Author Interviews, Breast Cancer, JCEM / 06.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Lu Chen, MPH Researcher in the Public Health Sciences Division Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center Doctoral student in the Department of Epidemiology University of Washington School of Public Health Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chen: We found no evidence that wearing a bra is associated with breast cancer risk. Further, breast cancer risk was not impacted by bra wearing frequency, wearing a bra with an underwire, or starting to wear a bra at a young age. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Ophthalmology / 06.09.2014

Louis R. Pasquale, MD Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Ophthalmology Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Boston, MassachusettsMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Louis R. Pasquale, MD Channing Division of Network Medicine Department of Ophthalmology Harvard Medical School, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary Boston, Massachusetts Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Pasquale: We found that more time spent outdoors in summer was associated with increased risk of exfoliation syndrome. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Mental Health Research, Schizophrenia / 06.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sandra M. Meier, PhD The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, National Centre for Register-Based Research Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Meier: People with an obsessive-compulsive disorder are at a 6 to 7 times higher risk of developing schizophrenia than people without an obsessive-compulsive disorder. If the parents are diagnosed with an obsessive-compulsive disorder, their offspring experience a 3 to 4 times higher chance to develop schizophrenia. (more…)
Author Interviews, Hematology / 06.09.2014

Gabriel Popescu Associate Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Bioengineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Beckman Institute for Advanced Science Urbana, IL 61801 MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gabriel Popescu Associate Professor Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering & Bioengineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Beckman Institute for Advanced Science Urbana, IL Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Prof. Popescu: We used a new imaging method, which combines microscopy and interferometry, to measure nanoscale fluctuations in the red blood cell membrane. We found that the fluctuations, known to be due to thermal or Brownian motion, decrease with blood storage time. These results indicate that the deformability of the cells degrades with time. It means that blood functionality is lower the longer the blood is stored. (more…)
Author Interviews / 06.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Naman Ahluwalia, PhD, DSc, FACN Nutrition Monitoring Advisor Office of the Director Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, NCHS, CDC Hyattsville, MD 20782 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ahluwalia: Health Canada has put forth caffeine intake guidelines for children and adolescents in absolute amounts (mg) and in mg/kg body weight for teens. The maximal caffeine intakes of 45, 63, and 85 mg/day are suggested for children ages 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12 years and for teens (13 y and over) Health Canada suggests that caffeine intake be no more than 2.5 mg/kg body weight/day. Although no such recommendations have been set in the US, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) underlines that “caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children.” This study provides national estimates of dietary caffeine intake in US children 2-19 y of age, both in absolute amounts (mg) and in relation to body weight (mg/kg), to update estimates that were published in another study in 2005 based on older data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by individuals in 1994-96 and 1998. The key findings were: 1. Majority (71%) of children in the survey reported consuming caffeine on a given day; over one-half of US children aged 2-5 y and 3 in 4 children ages 6 y and over consumed caffeine on a given day. 2. Certain socio-demographic patterns in caffeine intake were observed. More non-Hispanic white and Mexican American children reported consuming caffeine than non-Hispanic black children; in addition, the amount of caffeine consumed by non-Hispanic white and Mexican American children was higher than that consumed by non-Hispanic black children. Caffeine intake increased with age. For instance, 2-5 year-old caffeine consumers reported 5 mg of caffeine intake on a given day, compared to 9 mg for 6-11 y olds and ~ 40 mg for teens (12-19 y). For reference, a 8 fl oz can of soda contains about 24-50 mg of caffeine. 3. Another finding was that on a given day one in ten children (6-19 y) had caffeine intakes that exceeded the Canadian maximal guidelines. 4. Caffeine intake (mg or mg/kg) stayed relatively constant among teens over the last decade, but trends towards decreased intake were noted in younger (2-11 y old) children. (more…)
AHA Journals, Author Interviews / 05.09.2014

Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, PhD Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, PhD Department of Epidemiology and Population Health Albert Einstein College of Medicine Bronx, NY 10461. First author on this paper was Arjun Seth, BS, Dr. Wassertheil-Smoller’s mentee and a medical student at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wassertheil-Smoller: We found in study of nearly 100,000 postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative that a high intake of dietary potassium was associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke and death from all causes. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Multiple Sclerosis / 05.09.2014

Jeffrey Cohen MD Department of Neurology Cleveland ClinicMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jeffrey Cohen MD Department of Neurology Cleveland Clinic Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cohen: This study assessed the relationship between walking speed, as measured by the Timed 25-foot Walk test, and patient-reported quality of life, as measured by the Physical Component Summary score of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), in a pooled dataset from the AFFIRM, SENTINEL, and IMPACT multiple sclerosis Phase 3 trials.  It showed that slowed walking speed is associated with decreased quality of life.  It also showed that 20-25% slowing of walking speed is a clinically meaningful change. (more…)
Author Interviews, Colon Cancer / 05.09.2014

Paula Berstad, PhD, postdoc Telemark Hospital c/o Cancer Registry of Norway Oslo, NorwayMedicalResearch.com Interview Invitation Paula Berstad, PhD, postdoc Telemark Hospital c/o Cancer Registry of Norway Oslo, Norway   Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Berstad: In general population of age 50-55 years, both those invited to bowel cancer screening in year 2001 by flexible sigmoidoscopy and those not invited improved their lifestyle from year 2001 to 2012. Lifestyle was measured as adherence to public health guidelines; non-smoking, daily physical exercise, healthy diet and normal body weight. However, the 11-year improvement was smaller in those who were screened for bowel cancer compared to those not screened. Further, among those who attended the screening, the improvement was smaller in those with findings at screening (positive screening result) compared to those without findings (negative screening result). Our interpretation of the findings is that bowel cancer screening may have a small unwanted effect on lifestyle. Particularly, attention should be given to lifestyle among those testing positive at screening. (more…)
Antibiotic Resistance, Author Interviews, PNAS / 05.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: David T. Fox, Ph.D. Scientist 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory andDavid T. Fox, Ph.D. Scientist 3 Los Alamos National Laboratory and Prof. Samir Mitragotri Center for Bioengineering and Department of Chemical Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106Prof. Samir Mitragotri Center for Bioengineering and Department of Chemical Engineering University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Answer: Our research team identified a molten salt, choline-geranate, that possessed multiple beneficial biological traits. Specifically, when mixed in a 1:2 ratio (choline:geranate) this solvent is able to effectively disrupt and neutralize 72-hour biofilms formed by both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enterica. Further, our studies demonstrated the same solvent exhibited minimal cytotoxicity effects to normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and was able to deliver an antibiotic, cefadroxil, through the stratum corneum into the epidermis and dermis. Most importantly, the research culminated in demonstrating the molten salt was able to neutralize ~95% of the bacteria found within a 24-hour P. aeruginosa biofilm when grown on a skin wound model (MatTek)  and ~98% of the bacteria when formulated with the antibiotic, ceftazidime. When the biofilm was treated with only antibiotic in a saline solution, less than 20% of the bacteria were neutralized. (more…)
Author Interviews, Insomnia, Occupational Health / 04.09.2014

Tea Lallukka, PhD Finnish Institute of Occupational Health & University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health University of Helsinki, FinlandMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tea Lallukka, PhD Finnish Institute of Occupational Health & University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health University of Helsinki, Finland Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Lallukka: Our study used nationally representative survey data linked with register data on medically certified sickness absence among working -aged Finnish women and men. We showed consistent associations between insomnia symptoms, sleep duration, and being tired and sickness absence. The follow-up lasted around 7 years. Sickness absence days were derived from comprehensive registers from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. The associations were broadly similar among women and men. Furthermore, they remained even after considering key correlates of sleep and sickness absence including socioeconomic position, working conditions, health behaviors, obesity, and mental and physical health. Health data were derived from physical examination conducted by field physicians. These data are more objective, and help provide more robust evidence. We further covered all key sleep disturbances and sleep duration for more comprehensive understanding about the contribution of sleep to sickness absence. Finally, a novel method developed by the authors (Härkänen & Kaikkonen) allowed us to estimate the difference in sickness absence days per working year among those reporting and not reporting different sleep disturbances. Using the difference in days absent from work, we were further able to estimate the hypothetical direct costs of sickness absence highlighting notable societal significance of sleep. Thus, a large part of all costs of sickness absence are attributable to poor sleep. For example, those sleeping 5 hours or less or 10 hours or more, were absent from work ca 5-9 days more, as compared to those with optimal sleep length. The optimal sleep length with the lowest risk of sickness absence was 7 hours 46 minutes for men and 7 hours 38 minutes for women. (more…)
Author Interviews / 04.09.2014

Kate Wolin, ScD, FACSM Associate Professor Departments of Surgery & Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of MedicineMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Kate Wolin, ScD, FACSM Associate Professor Departments of Surgery & Public Health Sciences Loyola University Chicago, Stritch School of Medicine Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Answer: Men who are physically active are less likely to experience nocturia. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gender Differences, Heart Disease / 04.09.2014

Sumeet S. Chugh MD Pauline and Harold Price Endowed Professor Associate Director, the Heart Institute Section Chief, Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Sumeet S. Chugh MD Pauline and Harold Price Endowed Professor Associate Director, the Heart Institute Section Chief, Clinical Cardiac Electrophysiology Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Chugh: Our study, conducted in the community, showed that there are unique alterations in sex hormone levels identified among patients who have sudden cardiac arrest. Male victims have lower testosterone and both males and females have higher estrogren levels. (more…)
Author Interviews, BMJ, Heart Disease, Metabolic Syndrome / 04.09.2014

Dr Weiguo Zhang, MD PhD Cardiovascular and Neurological Institute 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039, USAMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr Weiguo Zhang, MD PhD Cardiovascular and Neurological Institute 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039, USA

Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study?

Prof. ZhangHigher heart rate has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor and is associated with higher mortality rate. However the mechanistic link between heart rate and mortality outcome in population has been missing. The main findings of the present study in a relatively large population are two-fold: Firstly, there is a strong and positive association between resting heart rate and metabolic syndrome, which is defined when an adult has 3 of the following: obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm for men or ≥80 for women)hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L)low plasma level of high-density lipoprotein <1.03 mmol/L for men or <1.30 mmol/L for women)hypertension (systolic blood pressure/ diastolic blood pressure≥130/85 mmHg or current use of antihypertensive medications); hyperglycemia (fast blood glucose ≥5.6 mmol/L or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes or current use of hypoglycaemic agents or insulin). Secondly and more importantly, those without metabolic syndrome but with higher resting heart rate will have greater risk in developing metabolic syndrome in the near future. As such, the findings from both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies provide evidence that resting heart rate is an independent risk factor for existing metabolic syndrome and a powerful predictor for its future incidence. (more…)

Author Interviews, HIV, Infections, NEJM / 04.09.2014

Bongani M. Mayosi, M.B., Ch.B., D.Phil. Department of Medicine, Old Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town, South AfricaMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bongani M. Mayosi, M.B., Ch.B., D.Phil. Department of Medicine, Old Groote Schuur Hospital Cape Town, South Africa Medical Research: What are the main findings of this study? Dr. Mayosi: In those with definite or probable tuberculous pericardial effusion: (1)       Prednisolone for 6 weeks and Mycibacterium indicus pranii  for three months had no significant effect on the combined outcome of death from all causes, cardiac tamponade requiring pericardiocentesis or constrictive pericarditis. (2)      Both therapies were associated with an increased risk of HIV-associated malignancy. (3)       However, use of prednisolone reduced the incidence of constrictive pericarditis and hospitalization. (4)       The beneficial effects of prednisolone on constriction and hospitalization were similar in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, JACC / 04.09.2014

Martin Huth Ruwald, MD, PhD Post doctoral research fellow Heart Research Follow-up Program University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester, NY, USMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Martin Huth Ruwald, MD, PhD Post doctoral research fellow Heart Research Follow-up Program University of Rochester Medical Center Rochester, NY, US Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ruwald: A high percentage of biventricular pacing is required for optimal outcome in patients treated with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), but the influence of ectopic beats on the success of biventricular pacing has not been well established. We found that patients with increasing amount of ectopic beats (the ectopic burden) (≥0.1%) were more likely to achieve low biventricular pacing <97% and had higher risk of heart failure or death and ventricular arrhythmias. Similarly the study identified patients with a very low amount of ectopic beats, less than 1 in 1000, who are very likely to obtain high biventricular pacing and who have very low risk of adverse outcomes. (more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Diabetes / 04.09.2014

Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, LouisianaMedicalResearch.com Interview with Andy Menke PhD Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Medicine New Orleans, Louisiana Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Menke: The prevalence of diabetes increased more in men than women between 1976 and 2010 in the US, from 4.7% to 11.2% in men and from 5.7% to 8.7% in women. Changes over time in the distribution of age, race/ethnicity, and obesity in the population explained all of the increase in women and only half of the increase in men. (more…)
Author Interviews, Depression, End of Life Care / 04.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Nenette M. Jessup MPH, CCRP Research Associate/Project Manager TASK II Indiana University School of Nursing Indianapolis, IN 46202 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Jessup: Similar to others, we found that females and non-African American caregivers experienced more depressive symptoms and females perceived greater task difficulty. Because female caregivers comprise the largest group of caregivers in the United States, the consistency of this finding has implications for continued social policy efforts to improve their plight. However, our results also suggested an interaction effect between race and type of relationship, with African American spouses experiencing the most difficulty with tasks of caregiving. Inconsistencies in the existing literature about this finding signal the need for a greater understanding of group differences. Individualized interventions may also be of benefit for stroke caregivers. (more…)
Author Interviews, PLoS, Technology / 04.09.2014

Giulio Ruffini PhD Starlab Barcelona Neuroelectrics Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Giulio Ruffini PhD Starlab Barcelona Neuroelectrics Barcelona Barcelona, Spain. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Ruffini: We demonstrated that it is possible to transmit information directly from a brain to another one, without intervention of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - e.g., the senses. By hyperinteraction we mean this: the technologically mediated transmission of information directly from one brain to another, bypassing our senses or effectors (all which require the intervention of the PNS). (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease / 03.09.2014

Jean-Philippe Couderc, PhD, MBA Associate Professor of Medicine Research Associate professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, NY Heart Research Follow-Up Program - Cardiology Department Rochester, New-York 14642MedicalResearch.com: Interview with: Jean-Philippe Couderc, PhD, MBA Associate Professor of Medicine Research Associate professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering University of Rochester, NY Heart Research Follow-Up Program - Cardiology Department Rochester, New-York 14642 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Couderc: We have developed a unique technology which enables any individual to evaluate if he/she suffers from atrial fibrillation (AF) by using a simple video camera (webcam). There are approximately 3.2 million people with AF in the US, and estimated 30 million people in the world. It has been shown that around 30% of people suffering from AF are not aware of their disease, this form is called 'silent' atrial fibrillation.  AF is a progressive disease leading to stroke and heart failure.  It results in significant morbidity and mortality. The total cost of AF in the US is estimated to $7billion and 75% of this cost is associated with patient hospitalization. (more…)
Author Interviews, Gastrointestinal Disease, Pediatrics / 03.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Cade M. Nylund, MD, MS, FAAP Major, United States Air Force, Medical Corps Assistant Professor of Pediatrics F. Edward Hébert School of Medicine Uniformed Services University Bethesda, Maryland
Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Nylund: The main findings of our study were that among children who were identified as having a diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), CDI was about twice as likely to occur during periods when the child was taking either a proton pump inhibitor or histamine-2 receptor antagonist. In brief, we performed a type of observational study called a self-controlled case series. Our data source was the military health system database which contains billing records for patients seen in military and civilian facilities. We identified all cases of Clostridium difficile infections in children ages 2-18 over the period of October 2001 to July 2013. We also identified periods when children were prescribed both proton pump inhibitors and histamine-2 receptor antagonists over the same time period. We compared the incidence of CDI during periods prescribed acid suppression medications to periods not prescribed these medications. (more…)
Author Interviews, Cannabis, Disability Research, Karolinski Institute / 03.09.2014

Anna-Karin Danielsson, PhD Project Coordinator Karolinska Institutet Department of Public Health Sciences (PHS) Widerströmska huset| Stockholm, SwedenMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Anna-Karin Danielsson, PhD Project Coordinator Karolinska Institutet Department of Public Health Sciences (PHS) Widerströmska huset| Stockholm, Sweden Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Danielsson: Smoking cannabis in adolescence increases the risk of adverse social consequences later on in life. (more…)
Alzheimer's - Dementia, Author Interviews, Cannabis / 03.09.2014

Chuanhai Cao Ph.D. Neuroscientist at the Byrd Alzheimer's Institute and the USF College of Pharmacy.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Chuanhai Cao Ph.D. Neuroscientist at the Byrd Alzheimer's Institute and the USF College of Pharmacy. Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Cao: The major goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Ä9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a major component of marijuana, on Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathology. THC has long been known to have anti-inflammatory effects, but we were looking to determine whether THC directly affected amyloid beta (Aâ). Aâ aggregation is considered one of the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s disease. Our study showed that extremely low doses of THC were able to decrease Aâ production, inhibit Aâ aggregation, and enhance mitochondrial function in a cellular model of AD. Decreased levels of amyloid beta, coupled with THC’s inhibitory effect on aggregation may protect against the progression of Alzheimer’s disease. (more…)
Author Interviews, Mayo Clinic, Surgical Research / 03.09.2014

Dr. Juliane Bingener-Casey, M.D. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn.MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dr. Juliane Bingener-Casey, M.D. Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Bingener: Other investigators have shown that preoperative quality of life is a predictor for postoperative survival in colon and pancreas cancer surgery. In this study we looked as preoperative quality of life as a predictor for postoperative complications. The main findings of the study were that patients who had a deficit in their quality of life before surgery had a 3 times higher risk of a serious complication before leaving the hospital than patients who had normal quality of life (16% vs 6 %), independent of gender, race, tumor stage or laparoscopic or open colectomy. Patients with serious complications before leaving the hospital also were older and had more other medical problems than patients without complications. Further, patients who had a complication stayed in the hospital longer and their postoperative quality of life was worse (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Nutrition / 03.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Dong D. Wang, MD, MSc Department of Nutrition Harvard School of Public Health Boston, Massachusetts Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Wang:
  • The quality of the US diet improved modestly from 1999 to 2010, but the dietary quality of US population remains far from optimal and huge room exists for further improvements.
  • More than half of the improvement in diet quality was due to a large reduction in consumption of trans fat.
  • he improvement in dietary quality was greater among persons with higher socioeconomic status and healthier body weight, thus disparities that existed in 1999 increased over the next decade.
(more…)
Author Interviews, Diabetes, Diabetes Care / 03.09.2014

Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, SpainMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Jordi Salas-Salvadó MD PhD Physiopathology of Obesity and Nutrition Institute of Health Carlos III, Madrid, Spain Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Salas-Salvadó: The main finding of our study is that an increase in albumin-adjusted serum calcium increases the risk of type 2 diabetes in Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. This association remained significant even after taking classic risk factors into account. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study assessing the association between changes in serum calcium levels and the risk of type 2 diabetes development. (more…)
Author Interviews, JAMA, Weight Research / 03.09.2014

Bradley Johnston, PhD Scientist | Child Health Evaluative Sciences Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute Assistant Professor | Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics  McMaster University Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M5G 0A4MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Bradley Johnston, PhD Scientist | Child Health Evaluative Sciences Hospital for Sick Children Research Institute Assistant Professor | Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics McMaster University Toronto, Ontario, Canada Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Johnston:
  • Our findings represent the first meta-analysis using advanced epidemiological methods to summarize popular branded diets for weight loss, trials having been investigated using randomized trial methodology.
  • Among the 48 original RCTs included in our NMA, low to moderate quality evidence showed that both low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets were associated with an approximate 8 kg weight loss at 6 months when compared to no diet. Approximately 1-2 kg of this effect was lost by 12-months.
  • Although statistical differences existed among several of the diet macronutrient classes, the differences were small and unlikely to be important to those seeking to lose weight.
  • Similarly, our results showed that although there are statistically significant differences between some of the brand named diets, these differences are small and not likely patient important.
  • In terms of potential effect modifiers, behavioural support was significant at 6-months (enhancing weight-loss by 3.23 kg) and exercise was significant at 12-months (enhancing weight loss by 2.13 kg)
  • Regarding our sensitivity analyses, Differences in weight loss were not clinically important based on risk of bias, missing data, baseline weight, gender, and those with and without specific health conditions
  • Overall, our findings suggest that patients may choose, among those associated with the largest weight loss, the diet that gives them the least challenges with adherence.
(more…)
Annals Internal Medicine, Author Interviews, Weight Research / 02.09.2014

MedicalResearch.com Interview with: Tian Hu, MD, MS Research Fellow ​Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine New Orleans, LA 70112 Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Hu: Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more weight than those on the low-fat diet at 3, 6, and 12 months. At 12 months, those in the low-carbohydrate group lost an average of almost 8 pounds more than those in the low-fat group. Participants on the low-carbohydrate diet lost more fat mass and did not lose lean mass (muscle) compared to those on the low-fat diet. Overall, bad cholesterol (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) that is a predictor of risk for cardiovascular disease decreased on both diets, but good cholesterol (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) increased more in the low-carbohydrate group. Physical activity was similar in the groups throughout the study, suggesting that the greater weight loss among participants in the low-carbohydrate group was not because they exercised more. When we evaluated the black and white participants separately, the results were similar. (more…)
Author Interviews, Heart Disease, NEJM / 01.09.2014

Gilles Montalescot M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Cardiology University of Paris VI; Director, Cardiac Care Unit Institute of Cardiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital Paris, FranceMedicalResearch.com Interview with: Gilles Montalescot M.D., Ph.D. Professor of Cardiology University of Paris VI; Director, Cardiac Care Unit Institute of Cardiology, Pitié-Salpêtrière University Hospital Paris, France Medical Research: What are the main findings of the study? Dr. Montalescot : Among the 1862 patients with ongoing STEMI who were enrolled in the ATLANTIC study, we found no difference between those randomized to pre-hospital (in-ambulance) ticagrelor 180 mg and those randomized to in-hospital (in-catheterization laboratory) ticagrelor 180 mg in terms of either pre-PCI ST-segment elevation resolution (≥70%) or pre-PCI TIMI 3 flow in the culprit artery, which were the co-primary endpoints. There was also no difference between the groups in terms of major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days, with the exception that rates of definite stent thrombosis were lower in the pre-hospital ticagrelor group than in the in-hospital group, both in the first 24 hours (0% versus 0.8%, p= 0.008) and at 30 days (0.2% versus 1.2%, p = 0.02). The safety of pre-hospital ticagrelor did not appear to be an issue, since the incidence of non-CABG-related major bleeding was low and similar in both treatment groups, whichever bleeding definition was used (PLATO, TIMI, STEEPLE, GUSTO, ISTH or BARC). (more…)