Author Interviews, Beth Israel Deaconess, Gastrointestinal Disease, NEJM / 01.07.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Prof. Dr. D. Schuppan, MD, PhD Professor of Medicine Director Institute of Translational Immunology University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg University Consultant Gastroenterologist and Hepatologist Director Celiac and Small Intestinal Disease Center Director Center for Food Intolerances and Autoimmunity Director Liver Fibrosis and Metabolism Research Research Center for Immune Therapy (FZI) Mainz Project for Chemical Allergology (MPCA) Mainz, Germany Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02215 MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Celiac disease (CeD) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of most wheat consuming populations worldwide. CeD is caused by the ingestion of gluten containing foods, such as wheat, spelt, rye and barley, that activate small intestinal inflammatory T cells. The only current therapy is the rigorous avoidance of even traces of gluten in the daily diet, which is difficult and a social and psychological burden. We previously identified the body’s own enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) as the CeD autoantigen. Moreover, TG2 drives celiac disease pathogenesis by enzymatically modifying dietary gluten peptides that makes them more immunogenic. We therefore developed an oral small molecule (ZED1227) that specifically inhibits TG2 activity in the intestine. While this should attenuate CeD in patients exposed to dietary gluten, it was unclear if  it could prevent gluten induced intestinal inflammation and damage. (more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Environmental Risks / 30.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Els M. Broens DVM, PhD, Dipl. ECVM, EBVS European Veteirnary Specialist in Veterinary Microbiology Associate Professor / Director VMDC Department Biomolecular Health Sciences (Clinical Infectiology) Faculty of Veterinary Medicine | Utrecht University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Several events have demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 can infect animals, felines and mustelids in particular. In companion animals these are currently considered to be incidents with a negligible risk for public health since the main force of the pandemic is transmission between humans. However, it is urgent to understand the potential risk of animal infections for public health in the later stages of the pandemic when SARS-CoV-2 transmission between humans is greatly reduced and a virus reservoir in animals could become more important. Incidental cases have shown that COVID-19 positive owners can transmit SARS-CoV-2 to their dog or cat. The close contact between owners and their dogs and cats and the interaction between dogs and cats from different households raises questions about the risk for pets to contract the disease and also about role of these animals in the transmission of SARS-CoV-2. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, Diabetes, Social Issues / 30.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yu Chen, Ph.D. Prevention Effectiveness Fellow Division of Diabetes Translation CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Overall prevalence of diabetes has increased over the past two decades in the US, disproportionately affecting populations with low-income. The age-adjusted prevalence of diagnosed diabetes among adults aged 18 years or older increased from 6.4% in 1999−2002 to 9.4% in 2013−2016. Between 2011 and 2014, compared with persons with high income, the relative percentage increase in diabetes prevalence was 40.0%, 74.1%, and 100.4% for those classified as middle income, near poor and poor, respectively. However, recent changes in income-related inequalities in diabetes prevalence are unknown. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 29.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary de Groot, Ph.D. Associate Professor Immediate Past President, Health Care and Education, American Diabetes Association Acting Director, Diabetes Translational Research Center Indianapolis, IN 46202  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The experience of quarantine in the context of epidemics has been shown to have significant emotional effects including depression, anxiety, shock, and trauma that not only effect people in the context of quarantine, but up to 2-3 years beyond the end of the quarantine period (Brooks et al., 2020).  The COVID-19 pandemic has had extraordinary impacts on health and mental health in the general population across the globe including increased rates of depression and anxiety compared to pre-pandemic levels (Xiong, 2020; Wilson, 2020; Luo, 2020). There is some early evidence that the pandemic adversely affected people with diabetes as well (Fisher, 2020; Alessi, 2020). It is important to explore the emotional impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for people with diabetes given the particular risk factor that diabetes (along with other metabolic diseases) represents for mortality if the virus is acquired. We conducted a longitudinal web-based survey of N=2210 adults with and without diabetes to assess the emotional correlates of COVID-19 in terms of depression, diabetes distress, perceived stress and anxiety.  We present the baseline (measured in May/June of 2020) and 6-month follow up (measured in November/December 2020) findings. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes / 29.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Ziyad Al-Aly, MD, FASN Clinical Epidemiology Center Research and Development Service Veterans Affairs St. Louis Health Care System St. Louis, MO MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: There are several randomized controlled trials of  Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors (SGLT2i) but none (not a single study) provided a head-to-head comparison with sulfonylureas -- the most commonly prescribed antihyperglycemics after metformin. We resolved to leverage advanced methodologies to undertake a head-to-head investigation of the comparative effectiveness of SGLT2I vs sulfonylureas on the risk of all-cause mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews / 29.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Scott Gray: Founder and CEO of Clincierge, the global leader in patient support services for clinical trials. With a team of patient coordinators around the world, Clincierge helps patients and their caregivers navigate the logistics of clinical trial participation, including prepaid air travel, ground transportation, and lodging as well as rapid reimbursements, translation and interpretation services, and individual solutions for trial participants in remote locations or with complex medical needs. For more information, visit clincierge.com. MedicalResearch.com: What is the mission of Clincierge? ClinciergeResponse: Our mission is to improve the performance of clinical trials around the world by better managing the patient experience through highly personalized patient support services and efficient processes carried out by a team of experienced travel and logistics professionals. (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods / 27.06.2021

http://www.indivior.com/This study and abstract presentation evaluated opioid withdrawal symptoms, safety and tolerability of initiating SUBLOCADE 300 mg one hour after administering a single dose of 4 mg transmucosal (sublingual) buprenorphine (BUP-TM). 26 participants received BUP-TM, 24 follow by  SUBLOCADE injection, and 20 completed the study. Participants were evaluated for opioid withdrawal symptoms as well as safety and tolerability of SUBLOCADE 300 mg. (more…)
Author Interviews, Opiods / 25.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: John Boyle, BS Department of Medical Education Geisinger Commonwealth School of Medicine MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Meperidine is an opioid analgesic which has been approved for use since the 1940s for moderate to severe pain. During the 1990s, concerns about adverse effects (e.g., serotonin syndrome) and CYP450 drug interactions (e.g., 3A4 inhibition of other metabolism of other common medications) were raised and by 2003 it was removed from the WHO’s List of Essential Medicines. Despite increased awareness of adverse effects, meperidine is still used in the United States. It was the goal of this study1 to uncover pharmaepidemiological trends in its use. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, Opiods / 24.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? http://www.indivior.com/Response: Adults with moderate or severe opioid use disorder (OUD) were randomized to SUBLOCADE monthly injections or placebo and studied for 24 weeks. Participants receiving SUBLOCADE were given 2 monthly injections of 300 mg, followed by 4 monthly maintenance doses of 100 mg or 300 mg over the course of the study. (more…)
Author Interviews / 24.06.2021

http://www.indivior.com/ Background: To identify individual-level factors associated with COVID-19-related impacts on recovery in 216 participants originally enrolled in the SUBLOCADE® (buprenorphine extended-release) clinical program.  Within the fifteen-month study 216 participants, during the period of September 2021 through January 2021, were asked how the COVID-19 crisis affected their recovery from substance use, utilizing self-reported measures. (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Chocolate, Weight Research / 24.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Frank A. J. L. Scheer, PhD, MSc, Neuroscientist and Marta Garaulet, PhD, Visiting Scientist Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: We and others have shown that not only “what” but also “when” we eat relates to obesity and weight loss
  • Meal timing can influence circadian rhythms and eating a high energy and high sugar food, such as chocolate, either at night or in the morning may have a different effect on the circadian system, and consequently on body weight and metabolism.
  • Milk chocolate has a name for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and caloric content. Chocolate eating habit has been associated with long-term weight gain especially in postmenopausal females who are particularly vulnerable to weight gain.
(more…)
Author Interviews, COVID -19 Coronavirus, Vaccine Studies / 22.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Boby Varkey Maramattom MD,DM, FRCP, FRCPE Fellow in Critical care neurology (Mayo Clinic) Lead Consultant Neurologist Aster Medcity, Kochi, Kerala Associate Director- Clinical Research Centre, Aster Medcity. Convener, Neurocritical care subsection Indian academy of Neurology  (IAN) MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response:  Approximately 2-3 months after the vaccination programme commenced in India, we began to notice an uptick in the incidence of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) in our community. All the cases that presented to us during this period had almost the same clinical presentation. They presented within a few days ( usually within 1-2 weeks) of the first dose of the ChAdOx1-S/nCoV-19 vaccine. Most of the patients were women and it seemed to involve the middle aged to elderly age groups. As a result of this observation, we started to compile the clinical findings of these patients and collate them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections / 22.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Rafael Kroon Campos PhD Department of Microbiology and Immunology University of Texas Medical Branch Galveston, TX MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings? Response: The COVID-19 pandemic is affecting millions of people. COVID-19 is a disease that primarily affects the lungs, but it also affects other organs and tissues, including heart and olfactory receptors. There is a growing body of evidence showing that COVID-19 can affect reproductive health by reducing androgen hormones, sperm counts and causing pain and discomfort in the testes. The virus that causes this disease is named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is unknown whether these symptoms are caused by direct virus testes infection or a byproduct of the immune system fighting the virus. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research / 22.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lina Begdache, PhD, RDN, CDN, CNS-S, FAND Assistant Professor Health and Wellness Studies Department GW 15 Decker School of Nursing Binghamton University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: My research focuses on understanding the link between the modifiable risk factors (such as diet, sleep and exercise) and mental distress. In this study, adults of different age-groups (18 years and older) were followed for 4 weeks.  Participants recorded their dietary intake, sleep quality, exercise frequency, their physical and mental wellbeing on a daily basis. Another research interest of mine is to assess these factors in relation to sex (different brain morphology) and age-groups (based on brain maturity). The rationale of this categorization is that brain morphology and brain development vs maintenance and repair may require a different repertoire of food and environmental factors. Therefore, we also studied the sex and age-groups effect. We also added the season factor as one of our previously published studies showed a link between season and mental distress. Data were collected for 2 years during the summer and fall seasons. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Obstructive Sleep Apnea, UCSF / 21.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yerem Yeghiazarians, MD Professor of Medicine Leone-Perkins Family Endowed Chair in Cardiology San Francisco Board Past-President, American Heart Association Co-Director, Adult Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory Director, Peripheral Interventional Cardiology Program Director, Translational Cardiac Stem Cell Program Cardiovascular Research Institute Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research Associate Member in Experimental Therapeutics, UCSF Helen Diller Cancer Center University of California, San Francisco MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Obstructive sleep apnea is very common, undiagnosed and undertreated. The AHA Scientific Statement was prepared to increase awareness amongst physicians and patients about this condition and to encourage more screening and therapy as appropriate. Obesity is certainly one of the significant risk factors for sleep apnea and we highlight this in the Scientific Statement: “The risk of OSA correlates with body mass index, and obesity remains the one major modifiable risk factor for OSA. In a population-based cohort study of 690 subjects, a 10% weight gain was associated with nearly 32% increase in the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and even modest weight control was effective in reducing the new occurrence of sleep-disordered breathing. An even stronger correlation exists between OSA and increased waist circumference and neck size. Neck sizes predisposing to OSA are usually >17 and 16 in for men and women, respectively.” (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Blood Pressure - Hypertension, Cognitive Issues, Memory / 21.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Daniel A. Nation, Ph.D., Associate Professor of Psychological Science Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders University of California, Irvin MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Hypertension is a risk factor for cognitive decline and dementia, and treatment of hypertension has been linked to decreased risk for cognitive impairment. Prior studies have attempted to identify which specific type of antihypertensive treatment conveys the most benefit for cognition, but findings have been mixed regarding this question.  We hypothesized that antihypertensive drugs acting on the brain angiotensin system may convey the greatest benefit since they affect the brain angiotensin system that has been implicated in memory function. (more…)
Author Interviews, Education, Pediatrics / 19.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lisa Forbes, Ph.D, LPC, NCC Clinical Assistant Professor Counseling Program University of Colorado Denver MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?  Response: The most common mode of learning in tertiary education is lecture-based learning despite the knowledge that more active, engaged, and flexible approaches to teaching may better support the learning process. This study aimed to understand graduate students’ experiences with a playful pedagogy as an alternative approach to learning. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Breast Cancer / 18.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Frank Vicini, MD, FACR, FASTRO Principal Investigator Radiation Oncologist at GenesisCare Member of NRG Oncology MedicalResearch.com: Would you briefly explain what is meant by DCIS? Response: DCIS stands for ductal carcinoma in situ and indicates the presence of abnormal cells inside a milk duct in one or both breasts. Sometimes referred to as Stage 0 (zero), it is considered the earliest form of breast cancer and is noninvasive. The tumor has not yet left the duct-- a passageway that transports milk from the breast lobules to the nipple-- and begun to invade the healthy tissue surrounding it. Standard treatment options for DCIS include surgery, radiation therapy and hormonal therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA / 18.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Ali Seifi, MD, FACP, FNCS, FCCM Associate Professor Director of Neuro Critical Care, Fellowship Director, CAST Neurosurgery Critical Care Department of Neurosurgery, Neurology, Anesthesiology and Medicine The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Stop HiccupsResponse: People get hiccups for several various reasons, most of the time is unknown etiology however the most known cause is when something is triggering the phrenic nerve which is a nerve that goes to the diaphragm and controls our breathing; as example any spicy food, alcoholic beverages, carbonated soda as well as eating fast can trigger this nerve. So far, there has been no tool for treatment of hiccups instantly and this could be since the  exact etiology of hiccups is still unknown and is multifactorial. Our aim was to make a feasible and easy for the public to use, a simple tool that anybody can use at home to get rid of hiccups . We patented and made the FISST, which  is a tool that can stop hiccups instantly by distracting the nerves and muscles which are involved in causing hiccups. Hiccups is a vicious cycle between  Phrenic nerve which contracts Diaphragm and Vagus nerve which contracts the Glottis and Epiglottis. Using FISST, requires intense activity of these two nerves and muscles for a few seconds, and thus it distracts the two nerve and muscles from the vicious cycle of triggers. We think because the FISST use the science behind all other remedies, but in union and under a pre-calculated required pressure and enough  intensity, that can stops hiccups. All other home remedies work only on one of the mentioned 2 nerves or they cannot “Naturally “ generate the required enough intensity to stop the vicious cycle between the 2 nerves.  (more…)
COVID -19 Coronavirus / 15.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jonathan Baktari, MD CEO of e7health.com Dr. Baktari, CEO discusses the COVID-19 Delta COVID-19 variant and his insights into pandemic concerns and control. MedicalResearch.com: What is meant by the 'Delta' variant?  Are there differences in the clinical presentation or complications?  Response: Variants are now given Greek lettering for everyone and the Delta variant represents the variant from India. Pulmonary reports indicate it is much more contagious and there are reports of increased hospitalization with this variant.  MedicalResearch.com: Where is the variant currently found and where is it likely to spread? Response: Obviously India, but it has taken over as the dominant strain in England and it is about 6% of the strains in the United states and growing. (more…)
Author Interviews, CDC, COVID -19 Coronavirus, JAMA, Pediatrics / 11.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Angela P. Campbell, MD, MPH Medical Officer Epidemiology and Prevention Branch in the Influenza Division MIS-C Incidence Authorship Group CDC MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study?
  • Response: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a serious condition associated with COVID-19 where different body parts can become inflamed, including the heart, lungs, kidneys, brain, skin, eyes, and gastrointestinal organs. Children with MIS-C may have a fever and various symptoms, including abdominal (gut) pain, vomiting, diarrhea, neck pain, rash, bloodshot eyes, or feeling extra tired. Not all children with MIS-C have the same symptoms.
  • It is still not known exactly how MIS-C may be linked to prior COVID-19 infection. However, 99% of cases in the CDC national surveillance system tested positive for COVID-19. The remaining 1% were around someone with COVID-19.
  • MIS-C incidence might vary by certain patient characteristics, such as such as race, ethnicity, age, sex and geographic location.
  • In this study we estimated the rate of MIS-C cases overall in the general population as well as the rate of MIS-C cases among those with COVID-19.
(more…)
Accidents & Violence, Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 10.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Christopher Conner, MD, PhD Neurosurgery resident McGovern Medical School The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There has been a growing understanding in medicine that the incidence of motor vehicle trauma is changing. We have watched as Friday and Saturday night emergencies have declined without a good explanation. Several other studies have investigated this, but the results were not conclusive. We think that is due to a lack of data from the rideshare companies and hospitals directly  (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Primary Care, Surgical Research, Weight Research / 10.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Alexander Turchin, MD, MS Director of Informatics Research Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School Brigham and Women's Hospital MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: There is an epidemic of obesity in the U.S.: over 40% of adults are obese. Obesity causes numerous complications, ranging from heart attacks to cancer. Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective ways to treat obesity, but very few patients utilize it; it is unclear why.  (more…)
Exercise - Fitness / 10.06.2021

Setting goals is a common strategy that people use when it comes to health and fitness – and for good reason. People tend to work better when they have clear targets in mind that they can work towards achieving. However, plenty of us are going to struggle along the way. No matter what your health and fitness goals are, here are some of the ways that you can hit them just a little bit more easily. Make Your Goals Measurable runner-running-sportsThe problem with the goals that many people set is that they are simply not measurable. For example, the goal could be to do with running. Rather than just simply saying ‘I would like to be able to run for a while’, you should instead say ‘I would like to be able to run for a mile’. There you have a clear target to aim for. Once you hit this target, you will then be able to make the necessary adjustments to it. For example, you can increase the distance that you are running or say that you will do it in a certain amount of time. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gout, Orthopedics, Rheumatology / 09.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Prof. Dr.  Gurkirpal Singh, MD Adjunct Clinical Professor of Medicine Stanford University MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Joint damage from gout has been linked to a possible increase in knee and hip joint replacements. The strong association between gout and osteoarthritis could also lead to an increased risk of joint replacements in patients with gout as the presence of gout may accelerate or worsen osteoarthritis.[i] This study aimed to evaluate total or partial hip and knee joint replacements in patients with gout in the U.S. and to estimate their economic impact. Data was analyzed on hospitalizations in patients with gout with hip and knee joint replacements in 2018, using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample  (NIS) which is the largest publicly available all-payer inpatient healthcare database. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, Journal Clinical Oncology, Metabolic Syndrome, Race/Ethnic Diversity, Social Issues / 08.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giampaolo Greco PhD MPH Assistant Professor Department of Population Health Science and Policy Icahn School of Medicine  at Mount Sinai MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The motivation for our study was to understand why mortality rate from breast cancer is much higher in African American women than in White women, despite the fact that these groups have similar incidence rate of breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, is more prevalent among African American women and may be a risk factor for breast cancer. Subjective social status (SSS) is the perception of individuals of their own ranking in the social hierarchy and complements other parameters of socioeconomic status, such as income and education, that are considered more objective. Socioeconomic status is associated with cardiovascular and mental health. Although objective measures of social status are associated with worse breast cancer outcomes, the relationship of SSS to breast cancer is uncertain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, Ophthalmology / 08.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Louis Pasquale, MD, FARVO Professor of Ophthalmology Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Site Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology Mt. Sinai Hospital and Vice Chair of Translational Ophthalmology Research Mount Sinai Healthcare System  MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: Studies on the relation between caffeine intake and glaucoma have been contradictory, although our work suggested an adverse association amongst people with a self-reported family history of glaucoma. (more…)
ASCO, Author Interviews, Cancer Research / 07.06.2021

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mai Takahashi MD MPH Mount Sinai Beth Israel - Resident Physician New York, New York MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? Response: The incidence of head and neck cancer had been significantly increasing in North America and Europe driven by Human Papillomavirus-related cancer (HPV OPC) which account for more than 60% of total oropharyngeal cancer cases. Compared to environmentally related oropharyngeal cancer, the HPV OPC patient population is generally younger and has a much better prognosis. However, they will suffer from long-term deteriorations in quality of life (QoL) and the declines associated with treatment intensity. Hence multiple studies have focused on de-intensification therapy with reduced dose chemoradiotherapy (CRT).  (more…)