Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Weight Research / 17.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_28058" align="alignleft" width="133"]David R. Jacobs, Jr., PhD Mayo Professor of Public Health Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN 55454-1075 Dr. David R. Jacobs, Jr.[/caption] David R. Jacobs, Jr., PhD Mayo Professor of Public Health Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health University of Minnesota Minneapolis MN 55454-1075 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) is on ongoing longitudinal study which began by screening middle and secondary school students in the Minneapolis and St Paul Metropolitan are. Students were the 11-18 years old (average age 15), then followed up at average ages 20 and 25. We had devised an eating pattern in about 2006, which a) predicts a lot of things in several different studies (including total mortality in the Iowa Women's Health Study) and b) looks a great deal like the recently released 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). We call our diet pattern A Priori Diet Quality Score (APDQS) and think of it as close to or in the style of a Mediterranean/prudent/healthy diet. We hypothesized that this pattern would be associated with lower weight (in general with better long term health, but the focus in Project EAT was weight and BMI), probably least so at age 15. The minimal hypothesized effect in adolescence relates to the very large energy expenditure in adolescent growth years; we thought that diet composition would be less important for body weight at that time than energy intake (and APDQS is about diet composition).
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Gluten, JAMA / 06.09.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27623" align="alignleft" width="125"]Brandon Hyunseok Kim, M.D., MPH Internal Medicine Resident Rutgers New Jersey Medical School Dr. Brandon Hyunseok Kim[/caption] Brandon Hyunseok Kim, M.D., MPH Internal Medicine Resident Rutgers New Jersey Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The background of this study was to investigate the time trends in the prevalence of celiac disease and gluten-free diet in the United States using most recent 6-year National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey. Previous studies using narrow populations or old study period mainly before mid 2000s suggested increasing prevalence of celiac disease. At the same time, there is a current popular trend of people following gluten-free diets beyond what would be expected if it were solely due to the increasing prevalence of celiac disease.
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Vitamin D / 31.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27553" align="alignleft" width="125"]Dr-Ben-Wheeler.jpg Dr. Ben Wheeler[/caption] Dr. Ben Wheeler MB ChB(Otago) DCH CCE FRACP Senior Lecturer / Paediatrician / Paediatric Endocrinologist Department of Women’s & Children’s Health : Te Tari Hauora Wāhine me te Tamariki Dunedin School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Vitamin D is essential for calcium and bone metabolism. It is unique among vitamins in that it is mainly derived from synthesis in the skin after exposure to UV-B radiation. In the absence of fortification, few foods are rich in vitamin D, including human milk, which contains very low amounts. Breastfeeding infants in higher latitude countries such as New Zealand, much of North America and Central/Northern Europe are at risk of vitamin D deficiency. The most profound manifestation of vitamin D deficiency in growing children is rickets, characterized by bone deformities, impaired growth, biochemical abnormalities, and depending on the severity of deficiency, seizures. Studies also identified a number of common factors that potentially affect the risk of rickets, including darker pigmented skin, maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy, season of birth, and age. A potential alternative strategy to improve the vitamin D status of breastfed infants is high-dose vitamin D supplementation to pregnant and lactating women. This would be attractive from a compliance perspective, promote exclusive breastfeeding, and treat both the mother and her infant. Thus, the primary aim of this randomized, placebo-controlled study was to determine the effect of two different monthly doses of maternal vitamin D supplementation on the vitamin D status of non–vitamin D–supplemented breastfed infants and their mothers.
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics, Social Issues, Weight Research / 31.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27521" align="alignleft" width="133"]Kai Ling Kong, PhD, MS Assistant Professor Division of Behavioral Medicine Department of Pediatrics School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences State University of New York at Buffalo Dr. Kai Ling Kong[/caption] Kai Ling Kong, PhD, MS Assistant Professor Division of Behavioral Medicine Department of Pediatrics School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences State University of New York at Buffalo MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Infant temperament, or individual behavior styles, can be reliably measured and is related to weight status. However, we know very little about the association of infants’ temperament and their motivation to eat versus engage in other activities (relative food reinforcement). Examining such associations is an important step given the need to use behavioral strategies in obesity prevention in early life. The purpose of our study was to determine if infant temperament, specifically the factors that have been linked with obesity risk, are associated with infant relative food reinforcement.
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Nutrition / 28.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27409" align="alignleft" width="150"]William B. Grant, Ph.D. Director, Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center San Francisco, CA www.sunarc.org, Dr. William Grant[/caption] William B. Grant, Ph.D. Director, Sunlight, Nutrition, and Health Research Center San Francisco, CA www.sunarc.org MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The present study is the culmination of 20 years of investigating dietary links to Alzheimer's disease (AD). I am a physicist by training and spent my salaried career as an atmospheric scientist. In the 1990s while studying the effect of acid rain and ozone on eastern hardwood forests, I became familiar with the geographical ecological study approach. In this approach, populations are defined geographically, such as by state or country, and health outcomes are compared statistically with risk-modifying factors. Ecological studies are an efficient way to analyze the results of unplanned experiments. In 1996, I read that Japanese-American men living in Hawaii had two and a half times the prevalence of  Alzheimer's disease as native Japanese. I knew that AD patients often had higher concentrations of aluminum in their brains than other people, and that acid rain increased the concentration of aluminum in trees. It quickly occurred to me that the American diet must be the cause of the increased AD rate, and that by using the ecological approach, I could prove it. My first study, published in 1997, compared AD prevalence rates for 11 countries with macro-dietary factors of national diets. Total fat was found to have the highest correlation with AD, followed by total energy (calories), with fish reducing risk slightly, while countries such as China, Japan, and India, with large amounts of rice in the diet, had very low  Alzheimer's disease rates. This study was the first major study linking diet to risk of AD and led to observational studies that confirmed the findings five years later.
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetologia, Nutrition, Weight Research / 25.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27302" align="alignleft" width="125"]Jaime Uribarri, MD Professor, Nephrology Icahn School of Medicine Mt. Sinai Medical Center Dr. Jaime Uribarri[/caption] Jaime Uribarri, MD Professor, Nephrology Icahn School of Medicine Mt. Sinai Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We have been doing research in the area of dietary advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) for many years. AGEs are chemical compounds that form normally in the body in small amounts and also in food when cooking under high heat and dry conditions; a percent of AGEs in food is absorbed and part of it is retained in the body leading to increased smoldering inflammation and oxidative stress that eventually produce most of modern chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dementia, etc. We have previously demonstrated that a diet low in AGEs, which essentially means changing the cooking methods to include less application of heat, plenty of water,etc, decreases inflammation of oxidative stress in people with diabetes, chronic kidney disease and in healthy subjects. In the current study we applied the same low dietary AGE intervention to a group of obese patients with the so-called Metabolic syndrome, a risk factor for Diabetes Mellitus.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Lipids, Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 18.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27182" align="alignleft" width="149"]David Iggman, MD, PhD Unit for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University, Uppsala Center for Clinical Research Dalarna Falun, Sweden Dr. David Iggman[/caption] David Iggman, MD, PhD Unit for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences Uppsala University, Uppsala Center for Clinical Research Dalarna Falun, Sweden MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There is some controversy regarding which dietary fats are preferable and in what amounts, not least regarding the polyunsaturated fats. It is also challenging to adequately assess peoples intakes of dietary fats. The main findings of this study was that among fatty acids in the body (reflecting the intake during the last year or so), linoleic acid (omega-6) was associated with lower mortality in 71-year-old men with 15 years follow-up.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Gout, Johns Hopkins, Nutrition, Rheumatology / 16.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_27021" align="alignleft" width="155"]Stephen P. Juraschek, MD, PhD Fellow, Division of General Internal Medicine Johns Hopkins Hospital Dr. Stephen Juraschek[/caption] Stephen P. Juraschek, MD, PhD Fellow, Division of General Internal Medicine Johns Hopkins Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Diet has long been viewed as an important way to lower uric acid levels to prevent gout attacks; however, there is little evidence about whether a particular dietary pattern might be effective for lowering uric acid. For the first time we show that the DASH diet, an effective diet for lowering blood pressure, it lowers uric acid levels substantially in people with abnormally high uric acid levels.
Author Interviews, Baylor University Medical Center Dallas, Nutrition, Weight Research / 16.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Meredith E. David Marketing Department Hankamer School of Business Baylor University Waco, TX 76798   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In the midst of the ongoing “obesity epidemic” in the United States and many other developed nations, programs and advice abound for encouraging individuals to manage their health and well-being through changes in food consumption. One common approach resurfaces time and time again: suggesting to the would-be dieter what foods they should avoid eating (e.g., “The following 10 foods should never be eaten . . . ,”) and/or what foods they should eat (e.g., “10 foods everyone should include in a healthy diet,”). Our research investigates the commonly heralded advice given to consumers to either focus on avoiding unhealthy foods, such as cake, or approaching and consuming healthy foods, such as kale. We demonstrate important differences in the implementation of and outcomes of these approach versus avoidance strategies for meeting one’s health-related goals. Individuals who have high self-control are generally better at reaching their goals. We investigate how individuals with varying levels of general self-control differ in the way that they apply approach and avoidance dieting strategies. Our findings, as detailed below, reveal a novel explanation of the better outcomes observed by individuals who are generally more successful in their goal pursuit. The key findings are as follows:
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 04.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lauren McGale Research Assistant & PhD Student University of Liverpool MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Food marketing has been highlighted as a key factor which contributes to childhood obesity, and food–packaging as a marketing tool is currently under-researched. Placing licensed-characters, which are those borrowed from movies and TV shows, have previously been shown to affect children’s food choices and taste preferences in favour of the product they appear on, and their use in TV advertising is regulated here in the UK. However, this is the first study to examine the influence of brand equity characters in this context, which are characters created solely to represent a particular product/brand (for example, Tony the Tiger for Kellogg’s Frosties), and these characters are currently exempt from UK TV advertising regulations. As these brand equity characters typically promote foods which are high in fat, salt and sugar, it is crucial that we understand their impact on children’s food choices and preferences. Our findings were consistent with the existing literature on various types of promotional characters, demonstrating that children displayed a preference for the taste of foods presented with the brand equity character on the packaging, compared to identical foods without the character, and were also more likely to choose these foods as snacks. This was true even when the characters were placed on foods they were not usually associated with.
Author Interviews, Nutrition, Weight Research / 03.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yanni Papanikolaou PhD Candidate, Masters in Public Health Nutrition Nutritional Strategies Inc. Paris, ON, Canada MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010, which consisted of information from more than 14,000 U.S. adults 19 years old and older. We looked at dietary eating patterns and compared those individuals that consumed grain and grain-based foods (both in whole and enriched forms) and compared to those who omit main grain foods from their diet. We examined nutrient intakes, diet quality and various health measures, including body weight and waist circumference, within each grain group and compared to adults not eating grain foods. We found that people consuming certain grain foods had better overall diet quality, lower average body weight and a smaller waist circumference. Specifically, adults consuming pasta, cooked cereals and rice weighed 7.2 pounds less and had waist circumferences that were 1.2 inches smaller compared to adults who didn’t eat grains. Although the public is quick to demonize enriched grains, our findings show that enriched grains provide vital nutrients many Americans fall short on, such as fiber, folate, calcium, iron, and magnesium.  Eliminating grain-based foods can have negative effects on diet quality and intake of essential nutrients.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Nutrition, Protein, Vegetarians / 02.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mingyang Song Sc.D, research fellow Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Unit and Division of Gastroenterology MGH and Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies have been focused on the amount of protein intake, while little is known regarding the health effect of different food sources for protein intake. In this study, we found that high animal protein intake was associated with higher mortality, whereas high plant-based protein was associated with lower mortality. Replacement of animal protein with plant protein was associated with lower mortality. Overall, the findings support the importance of food sources for protein intake for long-term health outcomes.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Heart Disease, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 02.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26637" align="alignleft" width="120"]Raymond Y. Kwong, MD MPH Director of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School Dr. Raymond Kwong[/caption] Raymond Y. Kwong, MD MPH Director of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Associate Professor of Medicine Harvard Medical School MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In the past several decades, Omega-3 fatty acids (O3FA) primarily from fish oil have been reported to have many beneficial effects, either directly on the heart or through other effects that indirectly help the heart. However, when it was tested on patients who suffered an acute heart attack by looking at whether patients can live longer by taking omega-3 fatty acids early after the heart attack, there has been some conflicting data in some of the large clinical trials. There are several major factors that inspired the designs of the current OMEGA-REMODEL study: a) Over recent years, many highly effective treatments to improve the survival of heart attack victims have become routine. b) The studies in the past used a relatively lower dose of  Omega-3 fatty acids (1g per day). c) Some have also raised the question whether just patient mortality should be the only/best way we should considered in assessing new treatments for heart attack patients. d) Cardiac remodeling: after a heart attack, heart muscle not damaged by the initial heart attack insult has to overwork to compensate for the damage from the heart attack. Over time scarring may form in the overworked heart muscle, in addition to weakened heart function, may lead to the heart to fail. e)New imaging method: a MRI of the heart, can precisely determine the heart function and the amount of scarring of the overworked heart muscle not damaged from the heart attack.
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Kidney Stones, Nutrition, Protein, Red Meat / 01.08.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26652" align="alignleft" width="180"]Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD MSc PhD Assistant Professor Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Senior Collaborator in the Nurses' Health Study Brigham and Women's Hospital Channing Division of Network Medicine Dr. Ferraro[/caption] Pietro Manuel Ferraro, MD MSc PhD Assistant Professor Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli Catholic University of the Sacred Heart Senior Collaborator in the Nurses' Health Study Brigham and Women's Hospital Channing Division of Network Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: In our study, we looked at the association between dietary intake of different sources of protein (vegetable, dairy and non-dairy animal), potassium (a marker of fruits and vegetables) and their interaction and the risk of forming kidney stones. We looked at their interaction because some protein is a source of acid, whereas fruits and vegetables are a source of alkali, thus their relationship could potentially impact acid-base status and in turn the risk of stones by modifying the metabolism of calcium and other elements such as urine citrate and uric acid. We found that the risk of forming stones depends not only on the amount of protein but also on the source, with no risk associated with intake of vegetable and dairy protein, and a modestly higher risk for excessive non-dairy animal protein; on the other hand, intake of potassium was associated with a markedly lower risk. Interestingly, the interaction between intake of protein and potassium, the so called net acid load, was also associated with higher risk of forming kidney stones, suggesting that the effect of acid intake is modulated by that of alkali and vice versa.
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Gluten, Immunotherapy / 27.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26555" align="alignleft" width="173"]Armin Alaedini, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Medicine & Institute of Human Nutrition Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 Dr. Armin Alaedini[/caption] Armin Alaedini, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Medicine & Institute of Human Nutrition Columbia University Medical Center New York, NY 10032 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: It has been a mystery why some people experience a range of symptoms in response to the ingestion of wheat and related cereals, even though they do not have celiac disease (an autoimmune disorder) or wheat allergy. Both gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, most commonly abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloating, as well as extra-intestinal symptoms, such as fatigue, anxiety, depressed mood, and cognitive difficulties are reported by patients. The identity of the component(s) of wheat responsible for triggering the symptoms remains uncertain and it is not clear if gluten or non-gluten molecules are involved. There is evidence to indicate that wheat sensitivity also affects a subset of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), a common disorder. Despite the interest from the medical community and the general public, the causes and mechanism of the associated symptoms have remained unknown and no biomarkers are available to aid in the diagnosis of patients.
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Imperial College, Nutrition / 26.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26495" align="alignleft" width="149"]Prof. Majid Ezzati, PhD Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health Chair in Global Environmental Health Imperial College, London Adjunct Professor of Global Health and Department of Global Health and Population Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Prof. Majid Ezzati[/caption] Prof. Majid Ezzati, PhD Faculty of Medicine, School of Public Health Chair in Global Environmental Health Imperial College, London Adjunct Professor of Global Health and Department of Global Health and Population Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Human height is strongly influenced by the environment that we grow up in, from pregnancy through to late adolescence. If we have good nutrition, few illnesses and good healthcare, we are more likely to grow taller. In turn, height has a strong effect on our health in adulthood. Taller people on average live longer, have lower risk of heart disease (although they do have slightly elevated risks of some cancers). We have collated the largest-ever database of height. We analysed 1472 studies with measured height on 18.6 million individuals. We made estimates of height for 18-year-old men and women from 1914 and 2014. Height has increased in every country in the world, but this has been very uneven. The tallest men in the world are now the Dutch, and the tallest women are the Latvians. The countries that have seen the most growth are South Korea for women and Iran for men. We have seen large increases in height in East Asia, and stagnation in much of the West over the last few decades. In parts of Africa height has actually decreased by 5-10 cm over this period.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 21.07.2016

[caption id="attachment_26215" align="alignleft" width="136"]MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Carstairs PhD Student, Public Health Research, Polwarth Building, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The introduction of solid foods is a key period when the mil diet is no longer able to meet all dietary needs, additionally it is a key time for food learning and development of eating preferences in a child’s life. It is vital that children are provided with nutritionally balanced foods as well as a variety of foods to meet dietary requirements and are exposed to different tastes and textures. Some parents provide home-cooked meals however, there is a large market of commercially available infant/toddler meals which can provide parents with a convenient alternative to home-cooking. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our main findings indicate that home-cooked recipes based from infant and toddler cookbooks are a cheaper meal option and contain greater nutrient levels, such as protein, compared to commercially available infant/toddler meals. However, when we compare nutrient levels to recommendations the majority of these home-cooked recipes (50%) exceed energy density (ED) recommendations and 37% exceed dietary fat recommendations. In comparison, the majority of commercial meals (65%) meet these ED recommendations and provide a greater vegetable variety per meal however, are below the recommendations for dietary fat. MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Readers need to be aware that despite providing a cheaper option with greater nutrient levels to commercial meals, the majority of home-cooked recipes from targeted cookbooks exceed recommendations for energy density and dietary fats. The majority of commercial meals in contrast meet energy density recommendations and provide greater vegetable variety per meal than home-cooked recipes however, are below recommendations for dietary fat which is an essential component in the diet of young children. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Response: Our study did not investigate the micronutrient content of meals as this data was not available on commercial product labels. Furthermore, we did not investigate the inclusion of additives and preservatives within these meal types. Future work should therefore include these aspects to provide parents with a complete picture. MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? Response: It is vital to remember that both home-cooked and commercial main meals incorporate only a part of the daily diet and these should be considered in the context of a whole daily diet. The inclusion of a variety of foods and textures is paramount to a child’s food learning experience and must be considered in the foods offered to young children. MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community. Citation: Bmj A comparison of preprepared commercial infant feeding meals with home-cooked recipes Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions. More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com Sharon Carstairs[/caption] MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Carstairs PhD Student Public Health Research University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The introduction of solid foods is a key period when the milk diet is no longer able to meet all dietary needs, additionally it is a key time for food learning and development of eating preferences in a child’s life. It is vital that children are provided with nutritionally balanced foods as well as a variety of foods to meet dietary requirements and are exposed to different tastes and textures. Some parents provide home-cooked meals however, there is a large market of commercially available infant/toddler meals which can provide parents with a convenient alternative to home-cooking.
Author Interviews, Kidney Disease, Nutrition, Red Meat / 17.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26197" align="alignleft" width="142"]Woon-Puay KOH | Professor Office of Clinical Sciences| Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore 169857 Dr. Woon-Puay kOH[/caption] Woon-Puay KOH | Professor Office of Clinical Sciences| Duke-NUS Medical School Singapore 169857 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is a growing burden of chronic kidney disease worldwide, and many progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. Hence, urgent efforts are needed in risk factor prevention, especially in the general population. Current guidelines recommend restricting dietary protein intake to help manage patients with advanced chronic kidney disease, and slow progression to ESRD. However, there is limited evidence that overall dietary protein restriction or limiting specific food sources of protein intake may slow kidney function decline in the general population. Hence, we embarked on our study to see what dietary advice may be helpful to the general population in order to reduce the risk of ESRD.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Nutrition, PLoS, Weight Research / 15.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Qi Sun Sc.D, M.D., M.M.S. Dr. Geng Zong, Ph.D., a research fellow Assistant Professor in the Department of Nutrition Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Heath Boston MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There is growing trend of eating meal prepared out of home in many countries. For example, energy intake from out-of-home meals has increased from less than 10% in mid 60s to over 30% in 2005-2008 among Americans, and average time spent on cooking has decreased by one third. In the meantime, the prevalence of diabetes and obesity of this country keep on growing. In the current study, we followed nearly 100 thousands middle-aged men and women for 26 years. In 1986, we asked people how often their lunch and dinner were prepared at home per week, which will be 14 meals in maximum, and updated this information during follow-up. We found men and women with 11-14 meals prepared at home per week had 14% lower risk of diabetes compared to those had 6 or less meals prepared at home. If we look at lunch and dinner separately, people with 5 or more lunch prepared at home per week had 9% lower risk of diabetes, and those with 5 or more dinner prepared at home had 15% lower risk of diabetes compared to the group who had 2 or less than lunch or dinner at home per week. We further investigated whether people with more meals prepared at home had lower risk of obesity or weight gain in our study. In the first eight years of follow-up, participants with 11-14 meals prepared at home had 14% lower risk of developing obesity compared to people had 0-6 meals prepared at home. For men, these people had 1.2kg less weight gain, and for women they had 0.3 kg less weight gain. Furthermore, we found potential impact of having meals at home and risk of diabetes became weaker. This suggest that weight gain could be one gearwheel that links eating meals prepared at home and diabetes risk.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Nutrition / 12.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_26078" align="alignleft" width="200"]Hsin-Jen Chen, PhD MS Assistant Professor Institute of Public Health National Yang-Ming University Taipei City Dr. Hsin-Jen Chen[/caption] Hsin-Jen Chen, PhD MS Assistant Professor Institute of Public Health National Yang-Ming University Taipei City MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The number of eating occasions may affect health. Laboratory experiments have been showing that splitting daily food consumption into more eating occasions could improve metabolic profiles, such as healthier blood glucose and lipids levels. However, such kinds of experiments usually design a highly controlled diet for the participants in the lab. It is questionable whether such metabolic benefits remain in our daily life (namely, no controlled diets) where we can eat at anytime when we want to eat.
Author Interviews, Nutrition / 09.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25971" align="alignleft" width="165"]Ruopeng An, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Kinesiology and Community Health College of Applied Health Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Dr. Ruopeng An[/caption] Ruopeng An, PhD Assistant Professor Department of Kinesiology and Community Health College of Applied Health Sciences University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Sandwiches are a staple of the American diet. About one half of the U.S. adult population consumed one or more sandwiches on a daily basis. Sandwich consumption may profoundly influence people’s diet quality and calorie intake.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Lipids, Nutrition, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 06.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25788" align="alignleft" width="180"]Daniel (Dong) Wang, MD, ScD, Research Fellow Department of Nutrition | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115 Dr. Wang[/caption] Daniel (Dong) Wang, MD, ScD, Research Fellow Department of Nutrition | Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA 02115 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There has been widespread confusion in the biomedical community and the general public about the health effects of specific types of fat in the diet. In particular, the role of unsaturated fats vs. saturated fat in cardiovascular disease prevention remains controversial. Our study is by far the most detailed and powerful examination of this very important research topic, i.e., health effects of specific types of dietary fats, because of very large sample size (more than 120,000 men and women), repeated and validated measurements of diet and lifestyle over an extended follow-up (up to 32 years). In addition, our study is able to examine a much broader range of outcomes, including total mortality and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease and respiratory disease. We found that different types of dietary fat had different associations with mortality. Consuming higher amounts of unsaturated fats- mainly from plant-based foods like olive oil, canola oil, soybean oil and nuts - was associated with lower mortality, while higher consumption of saturated-found in red meat, butter, cheese, and ice cream- and trans fats- predominantly from hydrogenated oils- was linked with higher mortality compared with the same number of calories from carbohydrates. Most importantly, replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats conferred substantial health benefits, including lowering risk of all-cause premature death and premature death due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative disease and respiratory disease.
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JAMA, Omega-3 Fatty Acids / 06.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Marcus E. Kleber Fifth Department of Medicine (Nephrology, Hypertensiology, Endocrinology, Diabetology, Rheumatology), Medical Faculty of Mannheim University of Heidelberg Mannheim, Germany MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Many epidemiological studies found inverse associations between the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids, especially EPA and DHA, and cardiovascular disease and mortality. On the other hand, most clinical trials that investigated the effect of omega-3 supplementation on cardiovascular risk failed to show a benefit. Therefore, the role of omega-3 fatty acids is still debated controversially. One problem with clinical trials is that they usually do not screen their participants for their initial omega-3 status. In our study we measured the omega-3 status of our participants using a very reliable and validated method and found an inverse association of EPA and DHA with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Author Interviews, Nutrition / 05.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25845" align="alignleft" width="142"]Dr. David Hughes Honorary Lecturer, Centre for Systems Medicine RCSI Physiology & Medical Physics Dept Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Ireland Dr. David Hughes[/caption] Dr. David Hughes Honorary Lecturer, Centre for Systems Medicine RCSI Physiology & Medical Physics Dept Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland Ireland MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Liver cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide, and the seventh most common cause of death from cancer in Europe (1). “The incidence of liver cancers is increasing in developed countries, likely due to Western lifestyle and dietary habits. Liver cancers are often diagnosed at late stages and have limited treatment options,” says IARC scientist Dr Mazda Jenab, one of the study’s authors. “Further research is needed into the modifiable determinants of these cancers and effective prevention strategies.” A growing body of evidence suggests that suboptimal intakes of the micronutrient selenium contribute to the development of several cancers (2). Selenium is a trace mineral micronutrient that is found in foods like shellfish, salmon, Brazil nuts, meat, eggs, grains, and onions. However, selenium levels in foods depend largely on the levels of selenium in the soil where the food is grown and animals graze. Soil levels tend to be low in many regions in Europe, contributing to lower body levels of selenium in those populations compared with people living in regions with higher soil selenium concentrations, such as North America. In humans, selenium is essential, particularly for the effective functioning of the immune system and in controlling oxidative processes linked to cancer development. This new study shows that the highest levels of blood selenium or of selenoprotein P, the protein that distributes selenium from the liver around the body, are associated with a decreased risk of developing liver cancer (particularly hepatocellular carcinoma), even when all other major liver cancer risk factors are taken into account. The study also shows that selenium level is not associated with the development of gall bladder or biliary tract tumours (3). The study was based on the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, headed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in Lyon, France,  and composed of more than half a million participants across 10 European countries. We used a case–control design of 121 liver cancers and 140 gall bladder and biliary tract cancers matched to equal numbers of individuals free of cancer within the cohort.
Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition, UT Southwestern / 04.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25830" align="alignleft" width="172"]Dr-Wanpen-Vongpatanasin.jpg Dr. Vongpatanasin[/caption] Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin MD The Norman and Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension UT Southwestern Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the DASH diet, is known to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in people with and without high blood pressure . However, the main nutritional ingredient responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of KMg Citrate (KMgCit), K Chloride (KCl), and K Citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three in hypertensive and prehypertensive individuals. This study was conducted in collaboration with Drs. Charles Pak and Orson Moe at UT Southwestern, the two leading experts in the field of Mineral Metabolism. We found that oxidative stress was markedly reduced by KMgCit powder compared to placebo, K Chloride, and K Citrate. On the hand, KMgCit has no significant effects on blood pressure . MedicalResearch.com Editor's note:  DO NOT Take Potassium supplements unless under the direction of your health care provider.
Author Interviews, Microbiome, Multiple Sclerosis, Nutrition, Science / 02.07.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25768" align="alignleft" width="133"]Ashutosh K Mangalam PhD Assistant Professor Department of Pathology University of Iowa Iowa City, IA Mangalam~Ashu[/caption] Ashutosh K Mangalam PhD Assistant Professor Department of Pathology University of Iowa Iowa City, IA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Every human carries trillions of bacteria in their gut (gut microbiome) and recent advances in research indicate that these tiny passengers play an important role in our overall health maintenance. Having evolved over the time span of millions of years with the gut microbiome, they keep us healthy in multiple ways such as fermentation and absorption of undigested carbohydrates, synthesis of some vitamins, metabolism of bile acids etc. However, new research suggests that gut microbiome, also regulating our body’s defense system. It is hypothesized that a diverse gut microbiome is good for our health and perturbations in this might predispose us to disease development. Therefore, we asked whether multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have a gut microbiome which is distinct from healthy individuals. We collected fecal samples from MS patients and healthy controls and performed microbiome analysis. I have recently moved to UI but the entire study was completed at Mayo Clinic Rochester. This study involved a big team comprised of neurologist, gastroenterologist, bioinformatician, system biologist and study coordinators. We found that  multiple sclerosis patients indeed have a gut microbiome which is different from what is observed in healthy people. We identified certain bacteria which are increased or decreased in the gut of patients with multiple sclerosis compared to healthy controls.
Author Interviews, Cancer, Cancer Research, Nutrition / 23.06.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25449" align="alignleft" width="180"]Lindsay Kohler MPH Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health Tucson, Arizona Lindsay Kohler[/caption] Lindsay Kohler MPH Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public Health Tucson, Arizona MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Several studies have reported that following health promotion guidelines for diet, physical activity, and maintenance of a healthy body weight may reduce the risk of getting cancer or dying from cancer. We performed a systematic review to examine the associations between established cancer prevention guidelines for diet and physical activity and cancer outcomes. We found that adhering to cancer prevention guidelines set forth by the American Cancer Society or the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research consistently reduced the risk of overall cancer incidence and mortality (10-61%) in the studies included in this review. In addition, higher adherence to the guidelines consistently reduced the risk of breast, colorectal, and endometrial cancers. Adherence to a pattern of healthy behaviors may significantly reduce cancer incidence and mortality.
Author Interviews, BMJ, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Nutrition, Prostate Cancer / 22.06.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25435" align="alignleft" width="100"]Dr. Ying Bao Sc.D., M.D Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Dr. Ying Bao[/caption] Dr. Ying Bao Sc.D., M.D Assistant Professor of Medicine Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Nuts are rich in bioactive macronutrients, micronutrients, tocopherols and phytochemicals. Current epidemiological evidence has consistently linked increased nut consumption to reduced risk of several chronic conditions including cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, and inflammation. In contrast, evidence on nut consumption and cancer risk has been insufficient and equivocal. Prostate cancer is the leading cancer among U.S. men, with approximately 220,800 new cases diagnosed in 2015. However, very few studies have investigated the association between nut intake and prostate cancer. Thus, in the current study, we followed 47,299 US men from 1986-2012, and examined (1) whether consuming more nuts prevents getting prostate cancer, and (2) whether consuming more nuts reduces death rates among non-metastatic prostate cancer patients. During 26 years of follow-up, 6,810 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, and 4,346 of these patients were without metastasis at diagnosis. We found no association between nut intake and being diagnosed with prostate cancer. However, among non-metastatic prostate cancer patients, those who consumed nuts 5 or more times per week after diagnosis had a significant 34% lower rate of overall mortality than those who consumed nuts less than once per month.
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Diabetes, Nutrition, PLoS / 15.06.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25189" align="alignleft" width="200"]Ambika Satija Departments of Nutrition & Epidemiology Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA Ambika Satija[/caption] Ambika Satija Departments of Nutrition & Epidemiology Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, MA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: In this study, we followed more than 200,000 male and female health professionals across the U.S. for more than 20 years who had regularly filled out questionnaires on their diet, lifestyle, medical history, and new disease diagnoses as part of three large long-term studies.
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Nutrition / 14.06.2016

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: [caption id="attachment_25202" align="alignleft" width="158"]Geng Zong, Ph.D. Research fellow at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts. Dr. Geng Zong[/caption] Geng Zong, Ph.D. Research fellow at Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The refining process of grains removes most of fiber, minerals, vitamins, polyphenols and alkyl resorcinols that mainly exist in the outer layer of a kernel, thus enriches grains with carbohydrate and energy. Whole grains, on the other hand, are cereal grains or processed cereal grains that contains bran and germ, in addition to the inner most endosperm, as their natural proportions in the kernel. Observational studies have repeatedly linked whole grain intake with major chronic diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, but findings regarding mortality are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively summarized. By meta-analyzing 14 existing or unpublished prospective cohort studies, our investigation found that whole grain intake is inversely associated with mortality risk from all-causes, CVD, and cancer. Among people with whole grain consumption, estimated all-cause mortality risk was 7% (for 10 grams/day), 16% (for 30 grams/day), 20% (for 50 grams/day), and 22% (for 70 grams/day) lower than people with no whole grain consumption. Similar dose-response relationship was observed for CVD and cancer mortality.