Patronizing Hair and Nail Salons Linked To Increased Risk of Skin and Fungal Infections

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Lindsey Milich Rutgers School of Public Health studiesLindsey Milich

Rutgers School of Public Health studies
 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Much of the spotlight has been focused on hair and nail technicians, with the focus now shifting towards the health and safety of hair and nail salon clients. We wanted to assess perceived safety and health risks and prevalence of respiratory and dermal symptoms among hair and nail salon clients in New Jersey.

Main findings include dermal/fungal symptoms being more prevalent among clients who visited salons three or more times within the past year, compared with those with fewer reported visits. Respiratory symptom prevalence was higher among clients with fewer salon visits, indicating a “healthy client effect”; clients with these symptoms may be less likely to return.

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Anesthesia, Sterility Measures Contribute To Large Carbon Footprint of Health Care Systems

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
 <a href="https://www.flickr.com/photos/armymedicine/6127836005">“surgery”</a> by <i> <a href="https://www.flickr.com/people/armymedicine/">Army Medicine</a> </i> is licensed under <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0"> CC BY 2.0</a>Andrea MacNeill MD MSc FRCSC

Surgical Oncologist & General Surgeon
University of British Columbia
Vancouver General Hospital
BC Cancer Agency

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Climate change is one of the most pressing public health issues of the present era, responsible for 140,000 deaths annually.  Somewhat paradoxically, the health sector itself has a considerable carbon footprint, as well as other detrimental environmental impacts.  Within the health sector, operating rooms are known to be one of the most resource-intensive areas and have thus been identified as a strategic target for emissions reductions.

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Most Homes Harbor Multiple Allergens

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Salo

Dr. Salo

Dr. Pӓivi Salo, PhD Epidemiologist
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
NIH

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Indoor allergens are important risk factors for asthma and respiratory allergies. Only a few studies have investigated residential allergen exposures on a national scale; the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2006 is the largest and most comprehensive study to date.

MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings?

Response: Our findings show that exposure to multiple allergens is common in U.S. homes; over 90% of homes had three or more detectable allergens, and 73% of homes had at least one allergen at elevated levels. The presence of pets and pests contributed strongly to elevated allergen levels. Housing characteristics also mattered – elevated exposure to multiple allergens was more likely in mobile homes, older homes, rental homes, and homes in rural areas. For individual allergens, exposure levels varied greatly with age, sex, race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Differences were also found between geographic locations and climatic conditions.

MedicalResearch.com: What should clinicians and patients take away from your report?

Response: Understanding factors that affect allergen levels in homes is important because elevated allergen levels can trigger and exacerbate symptoms in people who suffer from asthma and allergies. We hope that our findings provide beneficial information to a wide audience from patients to clinicians, identifying factors that influence levels of exposure to individual and multiple allergens

MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study?

Response: The relationships between allergen exposures, allergic sensitization, and disease are complex. Further research is needed to determine how allergen exposures interact with other environmental and genetic factors that contribute to asthma and allergies.

MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add?

Response: We also compared allergen exposures and previously reported allergic sensitization patterns from this national survey to provide a more complete picture. The allergy focused component in NHANES 2005-2006, which we developed in collaboration with the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), allowed national comparisons for the first time. The observed differences and overlaps reflect the complex nature of the relationships between allergen exposures, allergic sensitization, and disease.

MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community.

Citation:

Salo P, Wilkerson J, Rose KM, Cohn RD, Calatroni A, Mitchell HE, Sever ML, Gergen PJ, Thorne PS, Zeldin DC. 2017. Bedroom allergen exposures in US households. J Allergy Clin Immunol; doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2017.08.033(link is external) [Online 30 November 2017].

Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Your Dusty House May Be Making You Fat

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Heather M. Stapleton PhD Dan and Bunny Gabel Associate Professor of Environmental Ethics and Sustainable Environmental Management EEH Program Chair Nicholas School of the Environment Duke University Durham, North Carolina 27708

Dr. Stapleton

Heather M. Stapleton PhD
Dan and Bunny Gabel Associate Professor of Environmental Ethics and Sustainable Environmental Management
EEH Program Chair
Nicholas School of the Environment
Duke University
Durham, North Carolina 27708

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Building materials and products common to most homes (e.g. furniture, TVs, carpets, etc) are often treated with synthetic chemicals, which migrate out of the products over time and accumulate in house dust, where residents can be exposed to these chemicals on a daily basis.

This study assessed approximately forty chemicals commonly detected and measured in house dust samples for their ability to stimulate the development of fat cells, using a mouse precursor fat cell model. Approximately two thirds of these chemicals were able to promote lipid accumulation by these cells and/or stimulate the proliferation of the precursor fat cells. We then assessed eleven extracts of indoor house dust samples (containing mixtures of these chemicals) and exposed our cells to these extracts, finding that even low levels of these extracts were sufficient to promote the accumulation of lipids and/or the proliferation of the fat precursor cells.

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Land-Based Salmon Farms Degrade Natural Waters With Dissolved Organic Materials

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Norbert Kamjunke Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research UFZ Department of River Ecology Magdeburg, Germany

Dr. Kamjunke

Dr. Norbert Kamjunke
Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research UFZ
Department of River Ecology
Magdeburg, Germany 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Aquacultures are of great importance worldwide but pollute pristine headwater streams, lakes, and estuaries.

Chilean salmon production is economically important, contributing ~25% of the worldwide salmon yield
(Chile ranks second of the world’s salmon-producing countries). Salmon
farming has continuously increased in recent decades; the annual
salmonid production in Chile was 820,000 tons in 2012, representing a
value of 4.9 billion USD (32% of the total worldwide value of salmonid
production). Small salmon are reared in land-based aquacultures supplied
with stream water, whereas mid-sized fish are grown in cages in lakes
and adult fish in cages along the coast. The effluents from land-based
aquaculture pollute pristine streams with nutrients, antibiotics and
organic carbon, resulting in oxygen depletion and negative consequences
for the abundance and biodiversity of stream organisms. While
aquacultures have recently started to remove suspended matter from waste
water using sedimentation basins and rotating drum filters, dissolved
components are still discharged untreated. Nutrients and dissolved
organic matter (DOM) originating from the leaching of remaining food
pellets, fish faeces and fish excretions are major components released
by aquacultures. One aquaculture in northern Patagonia was estimated to
release DOM amounting to 21% of the carbon applied as feed and 76% of
the annual fish production.
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The 1952 London Smog Event Still Impacts Health Of Those Exposed Today

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Jamie T Mullins PhD Environmental Economics and Applied Microeconomic Department of Resource Economics University of Massachusetts Amherst Amherst, MA 01003

Dr. Jamie Mullins

Jamie T Mullins PhD
Environmental Economics and Applied Microeconomic
Department of Resource Economics
University of Massachusetts Amherst
Amherst, MA 01003

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Episodic triggers of asthma are widely known, but the root causes of the condition still aren’t well understood. There is also very limited evidence on the long-term impacts of exposure to air pollution. Speaking to both issues, we find evidence linking the development of asthma to exposure to a significant air pollution event early in life.

The 1952 London Smog provides a natural experiment for studying the underlying cause of asthma and the long-term effects of air pollution exposure, while limiting threats from statistical confounding. The London Smog (also called the “Great Smog”) dramatically increased concentrations of air pollution across the city in December of 1952. We compare the incidence of asthma among those exposed to the Great Smog in utero or the first year of life to those in relevant comparison groups, including those conceived after the incident and those residing outside the affected area at the time of the Smog.

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