Low Magnesium May Be Linked To Increased Risk of Hip Fractures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Setor Kunutsor Ba(Legon), MBChB(Legon), MA(Cantab), PhD(Cantab) Research Fellow Musculoskeletal Research Unit University of Bristol

Dr. Kunutsor

Dr Setor Kunutsor Ba(Legon), MBChB(Legon), MA(Cantab), PhD(Cantab)
Research Fellow
Musculoskeletal Research Unit
University of Bristol

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Bone fractures are one of the leading causes of disability and ill health especially among the ageing population and are a burden to health care systems. There is established evidence that calcium and vitamin D play an important role in bone health.

Magnesium is an essential trace element, being the second most abundant intracellular cation after potassium and the fourth most abundant cation in the body. It serves several important functions in the body, which include protein synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, enzymatic reactions, and has also been shown to be cardio-protective. It is also an important component of bone, with majority (67 percent) of total body magnesium known to be found in the bone tissue. There have been suggestions from both human and animal experiments that magnesium may have a beneficial effect on bone health; however, its relationship with fractures is not very certain.

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Evaluation of Athletic Hip Injuries

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Christopher M. Larson, M.D. Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute Twin Cities Orthopedics Edina, MN

Dr. Christopher Larson

Christopher M. Larson, M.D.
Minnesota Orthopedic Sports Medicine Institute
Twin Cities Orthopedics
Edina, MN  

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Until recently Athletic Hip and Pelvis disorders and the appropriate treatment strategies have not received the same attention as other sports related disorders.  There is significant overlap between intra-articular and extra-articular hip disorders that make this a challenging area of sports medicine from a diagnosis and treatment standpoint.

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Radiation Exposure in the Pediatric Patient: What Every Orthopaedist Should Know

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Ayesha Rahman, MD

Chief Orthopaedic Surgery Resident
NYU Langone Medical Center.

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Children are more vulnerable and susceptible to lifetime adverse events from radiation exposure, caused by imaging . We reviewed literature and found certain pediatric orthopaedic patients are at greater risk for radiation exposure, namely those who have surgery for hip dysplasia, scoliosis, and leg length discrepancy, as they are among those most likely to undergo CT imaging. After reviewing all types of imaging studies performed in orthopedics and how much radiation is involved in each test, we developed several recommendations that pediatric orthopaedic surgeons should follow.

Among those recommendations are: utilize low-dose CT protocols or technology that uses less imaging (like EOS), limit CT scans of the spine and pelvis, know that female patients are more susceptible to adverse risk and plan accordingly, and follow the the “as low as reasonably achievable,”principle to limit exposure to parts of the body that are necessary for diagnosis.

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Psoriasis Patients At Higher Risk for Multiple Pathological Fractures

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:
Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH

Assistant Professor in Dermatology
Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine
Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Jonathan L. Silverberg MD PhD MPH Assistant Professor in Dermatology Medical Social Sciences and Preventive Medicine Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois

Dr. Jonathan Silverberg

Response: Psoriasis is associated with a number of potential risk factors for developing osteoporosis and pathological fractures, including including low vitamin D, chronic inflammation, higher rates of cigarette smoking and systemic corticosteroid usage. We hypothesized that adults with psoriasis have higher rates of osteoporosis and pathological fractures.

We examined data from the 2002-2012 National Inpatient Sample, which contains a representative 20% sample of all hospitalizations in the United States. We found that psoriasis was associated with higher odds of osteopenia, osteoporosis, osteomalacia, ankylosing spondylitis, and pathological fractures. In particular, psoriasis was associated with vertebral, pelvic, femoral and tibial/fibular fractures. The associations between psoriasis and pathological fractures were more pronounced in women than men.

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Patients Can Expect To Return To Normal Function Relatively Quickly After Knee Arthroscopy

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Patients Can Expect To Return To Normal Function Relatively Quickly After Knee Arthroscopy MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexis Colvin, MD Associate Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai James N. Gladstone, MD Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the U.S. There is minimal literature on when patients can expect to return to daily activity. We sought to help patients understand when they could expect to return to a number of basic activities, specifically in an urban environment where patients need to be mobile early. MedicalResearch.com: What are the main findings? Response: Our findings included: • Patients are off narcotics within 7 days, • Patients stop use of a cane/crutches at 8 days • Patients can drive after 14 days • Patients can go up subway stairs at 20 days • Patients sit on a toilet comfortably at 14 days • Patients return to work at 15 days MedicalResearch.com: What should readers take away from your report? Response: Patients can expect to return to relatively normal function within a short amount of time. MedicalResearch.com: What recommendations do you have for future research as a result of this study? Response: We will also be looking at what other factors, such as age, BMI, medical co-morbidities, etc. can also influence how fast patients recover from this very common surgery. MedicalResearch.com: Is there anything else you would like to add? Response: MedicalResearch.com: Thank you for your contribution to the MedicalResearch.com community. Citation: 2017 AAOS abstract Return to Daily Life After Meniscectomy Alexis C. Colvin, MD, New York, NY James Dieterich, BA, New York, NY James N. Gladstone, MD, New York, NY Diana Patterson, MD, New York, NY Arthroscopic meniscectomy is a frequently performed procedure, but minimal guidelines exist for counseling patients on functionality during the recovery period or time to return to daily activities. http://www.aaos.org/uploadedFiles/2017%20Final%20Program_compressed.pdf Note: Content is Not intended as medical advice. Please consult your health care provider regarding your specific medical condition and questions. More Medical Research Interviews on MedicalResearch.com

Dr. Colvin

Alexis Colvin, MD
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

James N. Gladstone, MD Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Gladstone

James N. Gladstone, MD
Co-Chief, Sports Medicine Service, The Mount Sinai Hospital
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: Knee arthroscopy is one of the most commonly performed procedures in the U.S. There is minimal literature on when patients can expect to return to daily activity.

We sought to help patients understand when they could expect to return to a number of basic activities, specifically in an urban environment where patients need to be mobile early.

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The Opioid Epidemic and Orthopaedic Pain Management

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Hammoud

Dr. Sommer Hammoud

Dr. Sommer Hammoud MD
ABOS Board Certified Assistant Professor of Orthopedic Surgery
Thomas Jefferson University 

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: The background for this exhibit stemmed from the growing problem of prescription opioid abuse in the United States.  As we saw this issue developing, we aimed to investigate the history behind this epidemic, what information we have now to fight it, and what information we need in the future to improve care our patients.

Our main findings for each of those aims are the following:

1) It would appear that a large push at the end of the last century led to a lower threshold to prescribe opiates in the effort to control pain, leading to the current opioid epidemic
2) Mulitmodal methods of pain control and the expanding skill of regional anesthesia can be used to help decrease narcotic use and thus limit exposure to narcotics, and
3) Future research needs to focus on the psychologic aspect of patients’ ability to manage pain and we should strive to be able to categorize patients in order to create an individualized pain management protocol which will most effectively manage pain.

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Risk Factors For Adverse Events After Total Shoulder Replacement

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Brad Parsons, MD Associate Professor, Orthopaedics Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

Dr. Parsons

Brad Parsons, MD
Associate Professor, Orthopaedics
Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: As bundled payment initiatives increase in order to contain health care costs, total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a likely future target.

Understanding modifiable drivers of complications and unplanned readmission as well as identifying when such events occur will be critical for orthopedic surgeons and hospitals to improve outcomes and to make fixed-price payment models feasible for TSA.

Utilizing the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program we identified 5801 patients that underwent TSA with a 2.7% readmission rate and 2.5% severe adverse event rate. Patients with 3 or more risk factors were found to have a significantly increased risk of readmission and severe adverse events within the first two weeks postoperatively.

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The Short Form KOOS, Jr Is Valid for Revision Knee Arthroplasty

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Alexander S. McLawhorn, MD, MBA Orthopedic Surgery, Hip and Knee Replacement Hospital for Special Surgery New York, NY 10021

Dr. McLawhorn

Alexander S. McLawhorn, MD, MBA
Orthopedic Surgery, Hip and Knee Replacement
Hospital for Special Surgery
New York, NY 10021

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) researchers saw the need for a shorter, more patient friendly outcome survey for revision knee replacement surgery. This is an area where patient-reported outcomes data are essential to improving quality of care. In fact, knee replacement revisions, which are more complex and heterogeneous than primary knee surgery, are under-studied in this regard.

A commonly used knee replacement survey, the KOOS (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score), is 42 questions and often leaves physicians with partial and unusable information secondary to patient burden and fatigue. Previously, researchers at HSS created the KOOS, JR, which is a shorter, 7-question survey that accurately measures “knee health”, meaning it reflects aspects of pain, symptom severity, and activities of daily living relevant and difficult for patients with knee arthritis. The current research presented at AAOS showed that the KOOS, JR can be extended to knee replacement revision patients and that it is a valid and efficient tool for assessing knee health in this challenging patient population.

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High School Students Increasingly Specializing in One Sport

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Michael G. Ciccotti, MD Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Rothman Institute Chief of Sports Medicine, and Director of the Sports Medicine Fellowship Thomas Jefferson University

Dr. Michael Ciccotti

Michael G. Ciccotti, MD
Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery
Rothman Institute
Chief of Sports Medicine, and
Director of the Sports Medicine Fellowship
Thomas Jefferson University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? 

Response: No doubt sports plays a huge role in the United States and all over world with millions of young people between the ages 6 and 18 participating in an organized sport on a regular basis.

Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous focus on youth single sport specialization (SSS), with pressure from coaches, parents and the athletes themselves to participate in one sport year round. Many participants, coaches and parents believe that early specialization may allow the young athlete to become better and progress more quickly in their sport, perhaps allowing them a greater chance of becoming a professional athlete. This drive toward early specialization has been fueled by popular icons i.e. Tiger Woods (golf) and Lionel “Leo” Messi (soccer) as well as by media hits such as Friday Night Tykes (young football players) and The Short Game (7-year old golfers). The pop-psych writer, Malcolm Gladwell, whose The 10,000 Hour Rule (in his book Outliers) holds that 10,000 hours of “deliberate practice” are needed to become world-class in any field may have also encouraged the specialization trend.

There is little doubt that youth sports may encourage a lifelong interest in a healthy lifestyle as well as improved self-esteem and social relationships. The flip side is that extreme training and singular focus on a sport can lead to stress on the developing musculo-skeletal system, a pressure to succeed at all costs, reduced fun, burnout and sometimes social isolation.

The dilemma we are beginning to scratch the surface of is does single sport specialization enhance the likelihood of getting to an elite level and does it increase the risk of injury? There is a growing sense in the medical community that SSS raises injury risk without enhancing progression to a higher level.

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How Does Spinal Deformity Impact Hip Stability?

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr Aaron J. Buckland Spinal and scoliosis surgeon and assistant professor Orthopedic surgery NYU Langone Medical Center

Dr. Aaron Buckland

Dr Aaron J. Buckland
Spinal and scoliosis surgeon and
Assistant professor
Orthopedic surgery
NYU Langone Medical Center

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?

Response: For decades, surgeons performing hip replacements have placed the acetabular component adjacent to the pelvis in a “safe zone” which has been shown to reduce dislocation risk. However, beginning in residency, I would notice that several of my patients with spinal deformities or lumbar fusions, would experience dislocations despite the safe zone placement of these implants. Our initial research demonstrated that there was an increased dislocation risk in patients with lumbar fusions, particularly if they underwent spinal realignment. We investigated this phenomenon further by retrospectively reviewing 107 patients who met the criteria for sagittal spinal deformity, including 139 hip replacements collectively.

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Despite Guidelines, Low Proportion of Elderly Hip Fracture Patients Are Consistently Taking Vitamin D

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Dr. Sheila Sprague, PhD Assistant Professor, Research Methodologist McMaster University

Dr. Sheila Sprague

Dr. Sheila Sprague, PhD
Assistant Professor, Research Methodologist
McMaster University

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: Previous research has found that daily administration of vitamin D is important for maintaining bone homeostasis. There has been an increased interest among the orthopaedic community regarding vitamin D supplementation and patient outcomes following fractures. Using data from the FAITH trial (NCT01908751), a multicenter randomized controlled trial that compared cancellous screws versus sliding hip screws in patients over the age of 50 with femoral neck fractures, we:

1) determined the proportion of patients consistently taking vitamin D following hip fracture surgery and
2) determined if supplementation was associated with improved health related quality of life and reduced re-operation.

Patients enrolled in the FAITH trial were recruited from 81 clinical sites in 8 countries over a 6-year span. We asked a subset of them about vitamin D supplementation and categorized them as consistent users, inconsistent users, or non-users.

The final analysis included 573 patients and we found that a surprisingly low proportion of elderly hip fracture patients are consistently taking vitamin D (18.7% of patients reported never taking vitamin D, 35.6% reported inconsistent use, and 45.7% reported consistent use). We also found that vitamin D was associated with a statistically (p=0.033), but not clinically, significant improvement in health-related quality of life following a hip fracture. Lastly, supplementation was discovered to not be associated with reduced re-operation (p=0.386).

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Hip vs Lumbar Spine Pain Can Be Difficult to Differentiate

MedicalResearch.com Interview with:

Afshin E. Razi MD</strong> Clinical Assistant Professor NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases Department of Orthopaedic Surgery New York, N.Y. 1001

Dr. Afshin Razi

Afshin E. Razi MD
Clinical Assistant Professor
NYU Hospital for Joint Diseases
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
New York, N.Y. 10016

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?

Response: We did an extensive literature search and through our two previous seminars on this topic we were able to gather information to aid our colleagues on best ways of differentiating causes of hip and back pain. As an orthopaedic surgeon specializing in spine surgery I encounter many patients who present with concomitant back and hip pain. Many of these patients are also referred to me by surgeons who solely take care of hip problems such as total hip replacement or sport medicine specialist who treat younger patients with hip pain. It can be very difficult to properly diagnose the main issue and as such some patients go on to have unnecessary treatments, including surgery, because of their persistent symptoms. It was our goal to try to educate physicians, including orthopaedic surgeons, on the common differential diagnoses, appropriate clinical history and physical examination, diagnostic tools and their evaluations appropriately, as well as treatment options and priorities of which one to be treated first. More recently, it has been noted that some patients who have undergone total hip replacement with significant curvature of the spine had postoperative dislocation of the hip after reconstruction of the spinal malalignment. This article also talks about this newly seen problem.

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