Author Interviews, Cancer Research, CMAJ / 08.08.2014

Tetyana Kendzerska MD, PhD Postdoctoral Fellow Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, Toronto, ONMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Tetyana Kendzerska Institute for Clinical Evaluative Science Women's College Research Institute Women's College Hospital Department of Medicine University of Toronto Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Kendzerska: In a large cohort with varying degrees of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), severity of obstructive sleep apnea was not found to be independently associated with either prevalent or incident cancer, except in one subgroup analysis in smoking-related cancer. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Biomarkers, Heart Disease / 08.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rakesh K. Mishra, MD San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center San Francisco, CA 94121. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mishra: Increased levels of both BNP and NT-proBNP are associated with elevated risk of adverse cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. However, when added to existing clinical models of risk, NT-proBNP is superior to BNP for risk reclassification. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Nutrition / 08.08.2014

Brie Turner-McGrievy, Ph.D., M.S., R.D. Assistant Professor University of South Carolina Arnold School of Public Health Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior Discovery Columbia, SC 29208MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Brie Turner-McGrievy, Ph.D., M.S., R.D. Assistant Professor, University of South Carolina Arnold School of Public Health Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior Discovery Columbia, SC 29208  Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Turner-McGrievy: This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users using a simple “healthiness” scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers. Our trained observers used a rating scale based on the U.S. Dietary Guidelines to assess the healthiness of the foods and beverages in each picture. Crowdsourcing uses the input of several users to provide feedback and information. We found that all three trained raters’ scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all the photos. In addition, we found that peer ratings were in the expected direction for both foods/beverages the Dietary Guidelines say to increase and ones to limit. Photos with fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes, nuts, and seeds were all associated with higher peer healthiness scores and processed, food from fast food restaurants, refined grains, red meat, cheese, savory snacks, sweets/desserts, and sugar sweetened beverages were associated with lower peer healthiness scores. (more…)
Author Interviews, Infections, mBio, NEJM / 07.08.2014

Claudio Soto, PhD Professor of Neurology Director Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain Disorders University of Texas Medical School at HoustonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Claudio Soto, PhD Professor of Neurology Director Mitchell Center for Alzheimer's disease and related Brain Disorders University of Texas Medical School at Houston Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Soto: In this study we describe for the first time the highly sensitive detection of prions in human urine, specifically in samples from patients affected by the variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), which is the disease produced by infection with prions associated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, also known as mad cow disease. For detection we used the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technique which amplifies the amount of abnormal prion protein in a cyclical manner conceptually analogous to the polymerize chain reaction. We detected prions in 13 of the 14 vCJD cases analyzed, and the only negative was a sample coming from a patient under treatment with a experimental drug injected directly into the brain. No false positive were observed in the more than 200 cases analyzed.  The concentration of abnormal prion protein in urine was estimated at 1x10^-16 g/ml, or 3x10^-21 moles/ml, which extrapolates to ~40-100 particles per ml of urine. (more…)
Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, Genetic Research, NEJM / 07.08.2014

Dr Marc Tischkowitz MD PhD University Lecturer (Associate Professor) and Honorary Consultant  Physician in Medical Genetics Department of Medical Genetics, University of CambridgeMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Marc Tischkowitz MD PhD University Lecturer (Associate Professor) and Honorary Consultant  Physician in Medical Genetics Department of Medical Genetics, University of Cambridge Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tischkowitz: The PALB2 gene was first identified in 2006 and linked to breast cancer in 2007 but until now we have not had good breast cancer risk estimates for women who have inherited PALB2 mutations. This study was started in 2009 by an group of research institutions (The PALB2 Interest Group) in Canada, US, Europe (UK, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Finland) and Australia. We studied 362 individuals with PALB2 mutations from 154 families. We found that awomen with a PALB2 mutation will on average have a 35% risk of developing breast cancer by the age of 70, rising to 58% if there is a strong family history. Our study will help clinicians to better advise and manage such women. There are several new aspects.
  • It is by far the largest study to date and provides the most accurate risk estimates for PALB2 mutation carriers.
  • It shows that the breast cancer risk is modified by the family history. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Surgical Research / 06.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Cristina B. Geltzeiler, MD Knight Cancer Institute Oregon Health & Science University Portland, OR 97239-3098 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Geltzeiler: The main findings of the study are that implementing an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) program at a community hospital can be successfully implemented and can allow patients to recover quicker from their surgery with ongoing safety. (more…)
Addiction, Author Interviews, JAMA / 06.08.2014

Dr. Richard Saitz MD MPH Department of Community Health Sciences Boston University School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Richard Saitz MD MPH Department of Community Health Sciences Boston University School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Saitz: We found that brief counseling interventions had no efficacy for reducing the frequency of illicit drug use or drug use consequences among primary care patients identified by screening as using drugs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness / 06.08.2014

James Fisher  BSc (Hons)  MSc  PGCLT(HE) Senior Lecturer Sports Conditioning and Fitness IFBB Certified Weight Training Prescription Specialist Centre for Health, Exercise and Sport Science Faculty of Business, Sport and Enterprise Southampton Solent University, SouthamptonMedicalResearch.com Interview with: James Fisher  BSc (Hons)  MSc  PGCLT(HE) Senior Lecturer Sports Conditioning and Fitness IFBB Certified Weight Training Prescription Specialist Centre for Health, Exercise and Sport Science Faculty of Business, Sport and Enterprise Southampton Solent University, Southampton Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The study reports that pre-conceived ideas about exercise order, and rest intervals are not substantiated by evidence, and that advanced training routines such as pre-exhaustion appear to induce no greater strength adaptations than simpler training methods. Ultimately, that a single set of each exercise performed at a repetition duration which maintains muscular tension is all that is necessary to induce significant increases in strength in even trained persons. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Herpes Viruses, Vaccine Studies / 06.08.2014

Sara Tartof, PhD, MPH Post-doctoral research fellow Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research & Evaluation.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sara Tartof, PhD, MPH Post-doctoral research fellow Kaiser Permanente Southern California Department of Research & Evaluation. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Tartof: Our study found that the herpes zoster vaccine continues to be effective in protecting older adults against shingles, even after they undergo chemotherapy. In particular, we found that those patients who were previously vaccinated with the vaccine were 42 percent less likely to develop shingles following chemotherapy treatment. We also found that none of our vaccinated patients underwent hospitalization for shingles, while six unvaccinated patients were hospitalized with the disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, General Medicine, Heart Disease, JAMA / 06.08.2014

Maurizio Gasparini, MDMedicalResearch Interview with: Maurizio Gasparini MD Humanitas Research Hospital Rozzano, Italy Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gasparini: We found that a strategic programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillators which allows the non-sustained arrhythmias to self-terminate is associated with reductions in hospitalizations, length of hospital stay and cost per patient-year and an increase in the time to first hospitalization. These results were mainly driven by reduction in cardiovascular-related events. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hepatitis - Liver Disease / 06.08.2014

MedicalJagpreet Chhatwal, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Health Services Research Houston, TX 77098Research.com Interview with Jagpreet Chhatwal, Ph.D. Assistant Professor Department of Health Services Research Houston, TX 77098 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chhatwal: The recent updates in hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening policy and ongoing therapeutic advances can make hepatitis C a rare disease in the US by 2036. However, more aggressive screening strategies are needed to further reduce the burden of disease. For example, 1-time universal screening further identify 487,000 chronic hepatitis C virus cases in the next 10 years, and can make hepatitis C a rare disease in the next 12 years. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA / 06.08.2014

upcoming JAMA publication: Shuen-Iu Hung, PhD, for the Taiwan SCAR consortium Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 TaiwanMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shuen-Iu Hung, PhD, for the Taiwan SCAR consortium Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, 112 Taiwan   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Reply: Phenytoin, a widely prescribed antiepileptic drug, can cause severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCAR) (e.g., Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) ), which carry high mortality and morbidity. The genomic basis of phenytoin-induced SCAR has not been known. This study identifies CYP2C variants, including CYP2C9*3 known to reduce drug clearance, as the key genetic factors associated with phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions. These findings have potential to improve the safety profile of phenytoin in clinical practice and offer the possibility of prospective testing for preventing phenytoin-related SCAR. (more…)
Author Interviews, Health Care Systems, Orthopedics / 05.08.2014

M. Susan Ridgely, JD Senior Policy Analyst RAND Corporation Santa Monica, CaliforniaMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: M. Susan Ridgely, JD Senior Policy Analyst RAND Corporation Santa Monica, California   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: We evaluated a three-year effort, coordinated by the Integrated Healthcare Association, to determine whether bundled payment could be an effective payment model for California. The pilot focused on bundled payment for orthopedic procedures for commercially insured adults under age 65. Bundled payment is a much-touted strategy that pays doctors and hospitals one fee for performing a procedure or caring for an illness. The strategy is seen as one of the most-promising ways to curb health care spending. Unfortunately, the project failed to meet its goals, succumbing to recruitment challenges, regulatory uncertainty, administrative burden and concerns about financial risk. At the outset of the project, participants included six of the state’s largest health plans, eight hospitals and an independent practice association. Eventually, two insurers dropped out because they believed the bundled payment model in this project would not lead to a redesign of care or lower costs. Another decided that bundled payment was incompatible with its primary type of business (health maintenance organization). Just two hospitals eventually signed contracts with the three remaining health plans to use bundled payments. Hospitals that dropped out cited concerns about the time and effort involved. The project was hurt by a lack of consensus about what types of cases to include and which services belonged in the bundle. In the end, most stakeholders agreed that the bundle definitions were probably too narrow to capture enough procedures to make bundled payment viable. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, General Medicine, Surgical Research / 05.08.2014

Henry M. Spinelli, MD, PC Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 875 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10065MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Henry M. Spinelli, MD, PC Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 875 Fifth Avenue New York, NY 10065 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Spinelli: Briefly, we polled approximately 26,000 plastic surgeons by way of membership in the International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ISAPS), American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (ASAPS) and American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS) and collated this data and published it in Aesthetic Plastic Surgery (the Blue Journal), the official journal of ISAPS. This preliminary study was initiated given the current and past healthcare and cosmetic medical/surgical care climate both in the United States and worldwide. As a background, when it comes to injectables (botox and fillers) there is not a united consensus on a state by state basis in the USA and from country to country worldwide. Additionally, the regulations and laws governing the administration of botox and injectables is in a constant flux. For instance, the UK allowed beauticians in the past to administer these substances however they are now banned from legal administration of these products. Alabama, only allows physicians (dermatologists and plastic surgeons) to purchase and administer botox and injectables whereas the medical board of California states that physicians can perform the procedure or oversee licensed registered nurses, licensed vocational nurses, or physicians assistants. Similarly, dentists in some states are permitted to administer these agents. It would be a bad idea for any physician working with botox to take Advanced Botox Training to reduce the possibility of medical misdemeanors. At the present time few studies have directly assessed the capability of various providers to administer cosmetic injections. When people schedule a consultation for plastic surgery, they are often looking for things like a younger face or a nicer body. The answer to the previous question will become more important as the demand for these procedures continues to grow and an increasing number of practitioners and different Plastic Surgeon from a variety of backgrounds enter the field to meet demand. This study aimed to help define the role of various practitioners in an increasingly more competitive environment for injectables and to explore the relationship between patient and injectable provider in order to improve patient satisfaction and outcomes. When asked to rank patients’ perceptions of various providers according to their expertise in administering Botox and dermal fillers, responders ranked plastic surgeons and dermatologists as most capable (96%) then nurses in plastic surgery and dermatology (3%). Gynecologists (<1%), dentists (<1%) and nurses in other fields (<1%) all received nearly equivalent numbers of “most capable” rankings. When asked to rank patients’ perception of various providers according to their inability to administer Botox and dermal fillers, nurses in other fields were most frequently ranks as least capable (63%) followed by dentists (26%), gynecologists (12%), plastic surgeons and dermatologists (2%) and nurses in plastic surgery and dermatology (1%). (more…)
Author Interviews, Prostate Cancer, Race/Ethnic Diversity / 04.08.2014

Isaac J. Powell MD Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Inst University Health Center Detroit, MI 48201.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Isaac J. Powell MD Wayne State University/Karmanos Cancer Inst University Health Center Detroit, MI 48201. Medical Research: What is the background for your study? Dr. Powell: During the PSA testing era for prostate cancer, which is responsible for early treatment, survival disparity between African Americans and European Americans has been eliminated. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, mBio / 04.08.2014

Dr. Sridhar Mani MD Departments of Genetics and Medicine Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sridhar Mani MD Departments of Genetics and Medicine Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461

  Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Mani: In a series of studies using cells grown in the lab and mouse studies, the researchers found that a metabolite called indole 3-propionic acid (IPA)—produced exclusively by so-called commensal bacteria —both strengthens the intestinal epithelium’s barrier function and prevents its inflammation by activating an orphan nuclear receptor, Pregnane X Receptor (PXR). Specifically, PXR activation suppresses production of an inflammatory protein called tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-á) while increasing levels of a protein that strengthens the junctions between intestinal epithelial cells (makes the intestines less permeable to noxious substances). Loss of PXR protein and/or IPA results in a disrupted intestinal barrier and increased propensity towards intestinal inflammation and/or toxin induced injury to the intestines. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Menopause / 03.08.2014

S. Mitchell Harman, M.D., Ph.D. CAPT US Public Health Service, retired Professor, Clinical Medicine, U of AZ College of Medicine Interim Chief, Dept. of Internal Medicine Chair, IRB Subcommitee Phoenix VA Health Care System Phoenix, AZ 85012-1892MedicalResearch.com Interview with: S. Mitchell Harman, M.D., Ph.D. CAPT US Public Health Service, retired Professor, Clinical Medicine, U of AZ College of Medicine Interim Chief, Dept. of Internal Medicine Chair, IRB Subcommitee Phoenix VA Health Care System Phoenix, AZ 85012-1892 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Harman: The major findings are: 1.       Neither transdermal nor oral estrogen treatment significantly accelerates or decelerates rate of change of carotid artery intimal medial thickness (CIMT) in healthy recently menopausal women. 2.       Both estrogen treatments have some potentially beneficial effects on markers of CVD risk, but these differ depending on the route of estrogen delivery with improvements in LDL and HDL cholesterol seen with oral, and reduced insulin resistance with transdermal. 3.       No significant effects were observed on rate of accumulation of coronary artery calcium. 4.       Women reported significant relief of vasomotor (hot flush) symptoms with both estrogen treatments (more…)
Author Interviews, Brigham & Women's - Harvard, Rheumatology, Weight Research / 01.08.2014

Dr. Bing Lu, M.D., Dr.P.H. Division of Rheumatology Immunology & Allergy Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Bing Lu, M.D., Dr.P.H. Division of Rheumatology Immunology & Allergy Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lu: In two large cohorts of women, we observed that being obese increased the risk of rheumatoid arthritis in women by 40–70% depending on age and serologic status. The highest risk for rheumatoid arthritis was among women who were overweight or obese at age 18 years, emphasizing the public health importance of combating the obesity epidemic at all ages. Our study implicates being overweight or obese throughout adult life as a risk factor in the development of seropositive and seronegative RA for women diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis at age 55 years or younger. The attenuated association between BMI and rheumatoid arthritis diagnosed at older ages may reflect differences in the pathophysiology of RA diagnosed at earlier ages compared with that diagnosed at older ages, or may be a result of the limitations of BMI as a measure of total fat mass as women age. (more…)
Author Interviews, Melanoma / 01.08.2014

Marianne Berwick, PhD, MPH for the GEM Study Team Professor, Division of Epidemiology University of New Mexico, Department of Internal Medicine New Mexico Cancer Research Facility University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marianne Berwick, PhD, MPH for the GEM Study Team Professor, Division of Epidemiology University of New Mexico, Department of Internal Medicine New Mexico Cancer Research Facility University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Berwick: In our study of Sun Exposure and Melanoma Survival: A GEM Study we found that there is little strong evidence that sun exposure at any time in life influences melanoma-specific survival. This study took place in Australia, Italy, Canada and the United States among 3,578 individuals newly diagnosed with melanoma, who we followed for a mean of 7.4 years. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Melanoma / 01.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Estee L. Williams, MD SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York Madfes Integrated Dermatology, New York, New York [email protected] Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Williams: In our retrospective review of all melanomas diagnosed at the Veterans’ Affairs Hospital in Brooklyn since 2000, we discovered that although a majority of the melanomas (63%) were found by the dermatologist during a yearly “full body” screening examination (versus detection by the patient), melanomas found by the dermatologist were not necessarily thinner (hence, earlier, more curable) than those found by the patient. (more…)
Anesthesiology, Author Interviews, Emergency Care / 01.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lindsay Cohen MD Department of Emergency Medicine University of British Columbia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cohen: In our systematic review of the literature, we sought to synthesize the available evidence on the effect of ketamine on clinical outcomes as compared to other sedative agents in intubated patients. Our outcomes of interest included intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures, neurologic outcomes, ICU length of stay, and mortality. We included only randomized controlled trials and prospective controlled studies, and identified a total of ten studies that met our inclusion criteria. Due to the lack of homogeneity in the studies, data was analyzed in a qualitative manner. None of the studies reported significant differences between ketamine and other sedative agents for any of our outcomes of interest. (more…)
Author Interviews, Pediatrics, Vaccine Studies / 01.08.2014

Jana Shaw MD, MPH, FAAP Associate Professor of Pediatrics Pediatric Infectious Diseases SUNY Upstate Medical University 750 East Adams Street Syracuse, NY 13210MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jana Shaw MD, MPH, FAAP Associate Professor of Pediatrics Pediatric Infectious Diseases SUNY Upstate Medical University 750 East Adams Street Syracuse, NY 13210 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Shaw: In this study, we looked at exemptions to school immunization requirements in the US during 2009-2010 school year. We found that private schools have higher rates for all types of exemptions (medical, religious, and personal belief/philosophical). In addition, states that permitted personal belief exemptions had higher rates of exemptions overall compared to states that did not allow them. (more…)
Author Interviews, Electronic Records / 01.08.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview Celeste Campos-Castillo PhD Assistant Professor Department of Sociology University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Campos-Castillo: Approximately 13% of adults in the U.S. have held back information from doctors out of privacy or security concerns. When we compare adults with the same characteristics (e.g., age and education, overall health, and health care characteristics like having insurance and seeing a doctor in the past year) based on whether their doctor uses an electronic health record (EHR) system or not, we find that those with a doctor that uses an electronic health record were more likely to hold back information than those whose doctor does not use an electronic health record. Other studies have looked at whether electronic health records are related to withholding information out of privacy concerns, but the evidence was mixed: sometimes patients with EHRs were more likely to hold back information from doctors, other times there but sometimes there was no difference in withholding between patients of doctors who used EHRs and those who did not. What makes our study unique is that we consider a range of factors in the analysis that can disguise the real relationship between EHRs and withholding information because of privacy concerns. In particular, we take into account how patient ratings of quality of care play a complicated role in this situation. Patients with doctors who use EHRs often rate the quality of care they receive higher than those with doctors who are not using these systems. At the same time, higher quality ratings generally mean that patients feel comfortable sharing information with doctors, even the sensitive information that we tend to keep to ourselves. Because quality ratings are associated both with EHRs and with holding back information from doctors, it is necessary to consider this in the analysis. Otherwise – as we show in the study – we would mistakenly conclude that EHRs are unrelated to holding back information. Instead, we show that when we accurately compare patients with the same characteristics, including quality ratings, patients with EHRs are more likely to withhold information from their doctors out of concerns for privacy. (more…)
Allergies, Author Interviews / 01.08.2014

Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH, MPhil Department of Pediatrics- Allergy/Immunology Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology Mindich Child Health and Development Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029 USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Supinda Bunyavanich, MD, MPH, MPhil Department of Pediatrics- Allergy/Immunology Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences Icahn Institute for Genomics and Multiscale Biology Mindich Child Health and Development Institute Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai New York, NY 10029 USA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bunyavanich: What is the prevalence of peanut allergy among US children? Given that 90% of US households consume peanut butter, this is an important question. We report and compare prevalence estimates of childhood peanut allergy according to varying criteria among 7-10 year-old children participating in a US birth cohort not selected for any disease. The prevalence of peanut allergy ranged from 2.0% to 5.0%, depending on definition. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Mediterranean Diet, Nutrition, PLoS, Sugar / 01.08.2014

Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of TorontoMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Effie Viguiliouk M.Sc. Candidate, Department of Nutritional Sciences University of Toronto Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Effie Viguiliouk: This systematic review and meta-analysis of the totality of evidence from 12 randomized clinical trials in 450 participants with type 2 diabetes found that eating about 1/2 a cup of tree nuts per day (equivalent to about 60 g or 2 servings) significantly lowered the two key markers of blood sugar, HbA1c and fasting glucose, in comparison to calorically matched control diets without tree nuts. (more…)
Alcohol, Author Interviews, Social Issues / 31.07.2014

Magdalena Cerdá, DrPH MPH Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University New York, NY 10032-3727MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Magdalena Cerdá, DrPH MPH Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology Mailman School of Public Health Columbia University New York, NY 10032-3727 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cerdá: We evaluated 1,095 Ohio National Guard soldiers, who had primarily served in Iraq and Afghanistan between 2008 and 2009 to determine the effect of civilian stressors and deployment-related traumatic events and stressors on post-deployment alcohol use disorder. Participants were interviewed three times over 3 years about alcohol use disorder, exposure to deployment-related traumatic events like land mines, vehicle crashes, taking enemy fire, and witnessing casualties, and about experiences of civilian life setbacks since returning from duty, including job loss, legal problems, divorce, and serious financial and legal problems. We found that having at least one civilian stressor or a reported incident of sexual harassment during deployment raised the odds of alcohol use disorders. In contrast, combat-related traumatic events were only marginally associated with alcohol problems. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Nutrition / 31.07.2014

Prof. Frank B Hu Department of Nutrition Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public HealthMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Prof. Frank B Hu Department of Nutrition Department of Epidemiology Harvard School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Hu: We found that increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of mortality, especially cardiovascular mortality. The largest reduction in mortality can be achieved at 5 servings per day of fruits and vegetables. (more…)
Author Interviews, Genetic Research, JAMA, Schizophrenia / 31.07.2014

Dr Angelica Ronald Genes Environment Lifespan (GEL) laboratory Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development Department of Psychological Sciences Birkbeck, University of London London WC1E 7HXMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Angelica Ronald Genes Environment Lifespan (GEL) laboratory Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development Department of Psychological Sciences Birkbeck, University of London London WC1E 7HX Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ronald: Psychotic experiences, such as paranoia, hallucinations and disorganised thinking, are commonly reported by adolescents. Until now it has not been understood whether mild variations in psychotic experiences in the community are part of the same construct as more severe psychotic experiences in adolescence. Our findings suggest that they are. In our study, over 10,000 16-year-old adolescents in England and Wales were assessed on measures of psychotic experiences. The study identified a close link between normal, less frequent psychotic experiences and more severe and frequent experiences in the general population. A classic twin design was employed, which enabled us to conduct analyses investigating the role of genetic and environmental influences on psychotic experiences. The same genetic influences appeared to play a role across the spectrum of severity of psychotic experiences. The study found that psychotic experiences are moderately heritable in adolescence in the general population. This suggests it would be worth directing molecular genetic endeavours towards this area, which has so far received very little attention in terms of causal explanations. We also show that psychotic experiences have considerable environmental influence; in fact, environmental influence appears to play a larger role in causing psychotic experiences in adolescence than for diagnosed psychotic disorders in adults, such as schizophrenia. This result suggests a fruitful avenue will be to tackle what environmental risk factors influence adolescents to have psychotic experiences. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Kidney Disease, Mayo Clinic, Weight Research / 31.07.2014

Dr. John C. Lieske, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MNMedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. John C. Lieske, MD Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lieske: We followed 11 women before, 6 and 12 months after Roux en Y gastric bypass surgery.  The patients successfully lost weight as mean BMI fell from 46 kg/m2 preoperatively to 28 kg/m2 postoperatively.   Mean serum creatinine did not significantly change from baseline (0.8 mg/dl) to 12 months (0.7 mg/dl).  Hence mean GFR estimated by the CKD-EPI equation (eGFR) did not significantly change from 84 ml/min/1.73 m2 (baseline) to 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (12 months).  However, GFR measured by iothalamate clearance (mGFR) significantly decreased from 108 ml/min/1.73m2 (121 ml/min) to 85 ml/min/1.73 m2 (90 ml/min). (more…)