Author Interviews, Brain Injury, Cannabis / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Pamela Maher, PhD Research Professor Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory SALK Institute for Biologic Studies La Jolla California   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Several years ago, we tested several different cannabinoids for protection against the oxytosis/ferroptosis regulated cell death pathway and found CBN (cannabinol) to be one of the most effective. While THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidol) were also quite protective, we wanted to pursue non-psychoactive cannabinoids. Since we are interested in maintaining brain function in the context of aging and disease, we thought that a psychoactive compound could be problematic. In addition, there was already a lot of work on CBD, so we thought we could learn more and contribute more to the field by studying CBN. (more…)
Author Interviews, Sexual Health, Urology / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: dr-michelle-pearlman-mdDr. Amy Pearlman MD GenitoUrinary Surgeon and Sexual Medicine Specialist Board-Certified in Urology MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is significant controversy within urology (and in mainstream conversation) regarding penile enhancement. Our clinical experience with the PhalloFill protocol over the last 4 years has yielded great clinical and safety results. The purpose of our research is to study our outcomes in a more scientific fashion and, as a result, to be able to use this information to help educate potential patients, current patients, interested folks in the community, and other healthcare providers. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, JAMA, Nutrition / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marta Guasch-Ferré, PhD Associate Professor and Deputy Head of Section, Section of Epidemiology University of Copenhagen Group Leader, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Nutrition Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Olive oil is rich in monounsaturated fats and contains compounds with antioxidant activity that may play a protective role for the brain. Olive oil as part of a Mediterranean diet appears to have a beneficial effect against cognitive decline. Higher olive oil intake was previously associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. But its association with dementia mortality was unknown. (more…)
Heart Disease, Infections, Technology / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sarah Dräger, MD Postdoc, BRCCH Researcher Internal Medicine and ID specialist Division of Internal Medicine University Hospital Basel, Switzerland Basel   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:In patients with severe infections and patients in the intensive care unit, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be used to optimize and personalize intravenous antibiotic treatment. In these patients, “conventional antibiotic dosing”, e.g. selection of the dose only considering the renal function and, if applicable, body weight, may lead to over- or underdosing due to an altered drug metabolism. This, in turn may be associated with worse clinical outcome or toxic side effects. TDM is used to monitor antibiotic blood plasma concentrations and provides guidance to the clinicians to adjust the antibiotic dosing according to the TDM results. But the collection of blood is an invasive, time- and resource-consuming sample collection technique and leads to discomfort to the patients. Additionally, turnaround time may be long (3h to 8h), and analyses may be offered only twice or three time a week. This may be too late to guide antibiotic dosing timely in patients with a very dynamic drug metabolism. Therefore, alternatives are required to overcome the limitations of current TDM. By using exhaled breath, we aim to develop an innovative therapeutic drug monitoring technique, which is non-invasive, easy to collect, not associated with discomfort to the patient, and which may allow to decrease the turnaround time, especially when combined with real-time analyses. (more…)
Author Interviews, Environmental Risks / 07.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gediminas "Gedi" Mainelis, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences School of Environmental and Biological Sciences Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What types of particles, ie where do they come from? Response: This work is a continuation of my research on nanoparticles in consumer products. We have investigated and published on the release of particles from nano-enabled consumer products, such as cosmetic powders, various sprays and clothing. In this project, we were interested in potential resuspension of particles once nano-enabled consumer sprays are used. The particles are added into consumer products to provide them certain desired properties, like antimicrobial protection, odor reduction or protection against UV (sunscreen). Once the products are used, the particles are released and we could be exposed to them. (more…)
Dermatology / 04.05.2024

Key Takeaways:
  • Understanding the groundbreaking science behind laser facial hair removal and its multifaceted benefits.
  • Key steps to consider in preparation for a laser hair removal session to ensure safety and effectiveness.
  • Essential post-treatment care strategies to enhance results and maintain skin health after the procedure.
  • The role of continuous technological advancements in improving laser hair removal treatments.
What Is Laser Hair Removal and How Does It Work? face-hair-hairremovalLaser hair removal is a long-lasting alternative to traditional hair removal methods for unwanted facial hair in both men and women. Laser treatments disrupt the normal growth cycle of hair follicles by utilizing highly concentrated beams of light designed to be absorbed by the pigment within the hair shafts. This state-of-the-art technique has quickly found favor in metropolises like Chicago, where grooming and self-care are highly prioritized. Laser facial hair removal in Chicago is primarily sought for its ability to facilitate a seamless, hair-free complexion, symbolic of the city's cosmopolitan lifestyle. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews / 02.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Li Gan PhD Burton P. and Judith B. Resnick Distinguished Professor in Neurodegenerative Diseases Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medical College Shiaoching Gong PhD Helen and Robert Appel Alzheimer’s Disease Institute Feil Family Brain and Mind Research Institute Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the process of making these neurons? Response: Primary tauopathies are a group of progressive neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the pathological aggregation of 3R or 4R tau protein in neurons and/or glial cells, where 4R tauopathies are more common primary tauopathies. The exact pathological mechanisms remain elusive. There are currently no therapies available that can halt or reverse the spread of tau aggregates since the drug effects found in animal models are not always reproduced in human clinical trials. The development of tau therapies from human cells have become urgently needed. Induced human pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer a unique model to better understand pathological mechanisms underlying human diseases and to develop human cell-based therapy. However, a major challenge to study 4R tauopathy is iPSC-derived neurons express very low levels of 4R Tau isoforms making it difficult to study 4R tauopathy and the mutations located in 4R Tau. To address this need, we designed and engineered a robust human iPSC 4R tauopathy model using CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We first introduced specific mutations at the intron-exon 10 junctions and silent mutations within exon 10 to promote exon 10 inclusion, leading the increase of 4R isoforms expression in iPSC-derived neurons. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) mutation, P301S located in exon 10 is highly aggregation prone. To generate this human disease 4R tauopathy model, we then introduced this mutation to 4R iPSC to make it a 4RP301S iPSC line. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JAMA, USPSTF / 01.05.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Wanda K. Nicholson, M.D., M.P.H., M.B.A. Senior Associate Dean for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Professor of Prevention and Community Health Milken Institute School of Public Health George Washington University Dr. Nicholson was appointed chair of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force in March 2024. She served as vice chair from March 2022 to March 2024 and as a member of the Task Force from January 2009 through December 2013. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths for women in the U.S. After reviewing the latest science, the Task Force recommends screening all women for breast cancer every other year starting at age 40 and continuing through age 74. This new approach has the potential to save nearly 20 percent more lives from breast cancer and has even greater potential benefit for Black women, who are much more likely to die from breast cancer. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems / 27.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gaurav Khanna Ph.D. Assistant Professor | School of Global Policy and Strategy University of California, San Diego www.econgaurav.com   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: There is a shortage of doctors in certain parts of the US. For instance, although about 20% of the United States population live in rural areas, only 11% of physicians practice in these locations. The research shows that relaxed visa requirements enable more foreign-trained doctors to practice in remote and low-income areas, without reducing the employment of U.S.-trained doctors. One such program that facilitates keeping foreign-born physicians in the US is the Conrad 30 Program. Most participants in the Conrad 30 Waiver Program work in Health Professional Shortage Areas (or HPSAs), areas lacking an adequate number of primary care physicians, dentists, or mental health care providers. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, JAMA / 27.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shruti K. Gohil, MD Assistant Professor, Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Associate Medical Director, Epidemiology & Infection Prevention, Infectious Diseases UCI School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Antibiotic resistance, which occurs when germs like bacteria and fungi mutate to defeat the drugs designed to kill them, is a major public health threat.
  • Data show that 40-50% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia receive broad spectrum antibiotics when they do not need them.
  • Helping clinicians tailor antibiotic prescriptions to individual patients can improve patient outcomes by preserving healthy bacteria in the body and reducing the risk of future antibiotic resistance.
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Menopause / 25.04.2024

Menopause isn't merely a biological process—it's a journey that marks a new chapter in a woman's life. It comes with its share of whispers and shadows, often stirring a mix of emotions from relief to apprehension. As the familiar rhythm of your body shifts, it can feel like you’re navigating a path bristling with unknowns, each step echoing with the beats of change. Imagine embracing this transition not just with endurance, but with empowerment. Menopause, with all its intricacies, isn't the end of youth but a rebirth of freedom and strength. Let's redefine what it means to walk through this phase, equipped with knowledge and wrapped in understanding.

Understanding Menopause

From menstrual cycle regularity to temperature regulation, understanding these hormonal changes is essential as they underlie myriad experiences during menopause.

Hormonal Changes

As you approach menopause, your body begins a natural shift in hormone production, primarily estrogen and progesterone. These changes are the conductors behind the scenes, orchestrating everything from your menstrual cycle regularity to the temperature of your skin. Understanding these hormonal ebbs and flows is crucial, as they are pivotal in what you experience during menopause. (more…)
Pharmaceutical Companies / 25.04.2024

Introduction

pills-counterfeit-medicineThe pharmaceutical industry serves as a cornerstone in the healthcare systems of the United States and the European Union, ensuring the safety and efficacy of drugs is paramount. However, the rise of substandard or falsified drugs poses a significant threat to public health, challenging the regulatory and industry safeguards put in place. Understanding how these illicit products manage to circumvent the established systems is crucial for developing effective countermeasures.

Supply Chain Vulnerabilities

One of the primary avenues for substandard or falsified drugs to infiltrate the market is through weaknesses in the pharmaceutical supply chain. The intricate network of manufacturers, distributors, and retailers creates opportunities for unauthorized parties to introduce compromised products. In both the US and EU, regulatory bodies struggle to monitor every step of this expansive supply chain, making it susceptible to infiltration by counterfeiters. Globalization further complicates the issue, as pharmaceutical ingredients and finished products often cross international borders. The diversity of regulatory standards and enforcement capabilities worldwide allows substandard or falsified drugs to exploit regulatory gaps, entering the market through regions with weaker oversight. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Gender Differences, UCLA / 25.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yusuke Tsugawa, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Medicine & Health Policy and Management, UCLA Director of Data Core, UCLA Department of Medicine Statistics Core Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA Los Angeles, CA 90024   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Prior studies have found that female and male physicians practice medicine differently. For example, female physicians are, on average, more likely to abide by clinical guidelines and spend more time listening to patients. However, evidence was limited as to whether such differences have clinically meaningful impact on patients’ health outcomes, which was the aim of this study. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Technology, UCSD, Vaccine Studies / 25.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John W. AyersJohn W. Ayers, PhD MA Vice Chief of Innovation | Assoc. Professor
Div. Infectious Disease & Global Public Health University of California San Diego Since the World Health Organization declared an ‘infodemic’ of misinformation, there have been surprisingly few achievements to celebrate. X's Community Notes have emerged as an innovative strategy to address misinformation as reported in the latest issue of JAMA.
Before the inception of Community Notes, social media companies employed various tactics to tackle misinformation, including censoring, shadowbanning (muting a user or their content on a platform without informing them), and adding generic warning labels to problematic content. However, these efforts were typically undisclosed meaning their effectiveness could not be studied.

In late 2022, X introduced Community Notes. This novel approach empowers volunteer, independent, anonymous, and ideologically diverse contributors to identify posts containing misinformation and to rectify misinformation by appending informative "notes" to suspect posts. The process is controlled by the public, instead of decision-makers at the company. Most importantly the system is open-sourced so it can be studied by external scientists.

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Addiction / 24.04.2024

Addiction is renowned for being a complex condition, fundamentally, manifesting in an inability to stop using a substance or engaging in behavior despite detrimental consequences. Recognizing the signs of addiction is the first crucial step toward seeking help and recovery. If you are at a point where you have to consider the question, am I an addict? Here are ten signs that may indicate you are struggling with addiction. Increased Tolerance One of the earliest signs of addiction is an increased tolerance to the substance. This means you may need to consume more alcohol or drugs to achieve the same effect previously attained with smaller amounts. (more…)
Ophthalmology / 21.04.2024

eyesurgery-lasix-eye-eyelashes-face-woman-63320.webpLASIK is an excellent option for people who have to wear glasses or contacts and don't want to do that anymore. Before going in for a consultation, it's good to learn as much as possible about it. Here are some answers, including ones if you have questions about LASIK cost. What is LASIK? This is an outpatient surgery where the eye doctor will use a laser to reshape the corneal tissue of an eye through a flap that is also created by the laser. It's a safe procedure since the laser won't damage other tissue or other parts of the eye. Who is a Candidate for LASIK?  While there are a lot of people who can benefit from this, there are some who aren't eligible. They include people who are under 18, those who have had multiple changes in their eyeglasses prescription, people that have extreme cases of nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism, and those who have severe dry eye. Your eye doctor will thoroughly examine your eyes and make that determination before moving ahead and scheduling the actual surgery. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Mental Health Research, NIH / 19.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon Dekel PhD Principal Investigator Director of the Postpartum Traumatic Stress Disorders Research Program Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School Boston, MA, 02114 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Maternal psychopathologies affect a significant number of American women and are the leading complications of childbirth and a significant contributor to maternal death. Maternal (physical) morbidity in the US remain the highest among all countries in the West, suggesting that some women will have a traumatic childbirth experience. The most common mental illness associated with trauma is posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD stemming from childbirth is estimated to affect 6% of delivering women (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28443054/). In high-risk groups, for example women who have unscheduled Cesareans the rate is estimated at 20% or higher (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31041603/.). Although we screen for postpartum depression in hospitals in the USA there is no screening for what we define as childbirth-related PTSD (CB-PTSD). The overarching goal of the Dekel Lab is to develop novel and patient-friendly screening tools to identify women with this disorder. As importantly traumatic childbirth disproportionality affects Black and Latina women (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35598158/). (more…)
Ophthalmology / 18.04.2024

Although LASIK has been around for decades, people still have to weigh the pros and cons before going ahead with the surgery. One prominent thing could dissuade people who are interested in it from getting it - the most important LASIK candidacy factors. Simply put, not everyone will be able to have the surgery. The reasons, as the link shows, include having too strong a case of nearsightedness, farsightedness, or astigmatism. eye-lasixPro: It's a Very Fast Surgery When you compare it to other surgeries involving things that play a large part of your senses, a 10-minute surgery is astonishing. You'll be surprised at how quickly things go, even when you're spending some of the time with your eyes pinned open. As a result, you'll feel relief that you're out of the operating room as soon as you are. Since your eyes will be open the entire time, too, you won't have to worry about that post-anesthesia nausea that some people have when they are put under. Con: There Are Some Possible Risks Yes, LASIK has been around for a long time, but that doesn't mean that it's completely perfect. Some people do have some side effects. Even if they didn't have dry eye before, some people can have it for roughly three months. Dry eye is when your eyes can't produce tears, which then leads to them feeling grainy. Other things include having hazy vision, nighttime glare (which can make driving at night dangerous. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis / 18.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Amy Kennalley, MBS First Year Medical Student Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study Response: The legalization of medical marijuana (MMJ) and the number of qualifying conditions are expanding across the USA, emphasizing the need to understand the implications of MMJ dispensary distribution for equitable access. Pennsylvania (PA) legalized MMJ in 2016, with the first dispensary opening its doors in 2018. The state currently recognizes 24 medical conditions for MMJ use, including six for which there is insufficient or no evidence for their efficacy as a treatment. Prior research suggests that there is a link between proximity to dispensaries and overall MMJ use. However, a gap exists in our understanding of how dispensary locations might be associated with the specific qualifying conditions for which individuals receive their certification. In response to this knowledge gap, our study delved into the medical marijuana dispensary access in PA and explored associations with both MMJ certifications and the community demographics. Utilizing data from the Pennsylvania Department of Health, we investigated how proximity to MMJ dispensaries related to the proportion of individuals certified for MMJ use within a specific area or Zip Code Tabulation Area. Additionally, we analyzed the proportion of certifications for conditions with varying levels of evidence supporting the efficacy of MMJ. This pioneering study represents the first of its kind in PA, shedding light on the association between MMJ dispensary locations and certifications. Likewise, it is the first in the US to investigate the link between dispensary locations and specific qualifying conditions. By examining these dynamics, we aim to contribute vital insights to inform policy and practice, ensuring equitable access to MMJ treatment for individuals with diverse medical needs. (more…)
Orthopedics / 17.04.2024

knee-rehabilitationImagine life without the freedom of movement. A simple task like climbing stairs or walking could become a daunting challenge. Unfortunately, this reality faces millions of Americans due to knee pain. Classic Rehabilitation reports that approximately 100 million Americans endure chronic pain, with knee pain emerging as the second most prevalent source. This statistic indicates that one-third of the American population encounters knee discomfort at some stage in their lives. But fear not. Here's where the power of staying agile comes in. In this article, we'll discuss the key techniques that can significantly enhance knee health and mobility. By incorporating these techniques, you can prevent future issues and keep your knees feeling strong and supported for years. (more…)
AACR, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research / 11.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: RJ Tesi M.D. CEO and Founder of INmune Bio MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?
  • MUC4 expression by high-risk breast cancer (HER2+ or TNBC) is a biomarker that predicts resistance to therapy and an increased risk a metastasis. MUC4 expression can be determined at time of biopsy and therapeutic decisions should be adjusted to optimize the chance of response to first line therapy.
This biomarker is easily determined using immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic breast biopsy tissue similar to testing for HER2 expression. Testing for MUC4 can be easily added to the current panel of routine stains obtained at the time of the diagnostic biopsy. Knowing MUC4 status in women with high-risk breast cancer will improve results.
  • Soluble TNF causes the up regulation of immune checkpoint proteins of cells of the TME. This includes CD47 and SIRPa on tumor based macrophages and CTLA4, PD1, LAG3 and TIGIT on T cells in the TME. INB03 is a pan immune checkpoint modulator. Treatment with INB03 downregulates all immune checkpoint proteins on the cells. Downmodulation of all immune checkpoint proteins improves response to immunotherapy.
Currently, monoclonal antibodies targeting immune checkpoint proteins are a mainstay of cancer therapy and cancer drug development. These strategies target one immune checkpoint protein at a time. To date, combination therapy targeting two immune checkpoint proteins has been tried (e.g.: anti-PD1 and anti-CTLA4 combination therapy) with mixed results. Combination immune checkpoint strategies may increase therapeutic response but increase toxicity. INB03 downregulates all immune checkpoint proteins. This is equivalent to giving a patient a 6 antibody cocktail – something that cannot be done in man. As expected, decreased immune checkpoint expression improves response to therapy by converting immunotherapy resistant tumors to immunotherapy sensitive tumors.
  • In TNBC, MUC4 expression predicts both resistance to anti-PD1 therapy and increased risk of distant metastasis. Treatment with INB03 decreases expression of proteins associated with tumor metastasis, decreases the number of metastasis and improves response to anti-PD1 therapy. Early use of INB03 may prevent distal disease and improve tumor control.
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Author Interviews, Autism, Nature, Pediatrics / 11.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Andrey Vyshedskiy, PhD Founder and CEO of ImagiRation LLC Neuroscientist, Boston University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The common intuitive belief is that language comprehension development follows a linear trajectory: children acquire one grammatical rule at a time. Over 20 years ago, Dr. A. Vyshedskiy, predicted that instead of linear development, language should unfold in three steps corresponding to three language comprehension mechanisms of increasing complexity. The study of 31845 autistic individuals, published today in the journal npj Mental Health Research, validates this prediction. The implications of this discovery are reaching far and wide. The traditional definition of language is highly ambiguous. For some philosophers, “language” is equivalent to a “communication system.” Others argue that “language” must be defined more narrowly, in a way that is unique to humans. The results of the new study streamline terminology for describing different language comprehension mechanisms. The ensuing discussion of which language comprehension mechanisms are unique to humans and which are shared with other apes is expected to be most interesting. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Prostate, Prostate Cancer, Urology, Vaccine Studies / 08.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sujit Nair, PhD Director of GU Immunotherapy Research Department of Urology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? How is the vaccine obtained? Response: https://classic.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03262103 Dr. Tewari is the treating physician and clinical lead on the study.  This is a phase I, open-label, clinical trial (NCT03262103) using a dose escalation strategy in 12 patients diagnosed with clinically localized prostate cancer with plans for surgery. The investigational agent used in the trial is Poly-ICLC, an immune modulator developed by ONCOVIR. Poly-ICLC is a double-stranded RNA that mimics viral activity, thereby stimulating the immune response. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, Kidney Disease, NEJM, NIH, UT Southwestern / 04.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Miguel A. Vazquez, MD Professor of Internal Medicine University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The main reason to conduct our trial was to improve the care of patients with coexistent chronic kidney disease CKD),  type 2 diabetes and hypertension.   Patients with this triad are at high risk for multiple complications, end stage kidney disease and premature death.   There are effective interventions for these conditions.  Unfortunately, detection and awareness of CKD is low and many patients do not receive interventions that could be beneficial In our study in patients with the coexistent triad of chronic kidney disease, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension the use of an electronic algorithm to identify patients from the electronic health record and practice facilitators embedded in four large health systems to assist primary practitioners deliver evidence-based care did not lower hospitalizations when compared to usual care. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Technology / 03.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Janarthanan Sathananthan M.D. Chief Medical Officer for Interventional Cardiology Therapies Boston Scientific MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? boston-scientificResponse: Despite significant improvements in the drug-eluting stents that are used to treat patients with coronary artery disease, 10% of the percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) in the U.S. today address in-stent restenosis (ISR), which is when a previously stented section of a coronary artery becomes obstructed or narrowed by plaque or scar tissue. These patients require additional intervention to avoid potential complications. In the multicenter, randomized AGENT IDE trial, we evaluated whether the AGENT™ Drug-Coated Balloon (DCB), a balloon catheter coated with anti-restenotic paclitaxel, is superior to an uncoated balloon in patients for treating ISR. The AGENT DCB is currently available in countries outside the U.S. Our goal is to bring this technology to market in the U.S. and finally provide physicians with an alternative to traditional ISR treatments, such as placing additional layers of stents or radiation, which may not provide ideal outcomes in some cases. In October 2023, at the Transcatheter Cardiovascular Therapeutics (TCT) 2023 meeting, we presented the primary endpoint data from our AGENT IDE randomized controlled trial evaluating clinical outcomes in patients with ISR undergoing treatment with the AGENT DCB or conventional balloon angioplasty. The positive results in this primary analysis cohort supported the device’s U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval, which we announced on March 1, 2024. Just a few months later, data from the full cohort of 600 patients were published in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) and shared in a late-breaking presentation at Cardiovascular Research Technologies (CRT) 2024 meeting.  (more…)
Author Interviews, Radiology / 02.04.2024

When a person visits a doctor, they might find tests are needed to determine the cause of problems they are experiencing. Countless tests might be used based on the symptoms the person is experiencing. However, some tests remain very common today. The following are the ones that a doctor might recommend. Biopsy One of the best health care diagnostic tests for suspicious lumps is a biopsy. During this procedure, the doctor removes one or more tissue samples from the body to examine them. They use this test to determine whether a patient has cancer, bone marrow issues, or other health issues. Colonoscopy Doctors request a colonoscopy when they suspect a patient has problems with their large intestine or rectum. They insert a flexible tube with a tiny camera in the tip into the rectum to view changes in the intestine or rectum. If they see suspicious areas, a biopsy can be taken for further testing. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Infections, JAMA / 01.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Susan S. Huang, MD, MPH Chancellor's Professor, Infectious Diseases School of Medicine Department of Epidemiology and Infection Prevention University of California Irvine School of Medicine, Irvine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Would you describe the decolonization techniques?  
  • This study arose from a growing concern about the increasing number and presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing colonization and infection in hospitals and long-term care. CDC has had a longstanding interest in the value of regional control of these contagious pathogens and they funded this study. The study was actually in two parts:
    • –1) Simulate various infection prevention strategies in a model and see which works best, and then
    • - 2) Do it in real life. The SHIELD project was the real-life example of our simulation finding that decolonization would work the best to prevent harm from antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
  • The regional idea is that it takes all of us working together – hospitals, nursing homes, and long-term acute care hospitals – to prevent the spread and sharing of contagious pathogens. What we can accomplish together is far greater than what any of us can do alone.
  • In this study, decolonization was the use of topical chlorhexidine antiseptic soap and povidone-iodine nasal ointments to reduce potentially harmful bacteria on the body during times when patients and residents may be at risk for infection. We swapped out bathing and showering soap with CHG in participating facilities and ensured that staff knew to clean the body well, including wounds, devices, and rashes where germs can hide and cause infection. For CHG, this involved 4% rinse off product in the shower and 2% no-rinse CHG for bed baths.
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Author Interviews, Infections / 01.04.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Maria Y. Tian, MBS Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton PA MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The antibiotic crisis continues to worsen in the United States (U.S.), which has seen an increasing number of deaths associated with antibiotic resistance, becoming one of the most pressing threats to public health. Concurrently, the availability of effective antibiotics are decreasing, which increases the rates and severity of infections, particularly in patients with respiratory tract infections. Unfortunately, a persistent and pernicious contributing factor to the crisis is the unnecessary prescription of antibiotics. In a previous study, 25% of antibiotics prescribed in the outpatient setting to Medicaid beneficiaries were not associated with a provider visit [2]. Furthermore, among 298 million prescriptions filled by 53 million Medicaid patients between 2004 and 2013, 45% of the prescriptions for antibiotics were made without any clear rationale [2]. In our study, we aimed to provide an up-to-date analysis of antibiotic prescribing in the U.S. through examining the temporal profile of outpatient antibiotic use reported by Medical Expenditure Panel System (MEPS) and geographical patterns of antibiotic prescribing rates among US Medicaid program beneficiaries. This will help identify potentially unnecessary prescriptions and inform stewardship efforts. (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods, Pain Research / 29.03.2024

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jay P. Solgama Medical Student Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine Scranton PA   MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The opioid crisis in the United States continues to escalate, with opioid-related deaths increasing by over 800% since 2000. Prescription opioids, particularly oxycodone, have been a contributor to this crisis, with substantial variations in their distribution observed across different states [1,2,3]. Against this backdrop, the study conducted by researchers from the Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine aimed to characterize the distribution of oxycodone across US states from 2000 to 2021. By analyzing data from the Drug Enforcement Administration’s comprehensive Automation of Reports and Consolidated Orders System (ARCOS) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ONline Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) databases, the study sought to identify trends and patterns in oxycodone distribution and their potential implications for opioid-related deaths [4,5]. (more…)