Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition, UT Southwestern / 04.07.2016 Interview with: Dr. Wanpen Vongpatanasin MD The Norman and Audrey Kaplan Chair in Hypertension UT Southwestern Medical Center What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and dairy products, known as the DASH diet, is known to reduce blood pressure in hypertensive patients. More recently, the DASH diet was shown to reduce oxidative stress in people with and without high blood pressure . However, the main nutritional ingredient responsible for these beneficial effects of the DASH diet remain unknown. Because the DASH diet is rich in potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and alkali, we performed a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study to compare effects of KMg Citrate (KMgCit), K Chloride (KCl), and K Citrate (KCit) to allow dissociation of the three in hypertensive and prehypertensive individuals. This study was conducted in collaboration with Drs. Charles Pak and Orson Moe at UT Southwestern, the two leading experts in the field of Mineral Metabolism. We found that oxidative stress was markedly reduced by KMgCit powder compared to placebo, K Chloride, and K Citrate. On the hand, KMgCit has no significant effects on blood pressure . Editor's note:  DO NOT Take Potassium supplements unless under the direction of your health care provider. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, Endocrinology, Menopause, Mineral Metabolism, UCLA / 25.06.2016 Interview with: Albert Shieh, MD Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension David Geffen School of Medicine University of California, Los Angeles What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Whether an individual loses or gains bone mass is dependent on how much bone is being broken down (by osteoclasts) and being formed (by osteoblasts). Both processes occur simultaneously in the human body. At present, we can measure markers of bone breakdown (resorption) and formation. However, we hypothesized that to better predict the amount of bone mass that will be lost in the future, these markers should be combined in an "index" to reflect both processes, rather than being interpreted in isolation. Indeed, we found that the ability of our new bone balance index predicted future bone loss across the menopause transition better than the bone resorption marker alone. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, Endocrinology, Hip Fractures, Pharmacology / 08.04.2016 Interview with: Bente Langdahl Professor, Consultant, PhD, DMSc Department of Endocrinology and Internal Medicine THG Aarhus University Hospital Aarhus Denmark What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Romosozumab is a humanised antibody against sclerostin currently in development for the treatment of osteoporosis. Romosozumab has a dual effect on bone; it stimulates bone formation and inhibits bone resorption. If this new treatment obtains regulatory approval and becomes available for the treatment of osteoporosis, some of the patients who will be candidates for this new treatment will already have been treated with other available treatments, for example, bisphosphonates. This study compared the effects of romosozumab and teriparatide, a currently available bone forming treatment, on bone mass, bone structure and bone strength. The results showed that the percent change from baseline in BMD at the total hip through month 12 (the primary endpoint) was significantly greater with romosozumab compared with teriparatide: 2.6 percent versus –0.6 percent, respectively (p<0.0001). For the secondary endpoints; lumbar spine BMD by DXA, total hip and femoral neck BMD by DXA and QCT and bone strength estimated by finite element analysis patients treated with romosozumab had significantly larger increases from baseline compared with those taking teriparatide, with mean differences ranging from 3.1 percent to 4.6 percent (all p-values <0.0001). (more…)
Author Interviews, Calcium, Heart Disease / 02.04.2016 Interview with: Dr. Chan Soo Shin MD PhD Professor of Medicine Seoul National University College of Medicine Seoul, 03080, Korea What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Recently, a series of secondary analyses on large clinical trials and meta-analysis have reveled increased rate of cardiovascular events in women allocated to calcium supplements. As most of these studies were conducted in Western countries where the dietary calcium intake is sufficient, we aimed to investigate the association between dietary calcium intake level and cardiovascular events or mortality in Korea where the average dietary calcium intake is as low as 470 mg per day. We have analyzed data from 4,866 adults aged at least 50 years without previous CDV or stroke history participating in the Ansung and Ansan cohort study, an ongoing, prospective, community-based study in Korea (2,690 women). Participants completed periodic food frequency questionnaires; CVD, stroke and fractures were recorded during interviews and examinations every 2 years. Researchers used proportional Cox regression analysis was used to determine HRs for all-cause mortality, CVD, cerebrovascular disease and fractures, adjusting for age, BMI, vegetable and fruit intake, protein and sodium intake, physical activity, smoking and drinking status, diabetes and hypertension history and total energy from diet. Researchers also adjusted for menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy in women. Women were followed for a mean of 9.2 years; men followed for a mean of 8.9 years. Within the cohort, 359 participants died (243 men); 340 developed CVD (153 men); 157 experienced stroke (59 men); 568 experienced incident fractures (212 men). In comparing the four quartiles for energy-adjusted calcium intake, women experienced an increased reduction in CVD risk with increasing dietary calcium intake. Women in the highest quartile saw the greatest reduced risk for CVD vs. the lowest quartile (HR = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.33-0.86), followed by women in the third (HR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.36-0.85) and second quartiles (HR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55-1.17) when compared with women in the lowest quartile. We found no association between dietary calcium intake and stroke or fracture risk in women. Dietary calcium intake did not affect all-cause mortality, CVD risk, stroke risk or fracture risk in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, JAMA, Mediterranean Diet, Menopause / 01.04.2016 Interview with: Bernhard Haring, MD MPH Department of Medicine I Comprehensive Heart Failure Center University of Würzburg Germany What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Haring: The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between adherence to a diet quality index constructed on the basis of dietary recommendations or existing healthy dietary patterns and bone outcomes in a large population of postmenopausal women. We found that higher diet quality based on a Mediterranean diet may play a role in maintaining bone health in postmenopausal women. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition / 30.01.2016 Interview with: Simin Nikbin Meydani, D.V.M., Ph.D. Director, JM USDA-HNRCA at Tufts University Professor of Nutrition and Immunology Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy and Sackler Graduate School at Tufts University Boston, MA 02111 Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Meydani: A significant number of older people are zinc deficient which can result in a compromised immune system which weakens as the body ages, making older adults more susceptible to infections and higher incidence and morbidity from pneumonia. Older adults with impaired immune response, particularly T cell-mediated function, have a higher susceptibility to infections and cancer. Our research team from the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging created a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involved adults age 65 or older from three Boston-area nursing homes to determine the feasibility of increasing serum zinc concentrations in older adults. The full findings are published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. These results have a significant public health implication for the older adults because it shows directly that correction of a nutrient deficiency can improve immune response in older adult (a biological function which consistently has been shown to be impaired with aging). (more…)
Author Interviews, Mineral Metabolism, Supplements / 12.01.2016 Interview with: Prof. Peter Lay PhD Professor of Inorganic Chemistry School of Chemistry | Faculty of Science Director, Vibrational Spectroscopy Core Facility Research Portfolio The University of Sydney Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: My group has been studying the molecular mechanisms of chromium(VI)-induced cancers and the biochemistry of vanadium over the last three decades. Vanadium drugs have been in clinical trials for their anti-diabetic effects that occur via species with very similar chemistry to chromium(VI).  The more we understood the biochemistry of each, the more we questioned whether the efficacies of anti-diabetic chromium(III) supplements were associated with the generation of carcinogenic chromium(VI) and chromium(V). To test this, we conducted experiments to either provide evidence for our hypothesis or disprove it.  This work commenced some 15 years ago with studies on the changes in the nature of chromium(III) supplements exposed to simulated gastrointestinal juices, as well as in human and animal blood serum over times that mimicked the residence time of the supplements in the human body. We discovered that all supplements were changed to a range of different Cr(III) species in both the GI tract and the blood.1,2  Common species were observed, but the rates at which they formed were dependent on the nature of the chromium(III) supplement.  Both the supplements themselves and the chromium(III) species that formed in blood serum were partially oxidised to Cr(VI) at concentrations of the oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (a type of bleach), found in the blood of people with type II diabetes.1,2 One of the clinical features of patients with type II diabetes is increased levels of oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, in their blood and cells. These oxidants are associated with many of the side-effects of type II diabetes that are associated with reduced life expectancy. These transformed chromium(III) species bound to blood proteins were more easily oxidised to chromium(VI) than the administered Cr(III) supplements.  The faster a particular chromium(III) supplement reacted with blood proteins to form these easily oxidised chromium(III)-protein species, the more active was the Cr(III) supplement in its anti-diabetic activity in animal and human studies reported by other groups.1-5  According to many health and regulatory bodies, chromium(III) has minimal or no efficacy in glucose metabolism and no other beneficial effects, such as weight loss or muscle building, in well conducted human and animal trials with non-diabetic subjects. This is consistent with our proposed mechanism of action. It is only under oxidising physiological conditions associated with type II diabetes that chromium(III) can be partially transformed to sufficient concentrations of carcinogenic chromium(VI) to enable significant biological activity.  In a large clinical trial where diabetic patients were treated with high doses of chromium(III) picolinate (one of the least efficacious supplements in animal studies), there was no efficacy in patients with controlled type II diabetes. Only those patients with uncontrolled type II diabetes exhibited improved glucose metabolism.  These patients, who have the highest concentrations of oxidants with the ability to transform chromium(III) to chromium(VI) in blood, are therefore at the greatest risk of developing Cr-induced cancers. Even where efficacy was observed, glucose metabolism was only reduced to the levels in patients with controlled type II diabetes; i.e., no patients exhibited a return to normal glucose metabolism.4,5 Coupled with all of this information our separate studies showed that chromium(VI) and chromium(V), but not chromium(III), are strong inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) enzymes.  The relevance of this is that drugs that inhibit PTPs activate circulating insulin in people with type II diabetes.  That is, it causes insulin to bind more strongly to cells involved in glucose metabolism (such as fat cells) to bring about the cascade of biochemical reactions that import glucose into cells and metabolise it.1-5 Thus we were able to link all of the animal, human and in vitro studies to show that physiological conditions under which chromium(III) had the highest probability of being transformed to chromium(VI) were also those in which chromium(III) supplements were most active.1-5 Moreover, we were able to provide a mechanism of activity that required chromium(VI) and chromium(V) to be generated for insulin enhancing activity.1-5  What remained was to establish whether we could observe Cr(VI) and Cr(V) in cells treated with chromium(III) supplements. This has now been established in our most recent study6 that have just been published. Contrary to the press releases of the dietary supplement industry, the published paper was carefully planned to mimic those conditions found in vivo.  The chromium(III) supplement chosen was that which had a chemical structure most closely resembling those generated in blood plasma. Thus we were able to complete the circle in linking our extensive studies on the biochemistry of chromium(III) species generated from chromium(III) supplements in the blood and show that such species were absorbed by the relevant cells and partially oxidised to chromium(VI) and chromium(V). (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition, Pediatrics / 13.11.2015 Interview with: Audry H. Garcia PhD Scientist Department of Epidemiology Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam Rotterdam, The Netherlands Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Garcia: Mild and chronic metabolic acidosis as a result of a diet rich in acid-forming nutrients, such as cheese, fish, meat and grain products, may interfere with optimal bone mineralization and indirectly increase the risk of osteoporosis later in life. Previous observational studies in adults have reported inverse associations between dietary acid load and bone mass. However, the evidence in younger populations is scarce; only a few studies have been performed in healthy children and adolescents with inconsistent results, and not much is known on the effects of dietary acid load on bone mass in younger children or in children with a non-European background. In a prospective multiethnic population-based cohort study of 2,850 children from the city of Rotterdam, the Netherlands, we found that dietary acid load estimated as dietary potential renal acid load (dPRAL), and as protein intake to potassium intake ratio (Pro:K) at 1 year of age, was not consistently associated with childhood bone health. Furthermore, associations did not differ by sex, ethnicity, weight status, or vitamin D supplementation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Geriatrics, Mineral Metabolism / 22.10.2015 Interview with: Andrew M Hinson, MD UAMS Postdoctoral Research Fellow Thyroid/Parathyroid Diseases & Surgery and Donald L. Bodenner, MD, PhD Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Department of Geriatrics University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas. Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Response: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)​ are widely prescribed, highly effective and generally safe for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. However, there are risks that may be elevated for some older people when PPIs are used in high doses over long periods of time. There is also evidence that fracture risk may even be higher in older patients who are being treated with concurrent oral bisphosphonate medications, which are used to prevent fractures in patients with osteoporosis. While the mechanism remains unknown, PPIs may increase fracture risk by decreasing gastrointestinal absorption (e.g., calcium, vitamin B12, and/or bisphosphonates) or by inhibiting a major mechanism by which bisphosphonates work. To learn more about this process, we studied patients 60 years or older with normal renal function and vitamin D levels to see how PPIs (with and without concurrent bisphosphonate administration) impacted measurements in parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Response: We found that chronic PPI exposure in elderly adults is associated with mild secondary hyperparathyroidism regardless of concurrent oral blood pressure administration. Secondary hyperparathyroidism refers to the excessive secretion of PTH by the parathyroid glands in response to low blood calcium levels. This is often associated with renal failure; however, all of our patients had normal renal function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Calcium, Kidney Disease, Kidney Stones, Supplements, Vitamin D / 20.10.2015 Interview with: Christopher Loftus M.D. candidate Cleveland Clinic Lerner College of Medicine Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Most kidney stones are made, at least partially, of calcium composite. In a prospective study of nurses in the post-menopausal age, it was found that diets that contained high amounts of calcium were beneficial in preventing kidney stones in this population. In the gut, calcium can bind to oxalate which prevents it from being absorbed into the body and decreases the concentration of calcium in the urine. However there has been debate as to whether supplemental calcium (calcium pills) has the same beneficial effects as calcium in the diet. Supplemental calcium enters the gut in large quantities all at once so it may enter the blood stream in higher concentrations over smaller amounts of time. By the same token, vitamin D plays a role in the management and balance of calcium in the body and could potentially have an effect on stone formation as well.  It has also been debated whether vitamin D supplementation has major effect on patients who are known to be stone formers.  So we reviewed CT scans of patients and 24 hour urine collections (both male and female of adult age) who were known to have kidney stones and measured the growth of stones over a period of time. Our main findings were that supplementary calcium increased the rate of stone formation in these patients. We also found that vitamin D had a protective effect and patients taking only vitamin D had a slower rate of stone progression. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Bone Density, Calcium, Mineral Metabolism, Orthopedics / 03.10.2015 Interview with: Dr. Mark J Bolland Associate professor of medicine Department of Medicine University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand Medical Research: What is the background for this study? Dr. Bolland: Many guidelines advise older people to take at least 1000-1200 mg/day of calcium to improve bone density and prevent fractures. The average calcium intake in most countries is a lot less than these recommendations, and so many people take calcium supplements to increase their calcium intake. However, recent concerns about the safety of calcium supplements have led experts to recommend increasing calcium intake through food rather than by taking supplements, even though the effect of increasing dietary calcium intake on bone health had not been clearly established. Our study was designed to fill this evidence gap. Medical Research: What are the main findings? Dr. Bolland: Firstly, we found that increasing calcium intake either from the diet or by taking calcium supplements led to similar, small, one-off increases in bone density of 1-2%. These increases do not build up over time and are too small to produce significant reductions in the chance of having a fracture. Secondly, the level of dietary calcium intake is not associated with the risk of having a fracture. Thirdly, in clinical trials, calcium supplements have only small, inconsistent benefits on preventing fractures, with no effect on fractures seen in the highest quality trials (more…)
Author Interviews, Endocrinology, JCEM, Menopause, Mineral Metabolism / 01.09.2015 Interview with: Emily Krantz (né Amundson) MD Södra Älvsborgs Hospital Borås, Sweden Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: This study is a 10-year follow up of a double-blind placebo controlled trial in which women with post menopausal osteoporosis received Growth Hormone (GH) for 3 years (Landin-Wilhelmsen JBMR 2003;18:393-404). Positive effects of the treatment on the patients bone mineral density and bone mineral content were seen after another 7 years. Furthermore and most interestingly, fracture incidence decreased dramatically from 56% to 28% (p=.0003) in the osteoporosis patients while fractures increased significantly in the control group, from 8% to 32% (p=.0008). Health Related Quality of Life was also measured throughout the study’s duration and it did not change nor did it differ from the control group. (more…)
Anemia, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Kidney Disease, Mineral Metabolism / 10.08.2015 Interview with: Lac Tran, MD Division of Nephrology and Hypertension Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center Los Angeles, CA Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Tran: Abnormal serum phosphorus levels have been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and progression to renal failure.  Given phosphorus’s important biological roles in cellular replication and bone mineral metabolism, we sought to investigate the association between phosphorus levels and anemia in normal kidney function and early chronic kidney disease. Our study is a population-based study among a large racially/ethnically diverse population within the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health system. Among 155, 974 individuals, 4.1% had moderate anemia and 12.9% had mild anemia.  We found that phosphorus levels greater than 3.5 mg/dL and less than 2.0 mg/dL showed a greater likelihood for moderate anemia.  Every 0.5 mg/dL phosphorus level increase demonstrated a 16% greater likelihood for moderate anemia.  The highest phosphorus tertile of our population had a 26% greater likelihood for anemia compared to the middle tertile.  We also found that female sex, Asian race, diabetes, low albumin, and low iron saturation were risk factors for anemia. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hearing Loss, JCEM, Mineral Metabolism / 21.04.2015

Dr. Kai-Jen Tien MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Interview with: Dr. Kai-Jen Tien MD Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan Medical Research: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Previous studies investigating the relationship between osteoporosis and sudden sensorineural hearing loss were rare. Most of the studies were of small sample size, or cross-sectional designs and their results were inconclusive. Our population-based study found an approximately 1.76-fold increase in the incidence of sensorineural hearing loss for patients with osteoporosis compared with the comparison group.Patients with more severe osteoporosis may have a higher risk of SSNHL than patients with osteoporosis of milder severity. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Bone Density, FASEB / 03.02.2015

Dr. Jean-Pol Frippiat Stress, Immunity and Pathogens Laboratory at Lorraine University Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, Interview with: Dr. Jean-Pol Frippiat Stress, Immunity and Pathogens Laboratory Lorraine University Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France  What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Dr. Frippiat: Osteoporosis is associated to spaceflight. Consequently, we wondered whether changes in bone micro-structure induced by a ground-based model of spaceflight, hindlimb unloading (HU) that simulates some of the effects of spaceflight on mice, induces changes in B lymphocyte production in the bone marrow. To this end, we analyzed both bone parameters and the frequency of cells of the B lineage in the bone marrow of young, old and HU mice. We found that HU leads to a decrease in both bone micro-structure and the frequency of B cell progenitors in the bone marrow. A major block at the pro-B to pre-B cell transition was observed indicating a decrease in the formation of B cells in the bone marrow. Interestingly, the modifications in B cell production were similar to those observed in aged mice. These findings demonstrate that mechanical unloading, to which astronauts are subjected during spaceflight, results in a decrease in B cell differentiation that resemble age-related modifications in B lymphopoiesis. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Calcium, Heart Disease / 13.05.2014

Dr. Julie Paik, MD MPH Instructor, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Massachusetts Interview with: Dr. Julie Paik, MD MPH MSc Instructor, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Paik: Many women in the United States take calcium supplements. One study found that over 60% of women aged 60 and over in the United States were taking calcium supplements. However, the medical community is still not certain of the effects of calcium supplements in women, particularly on cardiovascular disease risk. For this reason, we studied 74,245 women participating in the Nurses' Health Study over a 24-year follow-up period for their risk of developing cardiovascular disease (heart disease or stroke). We found that there was no increased risk of heart disease or stroke among women taking calcium supplements during the 24-year follow-up period. Our paper has several distinct strengths compared to prior studies including the large sample size, long follow-up period, cases of cardiovascular disease that were confirmed by medical record review, detailed and repeated assessment of calcium supplement use, and detailed information about other risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Calcium, Gender Differences, Heart Disease / 09.11.2013

Joshua Lewis, Ph.D Raine Foundation / Alan Robson Fellow Bone and Vascular Research Group School of Medicine and Pharmacology University of Western Australia Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Hospital Avenue, Nedlands Interview with: Joshua Lewis, Ph.D Raine Foundation / Alan Robson Fellow Bone and Vascular Research Group School of Medicine and Pharmacology University of Western Australia Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital Hospital Avenue, Nedlands 6009 What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lewis: The paper reports the findings from an ancillary study of the effects of 1200 mg per day of calcium supplementation on a major predictor of heart disease risk, carotid artery intima-medial thickness and atherosclerosis. The principle study was a large five-year double blind randomized controlled trial of calcium supplements or a placebo. After 3 years of calcium supplementation or placebo measures of carotid artery intima-medial thickness were identical in the placebo and calcium treated patients.  Atherosclerotic plaque was reduced in calcium treated patients when analysed as total calcium intake. These findings argue strongly against an adverse effect of high dose calcium tablets on cardiovascular risk. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Mineral Metabolism, Stroke / 14.10.2013

Abhishek Sharma, M.B.B.S. Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, Interview with: Abhishek Sharma, M.B.B.S. Maimonides Medical Center in Brooklyn, N.Y. What are the main findings of the study? Answer:  Evidence from RCT's and observational studies suggests a significantly increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) requiring hospitalization, but no increase in risk of stroke or cardiovascular mortality with the use of bisphosphonate. (more…)
Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Mineral Metabolism, Salt-Sodium / 14.09.2013 Interview with: Dr Sandosh Padmanabhan Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences University of Glascow, Interview with: Dr Sandosh Padmanabhan Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences University of Glascow, Scotland What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Padmanabhan: In the study "Serum Chloride Is an Independent Predictor of Mortality in Hypertensive Patients" we analysed data on 12,968 patients with hypertension followed up at the Glasgow Blood Pressure Clinic. We found that patients in the lowest quintile of serum Cl (<100 mmol/L), compared with all other patients, had a 23% higher mortality (all-cause, cardiovascular, and non-cardiovascular). Each 1-mmol/L increase in serum Cl was associated with a 1.1% to 1.5% lower all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and non-cardiovascular mortality. This was independent of serum concentrations of sodium, bicarbonate or potassium. We did not find any association with longitudinal blood pressure control. (more…)
Author Interviews, Bone Density, Breast Cancer, Mineral Metabolism / 23.08.2013

Richard R. Love, MD MS International Breast Cancer Research Foundation Professor of Medicine and Public Health The Ohio State University Columbus, Interview with: Richard R. Love, MD MS International Breast Cancer Research Foundation Professor of Medicine and Public Health The Ohio State University Columbus, OH What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Surgical oophorectomy and tamoxifen treatment was associated with no loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in the femoral neck, and loss of BMD in the first year, followed by stabilization in the lumbar spine. (more…)
Mineral Metabolism, Nutrition / 02.07.2013

Scott M. Smith, Ph.D.  Nutritionist, Manager for Nutritional Biochemistry Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX Interview with: Scott M. Smith, Ph.D. Nutritionist, Manager for Nutritional Biochemistry Biomedical Research and Environmental Sciences Division NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, TX 77058 Iron status and its relations with oxidative damage and bone loss during long-duration space flight on the International Space Station What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Smith:  The key finding from this study is that the increase in iron stores during spaceflight is related to both oxidative damage and bone loss.  Iron stores increase in microgravity because blood volume decreases during the initial weeks of spaceflight. The iron in excess red blood cells is not reused by new RBCs during spaceflight and is stored.  This increase in iron stores was associated with increased indices of oxidative damage, and furthermore, the magnitude of the increase in iron stores during flight (i.e., the area under the curve) was correlated with bone mineral density loss.  That is, the greater the iron stores, the more bone loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, Calcium, Mineral Metabolism / 09.04.2013 eInterview with Maoquing Wang Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Harbin MedicalUniversity, 157 Baojian Road, Nangang District, Harbin, 150081, P. R. China What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang: Our group first reported that the 2-week low-calcium diet could result in metabolic changes and 27 reliable biomarkers of calcium deficiency were identified. The correlations between calcium intake and two of the biomarkers indicated that these biomarkers could be used alone or in combination as a non-invasive screening method with greater sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of calcium deficiency in humans in future. The identified biomarkers give new insights into the pathophysiological changes and molecular mechanisms of calcium deficiency. (more…)