Author Interviews, Ebola, Infections / 12.09.2014

Dr. Gerardo Chowell-Puente Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Human Evolution and Social Change College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Arizona State UniversityMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Gerardo Chowell-Puente Ph.D. Associate Professor School of Human Evolution and Social Change College of Liberal Arts and Sciences Arizona State University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chowell-Puente: 1.We estimated the effective reproduction number of Ebola virus disease, i.e. average number of secondary cases produced by a single primary case at calendar time t (Rt), for the ongoing epidemic in West Africa from March to August 2014. Estimates of Rt for the Guinea, Sierra Leone and Liberia, countries that are experiencing sustained community transmission were consistently above 1.0 since June 2014. 2.Country-specific estimates of the reproduction number for Liberia and Sierra Leone lied between 1.0 and 2.0, reflecting continuous growth of cases in these countries 3. Effective reproduction number below 2 indicate that control could be attained by preventing over half of the secondary transmissions per primary case (e.g. by means of effective case isolation and contact tracing). (more…)
Author Interviews, Autism / 12.09.2014

Anilkumar Pillai, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Psychiatry Medical College of Georgia Georgia Regents University (Formerly Georgia Health Sciences University)MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Anilkumar Pillai, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Psychiatry Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University (Formerly Georgia Health Sciences University) Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pillai: GABA receptors are responsible for binding GABA, the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the human brain. Recent studies have indicated a potential role for alterations in GABAA receptors in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the mechanism of regulation of GABAA receptor in Autism Spectrum Disorder is not known. Our study shows that GABAA levels are altered at the protein level, but not at the mRNA level in the middle frontal gyrus of Autism Spectrum Disorder subjects. Our study also finds that Synoviolin 1 (SYVN1) plays a critical role as an E3 ligase in GABAAα1 degradation. SYVN1 has been previously determined to function as a removal system of inappropriately folded or unfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol of the cell for degradation. Our study ultimately provides a mechanism for GABAAα1 deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder subjects and possible new treatment strategies to reverse deficits seen in ASD and other related disorders. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, NEJM / 12.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Charles Mullighan, M.D., MBBS(Hons), MSc Department of Pathology St. Jude Children's Research Hospital Memphis, TN 38105 MedicalResearch: What are the most important take home points from this study for practicing clinicians and their patients? Dr. Mullighan: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a leading cause of cancer death in children, and the prognosis worsens with increasing age. Current therapies are inadequate for many patients. This study has defined the genetic basis of a recently described subtype of Acute lymphoblastic leukemia called Ph-like ALL. We show that the prevalence increases with rising age, and that in both children and young adults the disease is driven by a diverse range of genetic changes that activate kinase signaling, which fuels the growth of leukemia cells. Ph-like Acute lymphoblastic leukemia currently has a poor outcome. The activated kinases may be inhibited by currently approved tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We have shown efficacy of these inhibitors in cell lines and experimental models, and in a series of patients with Ph-like Acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with TKIs. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Dartmouth, Melanoma, Nature / 12.09.2014

Dr. Constance Brinckerhoff Professor of Medicine Professor of Biochemistry Geisel School of Medicine at DartmouthMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Constance Brinckerhoff Professor of Medicine Professor of Biochemistry Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Brinckerhoff: The genetic mutation BRAFV600E , frequently found in metastatic melanoma, not only secretes a protein that promotes the growth of melanoma tumor cells, but can also modify the network of normal cells around the tumor to support the disease’s progression. Targeting this mutation with Vemurafenib reduces this interaction, and suggests possible new treatment options for melanoma therapy. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cancer Research, Genetic Research, University of Pennsylvania / 12.09.2014

Renata Afi Rawlings-Goss, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Tishkoff Lab, University of PennsylvaniaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Renata Afi Rawlings-Goss, Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow Tishkoff Lab, University of Pennsylvania   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rawlings-Goss: We found genetic mutations in key gene regulators that have been linked to ethnic disparities in cancer. Our investigation identified more than 30 previously undescribed mutations in important regulatory molecules called microRNAs. Individual microRNA molecules can regulate large numbers of genes in some cases over 6000 genes at once. Therefore, mutations in these genes have been linked to numerous diseases. By and large, however, microRNA mutations have not been studied in people of diverse ethnic backgrounds. (more…)
Author Interviews, CMAJ / 12.09.2014

Annemarieke de Jonghe Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Departement of Internal Medicine Section of Geriatric Medicine F4-218 Amsterdam, The NetherlandsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Annemarieke de Jonghe Academic Medical Center University of Amsterdam Departement of Internal Medicine Section of Geriatric Medicine F4-218 Amsterdam, The Netherlands Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. de Jonghe: We investigated the preventive properties of melatonin versus placebo in a prospective cohort of elderly hip fracture patients (n=378). We found that 3mg melatonin vs placebo, given for 5 days from the day of admission, did not influence the incidence of delirium. However, in a posthoc analysis we found that more patients in the placebo group more often had a longer lasting delirium. (more…)
Author Interviews, CHEST, Infections, Rheumatology / 12.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Theodore Marras, MD, FRCPC, M.Sc. Assistant Professor, University of Toronto Respirologist, Toronto Western Hospital University Health Network Toronto, ON, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Marras: Mycobacterial infections (TB and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM)) are more common in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nontuberculous mycobacteria disease was far more common than TB disease in RA patients in Ontario, Canada. Nontuberculous mycobacteria disease was also associated with increased age, COPD, asthma, and GERD. The presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria disease was associated with increased mortality. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology, Telemedicine / 11.09.2014

Mary G. Lynch, MD Professor of Ophthalmology Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center Decatur, Georgia. Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GeorgiaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mary G. Lynch, MD Professor of Ophthalmology Atlanta Veterans Affairs Medical Center Decatur, Georgia. Department of Ophthalmology, Emory University School of Medicine,  Atlanta, Georgia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lynch:
  • Since 2006, the VA has been systematically using teleretinal screening of patients with diabetes to screen for retinopathy in the Primary Care Clinics. Under this program, 90% of veterans with diabetes are evaluated on a regular basis. A number of patients who are screened have findings that warrant a face-to-face ophthalmic exam. No information exists on the effect of such a program on medical center resources.
  • 1,935 patients  underwent teleretinal screening through the Atlanta VA over a 6 month period.  We reviewed the charts of the 465 (24%) of the patients who were referred for a face to face exam in the Eye Clinic.
  • Data was collected for these patients to determine the reasons for referral, the accuracy of the teleretinal interpretation, the resources needed in the Eye Clinic of the Medical Center to evaluate and care for the referred patients over a two year period and possible barriers to patient care.
  • Of the 465 patients referred for an exam, 260 (55.9%) actually came in for an exam. Community notes were available for an additional 66 patients. Information was available for 326 (70.1%) of the referred patients.
  • The most common referring diagnoses were nonmacular diabetic retinopathy (43.2% of referrals), nerve related issues (30.8%), lens or media opacity (19.1%), age-related macular degeneration (12.9%) and diabetic macular edema (5.6%).
  • 16.9% of the referred patients had 2 or more concurrent problems that put them at high risk for visual loss.
  • The percentage agreement between teleretinal screening and the ophthalmic exam was high: 90.4%. Overall sensitivity was 73.6%. The detection of diabetic macular edema had the lowest sensitivity.
  • A visually significant condition was detected for the first time through teleretinal screening for 142 of the patients examined (43.6%).
  • The resource burden to care for referred patients was substantial.
  • 36% of patients required 3 or more visits over the ensuing 2 year period.
  • The treatment of diabetic macular edema had the highest resource use involving on average 5 clinic visits, 6 diagnostic procedures and 2 surgical procedures
  • The most common non-refractive diagnostic procedures were visual fields and optical coherence tomography.
  • The average cost to care for the referred patients (in Medicare dollars) in work RVUs alone was approximately $1,000 per patient. The cost to care for a patient with diabetic macular edema was $2673.36.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Mental Health Research / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Patrick Corrigan Psy.D. Distinguished Professor of Psychology Illinois Institute of Technology PI: National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment www.NCSE1.orgPatrick Corrigan Psy.D. Distinguished Professor of Psychology Illinois Institute of Technology PI: National Consortium on Stigma and Empowerment www.NCSE1.org Medical Research:  What are the main findings of this review? Dr. Corrigan: People with serious mental illness often do not seek out services, or drop out early, when in need. Stigma is a major reason for why this happens. Stigma refers to the stereotypes about a group that undermine status and lead to discrimination. Discrimination refers to the behaviors that block the opportunities of group members. Some employers do not hire people with mental illness, some landlords do not rent to them, and some primary care practitioners offer a substandard of care. Stereotypes and discrimination undermine engagement in mental health services in three ways (Corrigan, 2005): Label Avoidance: In order to escape the pernicious effects of stigma, people avoid settings where they are labeled mentally ill; for example, people coming out of a psychiatrist’s office may be perceived as “nuts.” Self-Stigma: Some people who internalize stereotypes suffer diminished self-esteem and self-efficacy leading to the “why try” effect. “Why should I try to get a job? Someone like me is not worthy.” “Why should I try to get mental health treatment? I am not able to benefit from it.” Structural Stigma: Stereotypes and discrimination become institutionalized in the laws and practices of government and business. For example, insurance coverage for mental health services was significantly below that for most other conditions.   (more…)
AHRQ, Author Interviews, BMJ, Outcomes & Safety / 11.09.2014

Yves A. Lussier, MD, Fellow ACMI Professor of Medicine Associate Vice President for Health Sciences (Chief Knowledge Officer) The University of ArizonaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Yves A. Lussier, MD, Fellow ACMI Professor of Medicine Associate Vice President for Health Sciences (Chief Knowledge Officer) The University of Arizona Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lussier:  The main finding is that reporting patient safety using ICD-10-CM coding schema rather than ICD-9-CM will change the reported percentage of adverse events reported for half the specific "patient safety indicators" (PSIs), even with a true unaltered frequency of reported events in the medical center. For some patient safety indicators, the reported frequency will appear to increase substantially and for others, it will appear to decrease.  The latter is particularly  worrisome as it may erroneously appease administrators and prospective clients (patients) as their apparent trend is improving, while their institution may inadvertently be under-reporting adverse events. (more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 11.09.2014

Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PAMedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Dr. Heather Stuckey D.Ed Department of Medicine Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, Hershey, PA MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Stuckey: The main findings were that people with diabetes had both negative psychosocial and positive (adaptive) ways of coping with diabetes. Negative themes included:  1) Anxiety/fear, worry about hypoglycemia and complications of diabetes, depression and negative moods/hopelessness and 2) Discrimination at work and public misunderstanding about diabetes. Two psychosocial themes demonstrated adaptive ways of coping with diabetes: 1) Having a positive outlook and sense of resilience in the midst of having diabetes and 2) Receiving psychosocial support through caring and compassionate family, friends, healthcare professionals and other people with diabetes. Most diabetes social sciences research focuses on only the negative aspects of having diabetes.  Although this paper discussed negative aspects, it also focused on the adaptive, or positive, ways in which people with diabetes viewed their disease.  "We found that although these negative experiences with diabetes exist, people also held on to the positive aspects.  Some said diabetes made their lives a little richer because they ate healthier foods, or they were able to connect with their family more to overcome challenges. It gave them a better appreciation of what they have.  The discrimination at work and from society was a finding that was unexpected, but was evident throughout both the quantitative and qualitative data. (more…)
Author Interviews, Fish, General Medicine, Hearing Loss / 11.09.2014

Sharon G. Curhan, MD, ScM Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sharon G. Curhan, MD, ScM Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Internal Medicine Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Boston, MA 02115 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Curhan: We followed more than 65,000 women who were participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II over 18 years and found that eating 2 or more servings of fish per week was associated with a lower risk of hearing loss. For example, after adjusting for potential confounders in multivariable analyses, in comparison with women who rarely or never ate fish, women who consumed 2 or more servings of fish per week had a 20% lower risk of hearing loss. Eating any type of fish (tuna, dark fish, light fish or shellfish) tended to be associated with lower risk. Also, we found that higher intake of long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was inversely associated with risk. For example, in comparison with women with the lowest intake, women with the highest intake of long-chain omega-3 PUFAs had a 22% lower risk of hearing loss. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, Gender Differences, PLoS / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Eero Haapala, MSc in Exercise Medicine, BASc PhD student University of Eastern Finland,School of Medicine Institute of Biomedicine, Physiology Kuopio, Finland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Our study is one of the first studies to investigate the different types of physical activity and sedentary behavior with academic achievement in children. Our main finding was that children who were more physically active during school recess were better readers in Grades 1-3 than less active children. We also found a direct relationship between physically active school transportation, which was mainly walking and cycling, and reading skills in boys. These findings suggest that particularly physical activity within a school day benefits academic achievement and that physical activity benefit academic achievement more in boys than in girls 6-8 years of age. (more…)
Aging, Author Interviews, Frailty / 11.09.2014

Professor Mark L. Wahlqvist, M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan National Defense Medical Center, School of Public Health, Taiwan Monash Asia Institute, Monash University Melbourne, AustraliaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Professor Mark L. Wahlqvist, M.D., Ph.D. Institute of Population Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Taiwan National Defense Medical Center, School of Public Health, Taiwan Monash Asia Institute, Monash University Melbourne, Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Wahlqvist: Poor appetite and dietary quality as judged by diversity separately (each by about 50%) and together (by about 80%) increase the mortality risk in older persons living in the community. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, JAMA, NIH, Transplantation / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Rena Zuo, BA MD Candidate at Duke University School of Medicine and Edward W. Cowen, MD, MHSc Senior Clinician Head, Dermatology Consultation Service Dermatology Branch Center for Cancer Research National Cancer Institute National Institutes of Health MedicalResearch: What are the main findings of the study?
 Answer: Chronic graft-vs-host disease (cGVHD) is a debilitating multisystem disease that occurs in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations as treatment for hematologic disorders. Although the diverse clinical presentations of cGVHD frequently mimic other autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren syndrome and systemic sclerosis, and low-titer antibodies are commonly found in patients with cGVHD, the exact pathogenesis and role of autoimmunity in cGVHD are incompletely understood. Our study is the first to characterize and identify risk factors associated with the development of two uncommon autoimmune phenomena, specifically alopecia areata and vitiligo, in the setting of cGVHD. Laboratory markers, including 11 antibodies, transplant-related factors, and other cGVHD systemic manifestations were analyzed. Several particularly interesting results were found:
  1. Among 282 patients with cGVHD, 15 demonstrated vitiligo (14 of 282; 4.9%) and/or alopecia areata (2 of 282; 0.7%).
  2. Female donor and female donor to male recipient sex mismatch, in particular, are significantly associated with the development of vitiligo and/or alopecia areata.
  3. Positive anti-cardiolipin (ACA) IgG was also significantly associated with development of vitiligo and/or alopecia areata.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care, OBGYNE / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview With: Ruth C. E. Hughes Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology University of Otago, Christchurch Women’s Hospital Christchurch, New Zealand Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hughes: The increasing prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes in women of childbearing age was the main driver behind our study.  In clinical practice, we were finding that women with probable undiagnosed diabetes (and pre-diabetes) had already started developing pregnancy complications at the time they were diagnosed with gestational diabetes diagnosis in the late second trimester. It seemed logical to try to identify them in early pregnancy, with the idea that they might benefit from earlier intervention.  We thus explored the usefulness of first trimester HbA1c measurements to identify women with unrecognised pre-existing diabetes. In our study, an HbA1c of 5.9% (41mmol/mol) was the optimal screening threshold for diabetes in early pregnancy.  We found that a threshold of 6.5% (48mmol/mol), which is endorsed by the World Health Organization and American Diabetes Association for diagnosing diabetes in pregnancy, would miss almost 50% of women with probable pre-existing diabetes.  Of great relevance, women with an early HbA1c of 5.9%-6.4% (41-46mmol/mol) had poorer pregnancy outcomes than those with an HbA1c <5.9% (<41mmol/mol), with a 2.5-3 fold higher relative risk of major congenital anomaly, preeclampsia, shoulder dystocia, and perinatal death.  These women were also more likely to deliver before 37 weeks gestation. (more…)
Author Interviews, Dermatology, Gastrointestinal Disease, JAMA, Mayo Clinic / 11.09.2014

Shadi Rashtak, MD Department of Dermatology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, MinnesotaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Shadi Rashtak, MD Department of Dermatology Mayo Clinic College of Medicine Rochester, Minnesota Medical Research:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Rashtak: We found that among a population of mainly acne patients those who received isotretinoin had a lower risk of inflammatory bowel disease as compared to those who did not take this medication. We carefully reviewed the medical records of patients to ensure that this finding was not simply because the drug was avoided in patients with a previous personal or family history of IBD. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Obstructive Sleep Apnea / 11.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Marcia Klein M.D., Ph.D. Adjunctive professor Rio de Janeiro State University This study was conducted at the Discipline of Clinical and Experimental Pathophysiology - Rio de Janeiro State University and the financial support of FAPERJ. Medical Research: What was the main findings of the study? Dr. Klein: The main findings were that a diet with moderate calories restriction in obese patients with obstructive sleep apnea may be able not only to reduce body fat but also to reduce obstructive sleep apnea severity and blood pressure. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, Lancet, Statins / 11.09.2014

Børge G. Nordestgaard, MD, DMSc Professor, University of Copenhagen Chief Physician, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital Dept. Clinical Biochemistry Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev, DenmarkMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Børge G. Nordestgaard, MD, DMSc Professor, University of Copenhagen Chief Physician, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital Dept. Clinical Biochemistry Herlev Ringvej Herlev, Denmark Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nordestgaard: Among all patients with diabetes in Denmark during 1996-2009 and compared with non-statin users, statin users had a 40% lower risk of diabetic retinopathy, a 34% lower risk of diabetic neuropathy, and a 12% lower risk of gangrene of the foot, while the risk of diabetic nephropathy was similar. (more…)
Author Interviews, Critical Care - Intensive Care - ICUs, JAMA / 10.09.2014

Hayley Gershengorn MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine (Critical Care) Assistant Professor, The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Hayley Gershengorn MD Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine (Critical Care) Assistant Professor, The Saul R. Korey Department of Neurology Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461 Medical Research:  What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Gershengorn: Using a large national database, we found there to be no association between the use of arterial catheters and mortality in mechanically ventilated medical intensive care unit patients. Similarly, we found no beneficial association between arterial catheters and mortality in any of the eight other critically ill subgroups evaluated. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 10.09.2014

Mintu Turakhia, MD MAS, FHRS FACC FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine and (by courtesy) of Health Research & Policy Stanford University School of Medicine Director of Cardiac Electrophysiology Core Investigator, Center for Innovation to Implementation VA Palo Alto Healthcare SystemMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Mintu Turakhia, MD MAS, FHRS FACC FAHA Assistant Professor of Medicine and (by courtesy) of Health Research & Policy Stanford University School of Medicine Director of Cardiac Electrophysiology Core Investigator, Center for Innovation to Implementation VA Palo Alto Healthcare System Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study Dr. Turakhia: We found that the reported success rate of a study correlated with the number of times the study was cited in the literature, even after adjustment for a wide range of factors. (more…)
Author Interviews, Surgical Research / 10.09.2014

Achih H. Chen, MD, FACS, FAACS Georgia Center for Facial Plastic Surgery, Evans, Ga and the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Georgia Regents University, August, GaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Achih H. Chen, MD, FACS, FAACS Georgia Center for Facial Plastic Surgery, Evans, Ga and the Division of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery Georgia Regents University, August, Ga Medical Research: What is the significance of the study? Dr. Chen : This is the first time that facial rejuvenation surgery using surgical approaches in three planes combined with ablative resurfacing has been reported in the medical literature. This approach was not previously thought possible in a single surgical setting because of the concern about disrupting the facial blood supply that may result in loss of the skin. The study demonstrates the safety of this “Total Face” approach. This approach allows simultaneous tightening of the jawline and neck, recreating the lost youthful volume of the midface region, and restoring of the smooth skin texture so characteristic of a young face. This allows for a more complete or “Total Face Rejuvenation” for patients while allowing them the flexibility for a single recovery period or downtime. (more…)
Author Interviews, Sleep Disorders / 10.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with Dr. Shona E. Fang Sc.D. New England Research Institutes, Inc Watertown, Massachusetts Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Fang: Sleep duration varied by neighborhood in Boston, a diverse urban setting. Individual factors, including socioeconomic status, explained some of this variation, while neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) explained a much larger portion. (more…)
Author Interviews, Weight Research / 10.09.2014

Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Eugene Oregon, 97403MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Sonja Yokum Ph.D. Oregon Research Institute Eugene Oregon, 97403 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Yokum: We found that adolescents showing elevated responses in reward regions to food commercials gained more weight over 1-year follow-up compared to those with less activation in these brain regions. This suggests that there are individual differences in neural vulnerability to food commercials that appear to identify youth at risk for excess weight gain. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Lancet / 10.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Edmund Silins PhD, Research Fellow National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre UNSW Medicine University of New South Wales Sydney  Australia Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Silins: There were three particularly interesting aspects to the findings.
  • Firstly, we found clear and consistent associations between adolescent cannabis use and the young adult outcomes investigated.
  • Secondly, there was evidence of a dose-response effect such that the more frequently adolescents used cannabis the more likely they were to experience harms later in life.
  • Thirdly, for most outcomes, these associations remained even after taking into account a wide range of other factors which might potentially explain them.
The adverse effects were greatest for daily cannabis users. Specifically, adolescents who were daily cannabis users were, by the age of 25, more than 60% less likely to complete high school or obtain a university degree, seven times more likely to have attempted suicide, 18 times more likely to have been cannabis dependent, and eight times more likely to have used other illicit drugs, than adolescents who had never used the drug. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, BMJ / 10.09.2014

Sophie Billioti de Gage PharmD University of Bordeaux Segalen FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sophie Billioti de Gage PharmD University of Bordeaux Segalen France   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The risk of Alzheimer’s disease was found increased by 43-51% in persons (>65) having initiated a treatment with benzodiazepines in the past (>5 years before). Risk increased with the length of exposure and when long acting benzodiazepines were used. (more…)
Author Interviews, Exercise - Fitness, General Medicine, Occupational Health / 10.09.2014

Saurabh S. Thosar, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Researcher Oregon Institute for Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science UniversiMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Saurabh S. Thosar, Ph.D., Postdoctoral Researcher Oregon Institute for Occupational Health Sciences, Oregon Health & Science University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Thosar: We discovered that 3 hours of sitting leads to an impairment in shear rate and an impairment in femoral artery endothelial function. When systematic breaks are added in the sitting time the shear rate and the endothelial function are preserved. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC / 09.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Laura A. Graham, MPH Center for Surgical, Medical Acute Care Research, and Transitions Birmingham Veterans Affairs Medical Center Section of Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: The main findings of the study are that the recommendations made in the guidelines published by the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association in 2007 were effective at reducing postoperative major adverse cardiac events following noncardiac surgery in patients with a cardiac stent.1  These guidelines recommended the delay of noncardiac surgeries in patients with a drug-eluting stent for 365 days if the surgery was not emergent or the delay of surgery for 4 to 6 weeks among patients with a bare metal stent.1  In addition to a 26% reduction in postoperative major adverse cardiac events, we also found an increase in the time between drug-eluting stent placement and non-cardiac surgery consistent with the guideline recommendations. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cost of Health Care, JAMA / 09.09.2014

Michael Johansen, MD MS Assistant Professor Dept of Family Medicine Ohio State UniversityMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Michael Johansen, MD MS Assistant Professor Dept of Family Medicine Ohio State University Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Johansen: Between 2007-2011, the United States spent $63.4 billion on high-cost proton pump inhibitors of which $47.1 billion was in excess of using generic omeprazole. (more…)