consumption had no effect – but that this effect was generally similar for its two types. In fact, when we analyzed our data when pooling together the two bread types (i.e., testing whether bread of any type had an effect), we found that just one week of bread consumption resulted in statistically significant changes to multiple clinical parameters – on the one hand, we saw a reduction in essential minerals in the blood (calcium, magnesium, iron) and an increase in LDH (marker of tissue damage); on the other hand, we saw an improvement in markers of liver and kidney function, inflammation markers and cholesterol levels.

In terms of the microbiome, we have found only a minimal difference between the effects of the two bread (two microbial taxa that were increased with white bread) – but in general, we saw that the microbiome was very resilient to this intervention. This is surprising as the current paradigm in the field is that a change in nutrition rapidly changes the makeup of the microbiome. We say that this is probably dependent on the kind of change – as we had a nutritional change here which was significant enough to change clinical parameters, which we tend to think of as very stable, and yet had a minimal effect on the microbiome.

At this point, there were two possible explanations to what we saw:
The first is that bread had an effect in our intervention, but it was very similar between those two very distinct types.
The second is that these two distinct types indeed had different effects, but they were different for each subject – and thus cancel out when we look at the entire population.

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Healthy Diet and Exercise Reduce Colon Cancer Recurrence

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Erin Van Blarigan, ScD
Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics
UC San Francisco

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: There are over 1.3 million colorectal cancer survivors in the United States. Cancer survivors often seek guidance on what they can do to lower their risk of cancer recurrence and death. In response to patient interest and the need for improved survivorship care, the American Cancer Society (ACS) published guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer survivors.

The guidelines are to:
1) achieve and maintain a healthy body weight;
2) engage in regular physical activity; and
3) achieve a dietary pattern that is high in vegetables, fruits, and whole grains.

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Salt Intake From Packaged Foods Decreasing But Still Too High

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jennifer Poti, PhD Research Assistant Professor Nutritional Epidemiology Gillings School of Global Public Health University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Dr. Poti

Jennifer Poti, PhD
Research Assistant Professor
Nutritional Epidemiology
Gillings School of Global Public Health
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although strong evidence links excessive sodium intake to hypertension, a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the majority of American children and adults have sodium intake that exceeds the recommended upper limit for daily sodium intake.

To lower sodium intake at the population-level, the Institute of Medicine has recommended that reducing sodium in packaged foods will be essential and has emphasized the need to monitor sodium in the US food supply. However, little is known about whether sodium in packaged foods has changed during the past 15 years.

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Anticancer Effects of Two Strains of Tomatoes Explored

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Antonio Giordano MD PhD Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Center for Biotechnology College of Science and Technology Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Department of Life, Health and Environmental Sciences University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy

Dr. Giordano

Antonio Giordano MD PhD
Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine and Center for Biotechnology
College of Science and Technology
Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The Mediterranean diet is considered to be one of the healthiest nutrition patterns. Tomatoes, in particular, which are consumed worldwide, and a basic ingredient of the Mediterranean diet, have been postulated to have a cancer preventive role at least for some tumor types, although few studies analyzed the effects of tomatoes in their entirety in different stages of cancer progression.

Here, we focused on an in vitro model of gastric cancer because it is still one of the most common and deadly cancers and its development is strongly influenced by certain eating habits. Our results showed a possible role of tomatoes against typical neoplastic features. The treatment with tomato extracts affected the ability of cancer cell growth both in adherence and in semisolid mediums. Moreover, tomato extracts affected key processes within the cell; they hindered migration ability, arrested cell cycle through the modulation of retinoblastoma tumor suppressor family proteins and specific cell cycle inhibitors, and induced cancer cell death through apoptosis.

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Everybody Does It! Rich and Poor Eat Fast Food

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Jay L. Zagorsky

Center for Human Resource Research
The Ohio State University and
Patricia K. Smith PhD
Department of Social Sciences
University of Michigan-Dearborn

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The prevalence of adult obesity in the U.S. has risen substantially, from about 13% in the early 1960s to nearly 38% now.  Obesity is associated with a variety of illnesses and imposes significant costs on individuals and society.

Socioeconomic (SES) gradients in health and the prevalence of disease, including obesity, have been documented: health improves and disease prevalence falls as we move up each step of the SES ladder.  Differences in nutrition could help explain these health gradients and Americans commonly think the poor eat fast food more often than those in the middle and upper classes. Policy based on this notion has been proposed.  For example, in 2008 Los Angeles placed a moratorium on new fast-food restaurants in poor neighborhoods.

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Fatty Acids From Fish During Infancy May Lower Risk of Type 1 Diabetes

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sari Niinistö, PhD Senior Researcher, Public Health Solutions, Nutrition Unit National Institute for Health and Welfare Helsinki, Finland

Dr. Niinistö

Sari Niinistö, PhD
Senior Researcher,
Public Health Solutions, Nutrition Unit
National Institute for Health and Welfare
Helsinki, Finland

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Previous prospective studies have observed protective association between fish-derived fat and type 1 diabetes related autoimmunity in older children. Also some other fatty acids have been associated with the risk for type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity. We wanted to study very young children, because type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity often begins early, already in infancy. Therefore, we investigated whether serum fatty acid levels during infancy or the main dietary sources of fatty acids (breast milk and infant formula) were related to the development of autoimmunity responses among children at increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

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Diet Foods Can Make You Fat By Changing Your Microbiome

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Krzysztof Czaja VBDI, D.V.M Associate professor of veterinary biosciences and diagnostic imaging College of Veterinary Medicine University of Georgia

Dr. Krzysztof Czaja

Krzysztof Czaja VBDI, D.V.M
Associate professor of veterinary biosciences and diagnostic imaging
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Georgia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: The neural regulation of food intake and satiety in rodents and human are similar. Therefore, rodent model is well established in studying neural regulation in obesity in humans.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: We determined that diets rich in sugar, and many “diet products” contain high amount of sugar (sometimes under different names), increase efficiency of accumulation of body and liver fat. We also found that sugar-rich diets change the gut microflora toward overpopulation of enterotoxic bacteria, damaging neural gut-brain communication and disrupting neural regulation of food intake. The implications of our results on human health are very significant because they show that diets rich in sugar changes the brain circuits responsible for food intake and satiety, induces chronic inflammation and symptoms of non-alcoholic liver disease (NALD).

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Food Costs Can Lead To Less Protein and Phosphorous in Indigent Kidney Transplant Patients

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Ms. Shifra Mincer Medical Student in the class of 2019 SUNY Downstate Medical School

Shifra Mincer

Ms. Shifra Mincer
Medical Student in the class of 2019
SUNY Downstate Medical School

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered in the post-transplant setting. Early post-transplant hypophosphatemia has been ascribed to excess FGF23 and hyperphosphaturia.

Many patients remain hypohosphatemic months or even years after their transplant and the mechanism was assumed to be the same, however, our group recently reported that patients with late post-transplant hypophosphatemia had very little phosphorous in their urine (Wu S, Brar A, Markell, MS. Am J Kidney Dis. 2016,67(5): A18). We hypothesized that they were not eating enough phosphorous to compensate for the acute phosphorous losses they experienced immediately post-transplant.

In this study, using both 3-day diet journals and 24-hour diet recall questionnaires, we found that mean intake of phosphorous and protein was barely at the Recommended Daily Allowance, and that despite 70% of the patients using EBT, 30% of those patients still reported concerns regarding food security. Patients who reported that the cost of food influenced their dietary choices ate 43% less protein (average 48,5 gms vs. 85.8 gms) and 29% less phosphorous (average 887 mg vs 1257 mg). When ability to rise from a chair over a 30 second period was evaluated, only patients who expressed food cost concerns were unable to complete the test.

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Mass Media Campaign Can Reduce Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Thomas Farley, MD, MPH Health Commissioner Department of Public Health City of Philadelphia

Dr. Thomas Farley

Thomas Farley, MD, MPH
Health Commissioner
Department of Public Health
City of Philadelphia

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Messages in the mass media have been used in anti-smoking campaigns, but have not be used much for other health-related behaviors.  Sugar-sweetened beverages are major contributors to the obesity epidemic in the United States, so they are an important public health target.

In this study we evaluated a brief counter-advertising campaign in a rural area of Tennessee, Virginia, and Kentucky designed to reduce consumption of these beverages.  After the campaign, adults in the area were more wary of sugary drinks, and sales of sugary drinks fell by about 4% relative to changes in a matched comparison area.

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Spermidine in Foods Such As Aged Cheese Prevents Liver Damage and Extends Life — in Mice

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Leyuan Liu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor Center for Translational Cancer Research Institute of Biosciences and Technology Texas A&M University Houston, Texas 77030

Dr. Liu

Leyuan Liu, Ph.D., Assistant Professor
Center for Translational Cancer Research
Institute of Biosciences and Technology
Texas A&M University
Houston, Texas 77030

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Our research team has been working on the question why people develop cancers and how we can prevent or cure them. In contrast to public views, we concluded from our studies that cancers, similar to our age-related diseases, originate from inefficiencies of our body to clean up cellular wastes accumulated during our lifespan. The most important pathway to clean up those wastes is called autophagy, or cellular self-eating behavior. We study how autophagy is regulated, how autophagy causes cancers, and whether we can control autophagy to prevent or cure cancers.

Previously we found autophagy is regulated by a protein called MAP1S and mice without MAP1S are more likely to develop liver cancer. We have been seeking ways to improve MAP1S-mediated autophagy to prevent liver cancer. Our current study show that spermidine, a natural component existing in many foods, can increase the stability of MAP1S proteins and activate MAP1S-mediated autophagy. Concurrent with the benefits of expand mouse lifespans ours also reported, spermidine can suppress the development of liver fibrosis and liver cancer specifically through MAP1S if we add spermidine into the daily drinking water of mice.

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