GERD Associated With Increased Risk of Malignancy of the Upper Aerodigestive Tract

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Edward D. McCoul, MD, MPH Ochsner Medical Center

Dr. McCoul

Dr. Edward D. McCoul, MD, MPH
Ochsner Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Population-level data suggests a link between gastroesophageal reflux disease and cancer of the throat and sinuses in adults over 65 years of age.  T

he strength of association between reflux and cancer is strongest for anatomic sites closest to the esophagus, where acid and other stomach contents may have the greatest exposure.

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation Patients Frustrated With Limited Treatment Options

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Eamonn M.M. Quigley, M.D. Director, Lynda K. and David M. Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders Houston Methodist Hospital

Dr. Quigley

Eamonn M.M. Quigley, M.D.
Director, Lynda K. and David M. Underwood Center for Digestive Disorders
Houston Methodist Hospital

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The BURDEN IBS-C (Better Understanding and Recognition of the Disconnects, Experiences, and Needs of Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Constipation) Study was designed to develop a better understanding of the experiences and attitudes associated with IBS-C.

This study consisted of more than 1,300 individuals who met IBS-C criteria (mean age 46 years; 73 percent of respondents were female) and completed the author-developed, IRB-approved online questionnaire. The study also evaluated, through an approximately 45-minute long questionnaire, more than 325 healthcare providers who treat patients with IBS-C.

Notably, the study found many patients experienced stress, lost productivity and described a feeling of frustration with their condition. HCPs recognize this frustration, yet underestimate how many patients have “accepted” their condition. Both patients and healthcare providers (HCPs) also noted a lack of satisfaction in currently available prescription treatments for IBS-C.

Detailed findings can be found here.

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Peppermint Oil Based IBgard® Found Efficacious In Some Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Mixed Bowel Habits

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brooks D. Cash, M.D., A.G.A.F., F.A.C.G., F.A.S.G.E. Professor of Medicine and Chief of the USA Gastroenterology Division Director, Motility and Physiology Service University of South Alabama Mobile, Alabama

Dr. Cash

Brooks D. Cash, M.D., A.G.A.F., F.A.C.G., F.A.S.G.E.
Professor of Medicine and
Chief of the USA Gastroenterology Division
Director, Motility and Physiology Service
University of South Alabama
Mobile, Alabama 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) among patients with IBS-M (mixed diarrhea and constipation) is a challenging and difficult to diagnose and treat sub-type of IBS. Patients with IBS-M represent a dissatisfied group of IBS patients due to the lack of proven therapies. It is an area of high unmet medical need.

Among adult patients with IBS, a sizeable proportion suffers from IBS-M with prevalence rates estimated to be between 44 to 66 percent of IBS sufferers[1],[2],[3]. IBS-M patients carry a heavy burden, characterized by bouts of constipation interrupted by diarrhea and vice versa. Physicians find IBS-M challenging to manage because of the difficulty in avoiding ‘overshoots’ when diarrhea management can turn into constipation and vice versa.[4]  Continue reading

Liraglutide (SAXENDA) May Lead To Weight Loss By Slowing Stomach Emptying

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Prof Michael Camilleri, MD Gastroenterologist, Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology and Physiology at Mayo Clinic Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (CENTER) Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

Prof. Camilleri

Prof Michael Camilleri, MD
Gastroenterologist, Professor of Medicine, Pharmacology and Physiology at Mayo Clinic
Clinical Enteric Neuroscience Translational and Epidemiological Research (CENTER)
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Liraglutide is approved for treatment of obesity; the precise mechanisms for the beneficial weight loss are unclear. We are interested to learn whether it is possible to identify people who are more likely to benefit from this treatment.

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Study Finds Diet Not Connected to GI Problems in Children With Autism

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Bradley James Ferguson, PhD University of Missouri School of Medicine

Dr. Ferguson

Bradley James Ferguson, PhD
University of Missouri School of Medicine 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Many individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have gastrointestinal problems, such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome and abdominal pain, but the cause of these GI issues is not currently known. Previous research from our laboratory showed a significant positive relationship between cortisol levels and GI problems, especially for constipation. However, it is possible that other factors such as diet may affect GI functioning, especially since many children have altered diets. This study examined 32 different nutrients in the children’s diets, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire that assessed the participant’s diet over the past month, and how each nutrient was related to upper and lower GI tract symptom scores over the past month created from the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms – Rome III. The results showed no significant relationships between any of the nutrients and GI symptoms, suggesting that diet was not associated with GI symptoms in this sample.

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Patients With Clostridium difficile Infections Should Have Need For Gastric Acid Suppression Reassessed

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Sahil Khanna,

Dr. Sahil Khanna

Sahil Khanna, M.B.B.S. MS
Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea and has recently shown increasing incidence especially in the community. Novel risk factors for CDI development include the use of gastric acid suppression medication, presence of systemic comorbid conditions, C difficile carriage in water and food sources, amongst others.

Gastric acid suppression medications such as proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) and histamine-2 receptor blockers (H2Bs) are commonly prescribed and consumed over the counter for gastroesophageal reflux disease, peptic ulcer disease, or functional dyspepsia, but they are also sometimes prescribed for unnecessary indications, which leads to overuse of these medications. Recurrent CDI after a primary infection is a major problem, with the risk being as high as 50% to 60% after 3 or more Clostridium difficile infections. Data on the association between acid suppression and recurrent CDI are conflicting and therefore we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to study the association between the use of gastric acid suppression medications and the risk of recurrent CDI.

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Investigational Compound Improves Gut Microbiome Without Long-Term GI Symptoms

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Fernando Azpiroz, MD, PhD Chief of the Department of Digestive Diseases University Hospital Vall d’Hebron Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

Dr. Fernando Azpiroz

Fernando Azpiroz, MD, PhD
Chief of the Department of Digestive Diseases
University Hospital Vall d’Hebron
Autonomous University of Barcelona, Spain

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: This open-label, single-arm study, included 26 healthy volunteers who did not have gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms or a history of GI disorders, and were not required to change their diets during treatment. Twenty participants were included in the main evaluation and six were included as control subjects.

Participants in the main study were given HOST-G904 (2.8 g/day) for three weeks, during which time they followed their usual diet. In the evaluation periods (three-day periods immediately before, at the beginning and at the end of the administration), the participants followed a standardized low-fiber diet with one portion of high-fiber foods, at which time the investigators measured the following:

(1) number of daytime gas evacuations for two days;
(2) volume of gas evacuated; and
(3) microbiome composition (as measured by fecal Illumina MiSeq sequencing).

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ACG Clinical Guideline: Evaluation of Abnormal Liver Chemistries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, FACG Stanford University School of Medicine

Dr. Paul Y. Kwo

Paul Y. Kwo, MD, FACG
Stanford University School of Medicine

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: This guideline, which was jointly authored by Drs. Kwo, Cohen, and Lim provides a framework for physicians to approach the very common problem encountered of a patient whose liver chemistries are abnormal. This is particularly relevant as there remain large pools of individuals who have yet to be diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and C, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, advanced liver disease as well as less common conditions, all of whom will require evaluation.

In particular, the rise in the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease worldwide will be addressed in part by identifying and evaluating these individuals prior to the development of advanced fibrosis. The guideline takes clinicians through a step-wise approach to the evaluation of elevated aminotransferase (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase, and bilirubin levels including appropriate historical questions, important physical examination findings, laboratory , radiological evaluation and finally liver biopsy if required.

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How Do Patients Decide Among Biologics for Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher V. Almario, MD, MSHPM</strong> Assistant Professor of Medicine Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center Cedars-Sinai Center for Outcomes Research and Education Los Angeles, CA

Dr. Christopher V. Almario

Christopher V. Almario, MD, MSHPM
Assistant Professor of Medicine
Division of Digestive and Liver Diseases, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center
Cedars-Sinai Center for Outcomes Research and Education
Los Angeles, CA

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Recent drug approvals have increased the availability of biologic therapies for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the growing number of biologics has also made it more difficult for both patients and healthcare providers to navigate treatment options and to ultimately choose the most appropriate therapy.

In this study, we wanted to examine patient decision-making surrounding IBD biologic therapies using conjoint analysis, which is a form of tradeoff analysis that determines how respondents make complex decisions by presenting them with competing product profiles. Here, we quantified the relative importance of 9 biologic therapy attributes (e.g., how the medicine works, how the medicine is received, long-term effectiveness, side-effect profile, etc.) in the decision-making process.

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DRD2 Inhibitors As Potential Therapy Against Pancreatic Cancer

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Pouria Jandaghi
Functional Genome Analysis, Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum
Heidelberg, Germany
Department of Human Genetics, McGill University
University and Genome Quebec Innovation Centre
Montreal, Canada

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Although the overall five-year survival of all patients with cancer stands at 63%, for pancreatic cancer patients, it is a disheartening 8% – a number that remains largely unchanged for three decades. Of the patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, about 85% exhibit pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Most of these patients die within 4 to 6 months after diagnosis. The poor prognosis is caused by the its detection at only late stages, and lack of effective options for chemotherapy. The widely used chemotherapeutic agent gemcitabine, confers a median survival advantage of only 6 months, and resistance to therapy develops in the vast majority of patients. Given this poor prognosis of patients with PDAC, there is an urgent need to find more effective therapies.

In this study, we set out to investigate potential therapeutic targets by dissecting gene expression profiles of tumors and control samples. Candidate targets were validated with respect to their suitability and analyzed functionally.
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